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  • Slide 1
  • MANIFEST DESTINY WESTWARD EXPANSION WESTWARD EXPANSION
  • Slide 2
  • President Polk's claim that American blood had been shed on American soil referred to news of an armed clash between Mexican and American troops near 1. San Francisco 2. The Nueces River 3. Santa Fe 4. The Rio Grande 5. San Antonio Response Grid Countdown 10
  • Slide 3
  • Some people in Britain hoped for a British alliance with Texas because the alliance would help to support the Monroe Doctrine. this area would provide an excellent base from which to attack the United States. Mexican efforts to attack the United States would be stopped. the alliance would give abolitionists the opportunity to free slaves in TX. Response Grid Countdown 10
  • Slide 4
  • Arrange in chronological order the United States' acquisition of Oregon (OR), Texas (TX), and California (CA). 1. OR, TX, CA 2. CA, TX, OR 3. TX, OR, CA 4. TX, CA, OR 5. OR, CA, TX Response Grid Countdown 10
  • Slide 5
  • The Wilmot Proviso, introduced into Congress during the Mexican War, declared that 1. slavery would be banned from all territories Mexico ceded to the U.S. 2. the United States should annex all of Mexico. 3. slavery in the territories would be determined by popular sovereignty. 4. Mexican territory would not be annexed to the U.S. Response Grid Countdown 10
  • Slide 6
  • The Aroostook War was the result of a short-lived insurrection in British Canada. the offer of asylum to the crew of the Creole. a fishing dispute between Britain and the U. S. a dispute over the northern boundary of Maine. Response Grid Countdown 10
  • Slide 7
  • In the presidential election of 1844, the Whig candidate, Henry Clay, 1. opposed the annexation of Texas. 2. ignored the issue of the annexation of Texas. 3. called for the immediate annexation of Texas 4. favored both the annexation of Texas and the postponement of that annexation. Response Grid Countdown 10
  • Slide 8
  • Those people most opposed to President Polk's expansionist program were the 1. western Democrats. 2. antislavery forces. 3. Senate Democrats. 4. supporters of Nicholas P. Trist. 5. proslavery Whigs. Response Grid Countdown 10
  • Slide 9
  • Texans won their independence as a result of the victory over Mexican armies at the Battle of 1. Santa Anna 2. Goliad 3. the Alamo 4. the Rio Grande 5. San Jacinto Response Grid Countdown 10
  • Slide 10
  • Most Americans who migrated to the Oregon Country were attracted by the 1. expectation of fighting British troops. 2. rich and fertile soil of the area. 3. Potential profits in the fur trade 4. Discovery of gold in the Cascade Mountains Response Grid Countdown 10
  • Slide 11
  • Our claims are based on the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment in liberty. John L. OSullivan Manifest Destiny = The belief that the U.S. had a God-given right to extend its boundaries westward to the Pacific Ocean and spread democracy to the less fortunate.
  • Slide 12
  • How does this painting explain the attitude of Americans in the mid-1800s? Spirit of the Frontier/American Progress, 1872 by John Gast
  • Slide 13
  • Go West, Young Man! Horace Greeley, New York Tribune 1845 Why did early settlers flood across the country during the mid-1800s? The California Gold Rush began in 1848 with the discovery of gold at Sutters Mill on the California River. Settlers flocked to the Oregon Country in search of fertile land for farming. Ranchers moved into areas that buffalo previously inhabited and began raising cattle descended from Spanish herds. CICERO 2010
  • Slide 14
  • RISKS OF MANIFEST DESTINY: In the Great Plains? INDIANS but U.S. more technologically advanced advanced inter-tribal conflicts In Texas? MEXICO but politically unstable lack of settlement On the Pacific coast? BRITISH but lack of desire to really fight
  • Slide 15
  • Webster- Ashburton Treaty Aroostook War 12,000 miles in dispute (since Treaty of Paris, 1783) Resolved by Lord Ashburton & Sec. of State Webster, 1842 in Webster-Ashburton Treaty: U.S. retains 7,000 miles of disputed territory BR get route from Halifax to Quebec U.S. gets bonus BR surrendered area further west (MN) that contained Mesabi iron ore deposits
  • Slide 16
  • TEXAS - INDEPENDENCE FROM MEXICO STEPHEN AUSTIN got a grant from Mexico to bring 300 American settlers to Texas in 1823 . with conditions: they had to become Roman Catholic they had to obey Mexican laws.. why a problem? NO SLAVERY!
  • Slide 17
  • GENERAL SANTA ANNA MX Dictator by 1833; plans crackdown Americans failed to become Catholic & broke Mexican law by bringing in slaves By 1830, Americans outnumbered Mexicans in Texas by 10 to 1 MX cuts off any further immigration GTT! Typical Texan?
  • Slide 18
  • The government of Mexico & the Americans who settled in Mexican-controlled Texas clashed over all of the following issues except 1. allegiance to Spain 2. slavery 3. immigration 4. local rights 5. Santa Anna raising an army to use against Texas Response Grid Countdown 10
  • Slide 19
  • Texans Seek Independence! 1833 - Austin tries to negotiate; thrown in jail for 8 mos. for treason (letter urging TX to organize its own govt) 1835 Santa Anna removes all local rights & begins raising army to suppress Texans Battle of Gonzales 1835 Mexicans come to retrieve cannon given to Texas settlers to protect themselves from Indians Texans refuse & adopt Come & Take It! motto & are actually the attackers Texas declares independence, 1836 Elect Sam Houston as President
  • Slide 20
  • REMEMBER THE ALAMO!
  • Slide 21
  • 188 Americans at the ALAMO, a mission in San Antonio trying to hold off Santa Anna & buy time for Houston to build forces Feb. 1836, Santa Annas 2,000 troops attacked no reinforcements available Takes Santa Anna 2 weeks to win - loses 1,500 men 13 day siege Near end, Santa Anna has Alamo surrounded Travis draws line in the sand Mexicans kill all 187 Texans, including William Travis, Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie
  • Slide 22
  • Women and children were spared but were ordered to warn other Texans that the Mexican army could not be beaten. Siege of the Alamo
  • Slide 23
  • Then, 400 Texans butchered at Goliad by firing squad after having thrown down their weapons SAM HOUSTON follows up with victory at San Jacinto Surprise attack while Mexicans taking a siesta Battle lasted only 20 minutes but killing goes on for hours Captured Santa Anna & forced him to sign a treaty at sword point recognizing the independence of Texas Texas thus became the LONE STAR REPUBLIC in l836 & sought admission to the U.S. U.S. kept putting it off for 9 years! Why? TX begins establishing ties with the BR why? What reasons fueled BR interest in TX?
  • Slide 24
  • JOHN TYLER THE PRESIDENT WITHOUT A PARTY Log Campaign of 1840 Tippecanoe & Tyler Too! Harrison died one month into office & Tyler succeeds to presidency Tyler is NOT a Clay/Webster puppet as Harrison was expected to be Vetoes Clays bank bill; Cabinet resigns High protective tariff Webster-Ashburton Treaty with BR Calls for annexation of TX but Senate rejects treaty Finally, 1844, annexes it by joint resolution officially admitted in 1845
  • Slide 25
  • The Legacy The San Jacinto monument stands even higher than the Washington monument. Texas was prohibited from making the obelisk higher than the monument in D.C., so they added a star that made it bigger.
  • Slide 26
  • OREGON FEVER! Jointly occupied BR & US Also claimed over time by Russia retreated in 1824/5 - And Spain - lost it in Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819 Extended from Pacific to Rockies and from AK to CA Two primary reasons for OR fever: BEAVER TRADE Mountain Men opened passageways west but also weakened and corrupted Indians how? FERTILE SOIL
  • Slide 27
  • Overland Trails West CICERO 2010
  • Slide 28
  • Conestoga Wagon Prairie Schooner
  • Slide 29
  • Reports from Christian missionaries sent back east praising the fertile soil! OREGON TRAIL Expensive, $600/family of 4 2000 miles Left from MO May to November Traveled only 2 mi. in an hour 5,000 Americans in OR by 1846 Overlanders The Donner Party
  • Slide 30
  • By 1846--Oregon divided between Great Britain and U.S. at the 49th parallel Why was President Polk willing to negotiate this boundary with Britain?
  • Slide 31
  • A Timeline of American Expansion Revolutionary War (1776) Proclamation of 1763 Louisiana Purchase (1803) from France $15 million War of 1812 designs on Canada and Florida Monroe Doctrine (1823) Hands off the Western Hemisphere Indian Removal Act (1830) Trail of Tears, 1838 Texas Revolution (1836) Annexation of Texas, 1847 Mexican War (1846) Polk used a border dispute to justify expansion Mexican Cession (1848) California, Nevada, New Mexico, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona, Gadsden Purchase (1853) from Mexico $10 million Purchase of Alaska (1867) from Russia $7.2 million Hawaii Annexatio

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