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  • 1. Westward Expansion

2. Manifest Destiny The popular belief among Americans that itwas Gods will that the United States doeverything in its power to expand its bordersto the Pacific Ocean. Brought hope that westward expansion wouldbring economic prosperity in a troubled nation Some were worried the US would become tolarge to govern effectively. 3. Oh Texas U.S. settlers were quickly settling into Texas esp. after Mexico won its independence fromSpain Mexico wanted a larger non-Indianpopulation, so they offered cheap land to lurepeople in. They really just wanted to create a bufferzone! 4. More on Texas Mexico also feared the U.S. would try toinvade Texas (they already tried twice topurchase it) The Plan Get enough US citizens to populate Texas, turnthem loyal to Mexico so that they would aid thenative Tejanos in a war with the US Recruit people from several countries to come live 5. Still more on Texas New immigrants were required to becomeCatholic, but made no other effort to becomeMexican Mexico forbid slavery Non-Mex soon outnumbered the Tejanos andMexico closed the border to new immigrants This accomplished little immigrants stillpoured over the border 6. Trouble Brews Texans redefined slavery as indenturedservitude to get around laws A new elected president establisheddictatorial control over the govt Texan Stephen Austin was arrested in MexicoCity while trying to settle issues. 7. Texas Revolution The Alamo- A mission in San Antonio, TX turned into a fort. Itwas captured by white Texan rebels where theywere joined by volunteers Mex govt sends in troops by Feb. (Santa AnnasArmy) Texans are led by Travis and Bowie. By March Mex troops overrun the fort and kill allTexan fighters 600 Mex casualties 8. TX Rev Santa Annas troops take civ. Prisoners they dorelease a few (survivors told their own version ofthe story TX did no wrong) Spurred anti-Mex feelings led to Goliad.Another battle the Mex wins, TX rebels surrender Santa Anna had most of them executed. By Mar. 2 rebels declared independence Sam Houston and his army ambush the Mexsoldiers while they were napping at San Jacinto cut off Mex supplies and weakened them TX Rebels win independence. 9. Republic of TX Texas wanted to be annexed by US but theUS was not so sure about a new slave stateand the whole involvement with Mex. TX briefly existed as its own country. TX began recruiting French and Germansettlers to increase population Tejanos, who had served with the white rebelsfor independence from Mex, became victimsof violence and discrimination 10. Lone Star Republic Economy and Defense Because it was farm based, few cities andtowns developed Travel and Communication difficult Since they had little money, tax revenue wassmall they were deeply in debt. Created the Texas Rangers to defend theircountry from Mex and Native Am tribes 11. Texas Annexation Some Americans wanted to annex TX just toprevent them from becoming allies with Gr.Br. Others did not want annexation because itwould give more power in Congress to slavestates. This dispute dominated the 1844 election Henry Clay (Whig) vs James K Polk (Democrat) Polk advocated annexation in his campaign, Clayavoided it all together. Polk won (barely) & took it as a cry forannexation 12. Conflict with Mexico Mexico stated the annexation of TX would belike declaring war Congress ignored them &voted for annexation Polk stoked the fire by demanding Mexrecognize the Rio Grande as its N border Mex wanted the Nueces R to be the border(100 mi north) Polk sent in Gen. Zachary Taylor to thisdisputed territory 13. Conflict turns to War Polk sends someone to Mex City to negotiate,things fall apart, Mex troops crossed the RioGrande and killed some Am troops Polk asks Congress to declare war- they do! Whigs and northerners did not agree with war Some saw it as Polks way of increasing slavery Young Abe Lincoln of IL wanted more proof of thisAmerican bloodshed. 14. America Expands? American troops seized New Mexico (then part ofMex) and moved into California Gen Taylor proceeded into central Mex Gen. Fremont who led the Am forces into CArallied the locals and they declared themselvesindependent Taylor and his troops defeated Santa Anna and histroops in a devastating battle at Buena Vista Soon after Am troops took Mex City. 15. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Ended the Mexican War Mex surrendered TX and other territorycollectively called the Mexican Cession Includes present day: Utah, Nevada, California,parts of Arizona, Colorado, Wyoming and NewMexico. US agreed to pay $15 million and damages Amwere going after Mex for. 16. Gadsden Purchase 1853, Gadsden went to Mex to negotiate thepurchase of a strip of land that was added toNM and AZ. As a result of all of this expansion, Am gained>80,000 Spanish speaking Mex who struggledto keep their lands Victims of discrimination , led to rebellionsthroughout the SW 17. FAR WEST 18. Trade New England mariners had been trading withthe far west since 1790, they sailed from NewEngland around S. America and back up to CA,WA, & OR. Mex had once forbidden foreign trade, butsince its Spanish independence, encouragedit! This led to trade routes. 19. Trade 1st trade route was from MO to NM called theSanta Fe Trail Fur trappers moved further west, into themountains Led to exploration & new ways of doingbusiness. Oregon Trail originally used as fur trade routebecame a route for new settlers. 20. Oregon Farmers and Missionaries began settling Farmers saw the fertile ground near the rivers Missionaries saw the Native AM and needed to convert them Gr.Br and US both occupied Oregon, but as moreUS settlers moved, it was a hot issue! US originally suggested they split it, Gr.Br.Refused. Polk wanted all of it angered the Brits.Settled on the 49th parallel as the US border. 21. Oregon Trail Very difficult journey, many children wereorphaned and left at missionary posts alongthe way Traveled in large groups to pool theirresources Weather was bad, terrain rugged, many rivers,slow travel Many Nat. Am were helpful led to Treaty ofFt. Laramie. 22. Oregon Conflict White settlers spread new diseases to the Nat.Am in the region. Farming techniques used by white settlersdestroyed Nat. Am habitats Some Nat. Am tribes fought back some Nat.Am were executed. 23. Mormons in Utah Brigham Young moved west to est. a religiouscommunity Known as the Mormons Constructed systems of canals for irrigation andestablished farms, schools, meetinghouses verysuccessful US govt didnt like it. Mormon men wereallowed to have more than one wife, Mormonswere apptd to high territorial offices, tooindependent. 24. CALIFORNIA 25. Early Settlers Early settlers to CA were of Spanish descent,mostly male, who married local Native Amwomen. Most of these men worked as Sp soldiers orworked for the Catholic missions Spain began granting land grants forcing Nat.Ams further inland 26. GOLD! Few merchants lived in CA, mostly it wasfarmers seeking cheap farmland by the 1840s. Jan, 1848, gold was discovered near theCalifornia Trail (fork of the Oregon Trail) Word spread over the next year and by 1849,farms and shops were abandoned by peoplein search of gold Brought people from Asia, Australia & Europe These settlers were known as the 49ers (1849) 27. MINING TOWNS Most gold-seekers were unmarried men Mining towns drew few women, they were veryrough High crime: gambling, fighting, drinking, prostitution, murder, theft etc! While a few got rich, most remained poor. Created diversity in this land. Others came w/ other ideas get rich off theminers by selling supplies. Levi Strauss (the inventor of Levis Jeans) did justthat! 28. Conflict in the Mines White Am miners got greedy and forbidforeigners from being in the mines Problem: this included the Californios (people ofnative am and sp descent) who were actually Amcitizens. Some were beaten and killed 29. Conflicts, contd Chinese miners who were forced out of minesbecame field or RR workers, formed towns,opened groceries or went back to China African American miners faced similardifficulties, although a few became rich Miners often accused Nat. Am of ransackingtheir camps and Nat. Am often attackedminers for taking their land.