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  • Second Edition

    Women and Men in the Informal Economy: A Statistical Picture

    The prevalence of the informal economy in many parts of the world, and pervasive trends towards higher levels of precarious and informal employment not only affects the current living standards and working conditions of the population but is also a severe constraint that prevents households and economic units trapped in the informal economy from increasing productivity, reducing vulner- abilities and finding a route out of poverty.

    This publication, Women and Men in the Informal Economy : A Statistical Picture (Second Edition), provides, for the first time, direct measures of informal employment inside and outside informal enterprises for 47 countries. The publication also presents statistics on the composition and contribution of the informal economy as well as on specific groups of urban informal workers.

    Non-technical language and clear, simple statistical tables will make the information easy to understand by a large and varied audience. This publication is intended to respond to the needs of different users, including researchers, statisticians, policymakers, employers’ and workers’ organizations, including organizations of informal workers.

    For more information visit our sites:

    www.ilo.org www.wiego.org

    International Labour Office WIEGO Secretariat Route des Morillons 4 Harvard University CH-1211 Geneva 22 79 John F. Kennedy Street Switzerland Cambridge, MA 02138 USA

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  • Women and Men in the Informal Economy:

    A Statistical Picture Second Edition

  • ii

  • Women and Men in the Informal Economy:

    A Statistical Picture Second Edition

    International Labour Office, Geneva

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    Copyright © International Labour Organization 2013 First published 2013

    Publications of the International Labour Office enjoy copyright under Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. Nev- ertheless, short excerpts from them may be reproduced without authorization, on condition that the source is indicated. For rights of reproduction or translation, application should be made to ILO Publications (Rights and Permissions), International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, or by email: pubdroit@ilo.org. The International Labour Office welcomes such applications.

    Libraries, institutions and other users registered with reproduction rights organizations may make copies in accordance with the licences issued to them for this purpose. Visit www.ifrro.org to find the reproduction rights organization in your country.

    Women and men in the informal economy: a statistical picture (second edition) / International Labour Office – Geneva: ILO, 2013

    ISBN 978-92-2-128169-6 (print) ISBN 978-92-2-128170-2 (web pdf)

    International Labour Office informal employment / women workers / men workers / temporary employment / part time employment / informal economy / urban area / data collecting / measurement / developed countries 13.01.3

    ILO Cataloguing in Publication Data

    The designations employed in ILO publications, which are in conformity with United Nations practice, and the presentation of material therein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the International Labour Office concern- ing the legal status of any country, area or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers.

    The responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles, studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors, and publication does not constitute an endorsement by the International Labour Office of the opinions expressed in them.

    Reference to names of firms and commercial products and processes does not imply their endorsement by the International Labour Office, and any failure to mention a particular firm, commercial product or process is not a sign of disapproval.

    ILO publications and electronic products can be obtained through major booksellers or ILO local offices in many countries, or direct from ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Catalogues or lists of new publi- cations are available free of charge from the above address, or by email: pubvente@ilo.org Visit our web site: www.ilo.org/publns

    Photocomposed in Switzerland JMB

    Printed in Switzerland ATA

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    Preface

    The informal economy is a major source of employment and livelihoods in many countries and interacts closely with the formal economy. Given its importance, countries are paying increasing attention to the informal economy in collecting labour force and other economic data. In 2013, the tripartite constituents of the International Labour Organization defined eight areas of critical importance for the Organization, one of which is formalization of the informal economy. More information on informality, including up-to-date statistics, is therefore crucial. The launch of the publication Measuring Informality: A Statistical Manual on the Informal Sector and Informal Employment in October 2013, should encourage more countries to produce and disseminate the necessary data to enlarge the knowledge base on this highly relevant topic for the world of work.

    This publication, Women and Men in the Informal Economy: A Statistical Picture (Second Edi- tion), is a significant step forward from the Women and Men in the Informal Economy: A Statisti- cal Picture (2002) in that it provides, for the first time, direct measures of informal employment inside and outside informal enterprises for 47 countries. The publication also presents statistics on the composition and contribution of the informal economy as well as on specific groups of urban informal workers. Non-technical language and clear, simple statistical tables will make the infor- mation easy to understand by a large and varied audience. This publication is intended to respond to the needs of different users, including researchers, statisticians, policymakers, employers’ and workers’ organizations, including organizations of informal workers.

    The comprehensive statistics on the informal economy were collected, compiled and analysed based on the conceptual framework for the statistical measurement of the informal sector and informal employment adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) in 1993 and 2003, respectively. The resulting analysis confirms the feasibility and usefulness of these frameworks as a basis for the development of statistics and for data analysis for policy-making.

    Chapter 1 details progress at the international level in developing definitions and methodologies for measuring the informal economy and its constituent parts. Chapter 2 presents national data on informal employment outside of agriculture, disaggregated by sex. Detailed data on specific coun- tries are presented in the annex tables. Chapter 3 discusses non-standard employment in developed countries, and Chapter 4 focuses on specific groups of informal workers, including four groups of urban informal workers (based on national data compiled by the WIEGO network) and domestic workers (based on ILO data). Chapter 5 recommends future directions to improve the collection of data on the informal economy.

    Women and Men in the Informal Economy: A Statistical Picture (Second Edition) was initiated and funded by the ILO Employment Policy Department directed by Azita Berar Awad, the ILO Department of Statistics directed by Rafael Diez de Medina and the international network, Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO).

    This report was prepared by Joann Vanek and Martha Chen (WIEGO), Ralf Hussmanns (ILO) and Francoise Carre. It was extensively reviewed in the ILO by many units and teams, which also provided additional inputs.

    Chapter 1 was prepared by Joann Vanek (WIEGO), Martha Chen (WIEGO) and Ralf Hussmanns (ILO), with inputs by Sriani Ameratunga Kring (ILO). The ILO and WIEGO requested data from countries which were then reviewed and compiled into a database. For Latin America, Bolivar

  • Women and men in the informal economy: A statistical picture

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    Pino and a team at the ILO Information System for Latin America and the Caribbean (SIALC) worked with Ralf Hussmanns. The data for China were prepared by Wu Yaowu (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) and Albert Park (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology), and for the United Republic of Tanzania by Debbie Budlender (Independent Consultant).

    Jean-Michel Pasteels (ILO) prepared the first section of Chapter 2 relating to country data on employment in the informal economy, based on statistics compiled by the ILO Department of Statistics, disaggregated by sex, from 47 medium- and low-incomes countries.

    Francoise Carre (University of Massachusetts/Boston and WIEGO) prepared Chapter 3 on devel- oped countries with the assistance of Brandynn Holgate. Additional data from 2011 was collected and provided by Jean-Michel Pasteels, and the chapter was edited by Uma Amara Rani and Doro- thea Schmidt-Klau (ILO).

    Martha Chen (Harvard University and WIEGO) prepared Chapter 4 on categories of urban infor- mal workers using methods developed by WIEGO and national data compiled by WIEGO. For the section relat

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