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  • 1.Moon landing conspiracy theories1Moon landing conspiracy theoriesThe Moon landing conspiracy theories claim thatsome or all elements of the Apollo program and theassociated Moon landings were hoaxes staged byNASA and members of other organizations. Variousgroups and individuals have made such conspiracyclaims since the mid-1970s. The most notable claim isthat the six manned landings (19691972) were fakedand that the twelve Apollo astronauts did not walk onthe Moon. Conspiracy theorists (henceforthconspiracists) base their claims on the notion NASAand others knowingly misled the public into believingthe landings happened by manufacturing, destroying, ortampering with evidence; including photos, telemetrytapes, transmissions, rock samples, and even some keywitnesses.Conspiracists have managed to sustain public interestin their theories for more than 40 years despite therebeing much third-party evidence for the landings anddetailed rebuttals to the hoax claims.[1] Polls taken invarious locations have shown that between 6% and Astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong in NASAs training20% of Americans surveyed believe that the mannedmockup of the Moon and lander module. Conspiracy theorists saylandings were faked, rising to 28% in Russia. Even as that the film of the missions was made using similar sets to thislate as 2001, the major television network Foxtraining mockup.broadcast a documentary named Conspiracy Theory:Did We Land on the Moon? claiming NASA faked thefirst landing in 1969 to win the Space Race.[2]Since the late 2000s, high-definition photos taken bythe LROC spacecraft of the Apollo landing sites havecaptured the lander modules and the tracks left by theastronauts.[3][4] In 2012, images were released showingthe Apollo flags still standing on the Moon.[5][6]OriginsThe first book about the subject, Bill Kaysingsself-published We Never Went to the Moon: AmericasThirty Billion Dollar Swindle, was released in 1974,two years after the Apollo Moon flights had ended. TheFlat Earth Society was one of the first organizations to Jim Lovell training for Apollo 13accuse NASA of faking the landings, arguing that theywere staged by Hollywood with Walt Disney sponsorship, based on a script by Arthur C. Clarke and

2. Moon landing conspiracy theories 2directed by Stanley Kubrick.[7][8] Folklorist Linda Degh suggests thatwriter-director Peter Hyamss 1978 film Capricorn One, which showsa hoaxed journey to Mars in a spacecraft that looks identical to theApollo craft, may have given a boost to the hoax theorys popularity inthe post-Vietnam War era. She notes that this happened during thepost-Watergate era, when American citizens were inclined to distrustofficial accounts. Degh writes: "The mass media catapult thesehalf-truths into a kind of twilight zone where people can make theirguesses sound as truths. Mass media have a terrible impact on peoplewho lack guidance".[9] In A Man on the Moon, published in 1994,Andrew Chaikin mentions that at the time of Apollo 8s lunar-orbitmission in December 1968, similar conspiracy ideas were already in Photo of Apollo 17 astronaut Eugene Cernan withcirculation. the Earth in the backgroundPublic opinionThere are subcultures worldwide which advocate the belief that the Moon landings were faked. By 1977 the HareKrishna magazine Back to Godhead called the landings a hoax. The reason they gave is that the Sun is 93,000,000miles away and according to Hindu mythology the Moon is 800,000 miles farther away than that, making the Moonnearly 94,000,000 miles away. To travel that span in 91 hours would require a speed of more than a million miles perhour, "a patently impossible feat even by the scientists calculations."[10]James Oberg of ABC News said that the conspiracy theory is taught in Cuban schools and wherever Cuban teachersare sent.[11][12] A poll conducted in the 1970s by the United States Information Agency in several countries in LatinAmerica, Asia, and Africa found that most respondents were unaware of the Moon landings, many of the othersdismissed them as propaganda or science fiction, and many thought that it had been the Russians that landed on theMoon.[13]In a 1994 poll by The Washington Post, 9% of the respondents said that it was possible that astronauts did not go tothe Moon and another 5% were unsure.[14] A 1999 Gallup poll found that 6% of the Americans surveyed doubtedthat the Moon landings happened and that 5% of those surveyed had no opinion,[15][16][17][18] which roughlymatches the findings of a similar 1995 Time/CNN poll.[15] Officials of Fox television said that such skepticism roseto about 20% after the February 2001 airing of Fox networks TV show Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on theMoon? seen by about 15 million viewers.[16] This 2001 Fox special is seen as having promoted the hoaxclaims.[19][20]A 2000 poll held by the Russian Public Opinion Fund found that 28% of those surveyed did not believe thatAmerican astronauts landed on the Moon, and this percentage is roughly equal in all social-demographic groups.[21]In 2009, a poll held by the United Kingdoms Engineering & Technology magazine found that 25% of thosesurveyed did not believe that men landed on the Moon.[22] Another poll gives that 25% of 1825-year-olds surveyedwere unsure that the landings happened.[23] 3. Moon landing conspiracy theories 3Claimed motives of the United States and NASAThose who believe the landings were faked give several theories about the motives of NASA and the United Statesgovernment. The three main theories are below.The Space RaceThe United States government deemed it vital that it win the Space Race against the Soviet Union. Going to theMoon would be risky and expensive, as exemplified by John F. Kennedy famously stating that the United Stateschose to go because it was hard.[24]A main reason for the race to the Moon was the Cold War. Philip Plait says in Bad Astronomy that the Sovietswiththeir own competing Moon program and a formidable scientific community able to analyze NASA datawouldhave cried foul if the United States tried to fake a Moon landing,[25] especially since their own program had failed.Proving a hoax would have been a huge propaganda win for the Soviets. Bart Sibrel responded, "the Soviets did nothave the capability to track deep spacecraft until late in 1972, immediately after which, the last three Apollomissions were suddenly canceled."[26]However, the Soviets had been sending unmanned spacecraft to the Moon since 1959,[27] and "during 1962, deepspace tracking facilities were introduced at IP-15 in Ussuriisk and IP-16 in Evpatoria, while Saturn communicationstations were added to IP-3, 4 and 14",[28] the latter having a 100 million km range.[29] The Soviet Union tracked theApollo missions at the Space Transmissions Corps, which was "fully equipped with the latest intelligence-gatheringand surveillance equipment".[30] Vasily Mishin, in an interview for the article "The Moon Programme That Faltered"(Spaceflight, March 1991, vol. 33, 23), describes how the Soviet Moon program dwindled after the Apollolandings.FundingIt is claimed that NASA faked the landings to forgo humiliation and to ensure that it continued to get funding. NASAraised about US$30 billion to go to the Moon, and Bill Kaysing claims that this could have been used to "pay off"many people.[31] Since most conspiracists believe that sending men to the Moon was impossible at the time, theyargue that landings had to be faked to fulfill President Kennedys 1961 promise: "achieving the goal, before thisdecade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth".[24] Others have claimed that,with all the known and unknown hazards,[32] NASA would not have risked the public humiliation of astronautscrashing to their deaths on the Moon, broadcast on live TV.[33]Vietnam WarIt is claimed that the landings helped the United States government because they were a popular distraction from theVietnam War; and so manned landings suddenly ended about the same time that the United States ended its role inthe Vietnam War.[34]Conspiracists and their main proposals Bill Kaysing (19222005) an ex-employee of Rocketdyne,[35] the company which built the F-1 engines used onthe Saturn V rocket. Kaysing was not technically qualified, and worked at Rocketdyne as a librarian.[36] Kaysingsself-published book, We Never Went to the Moon: Americas Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle,[37][38][39] made manyallegations, effectively beginning the discussion of the Moon landings being faked. Kaysing maintains that,despite close monitoring by the USSR, it would have been easier for NASA to fake the Moon landings, therebyguaranteeing success, than for NASA to really go there. He claimed that the chance of a successful mannedlanding on the Moon was calculated to be 0.017%.[40] NASA and others have debunked the claims made in thebook. Bart Sibrel (1964-) a filmmaker, produced and directed four films for his company AFTH,[41] including a filmin 2001 called A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Moon,[42] examining the evidence of a hoax. Thearguments that Sibrel puts forward in this film have been debunked by many sources, including Svectors video 4. Moon landing conspiracy theories 4series Lunar Legacy, which disproves the documentarys main argument that the Apollo crew faked their distancefrom the Earth command module, while in low orbit. Sibrel has said that the effect on the shot covered in his filmwas made through the use of a transparency of the Earth. Some parts of the original footage, according to Sibrel,were not able to be included on the official releases for the media. On such allegedly censored parts, thecorrelation between Earth and Moon Phases can be clearly confirmed, refuting Sibrels claim that these shots werefaked. On September 9, 2002 Sibrel was punched in the face by Buzz Aldrin after Sibrel confronted Aldrin withhis theories[43] and accused the former astronaut of being "a coward, an