Werner Schmutz PMOD/WRC, Switzerland TOSCA Workshop Berlin, May 14, 2012 Measurements of TSI and SSI.

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Werner Schmutz PMOD/WRC, Switzerland TOSCA Workshop Berlin, May 14, 2012 Measurements of TSI and SSI Slide 2 Overview Werner Schmutz 2 14. May 2012 Total Solar Irradiance Absolute calibration (first light PREMOS) Composites (relative calibration) Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI) SIM/SORCE VIRGO/SOHO Slide 3 PICARD PREMOS SOVAP SODISM Werner Schmutz 3 14. May 2012 Total Solar Irradiance Filter Radiometers Slide 4 TSI calibration Werner Schmutz 4 14. May 2012 PREMOS A is the first and only radiometer in space with a SI-traceable irradiance calibration in vacuum Traceable to the irradiance calibration facility at LASP in Boulder (TRF) Slide 5 Traceability of PREMOS-TSI Werner Schmutz 5 14. May 2012 PREMOS B Comparison to cryogenic rad. (power in vacuum) NPL Comparison to cryogenic rad. (power and irradiance in vacuum) TRF @ LASP PREMOS A3 Slide 6 Uncertainty of the calibration Werner Schmutz 6 14. May 2012 + absolute uncertainty of TRF facility (70 ppm) = uncertainty of TRF comparison (220 ppm) PREMOS A TRF radiometer Slide 7 Calibration uncertainty budget Werner Schmutz 7 14. May 2012 Traceable via TRF, LASP, Boulder to NIST Irradiance in vacuum PREMOS A uncertainty: 280 ppm( 0.4 W/m2) Table compiled by Greg Kopp for an ISSI workshop March 2012 Flight-spare recalibrations Slide 8 Werner Schmutz 8 14. May 2012 Comparison PREMOS TIM Slide 9 Status of PREMOS-TSI Werner Schmutz 9 14. May 2012 PREMOS is in excellent health o PREMOS-TSI is the most accurate absolute measurement; 0.4 W/m2 or 290 ppm o After 2 years, PREMOS-TSI has at most 50 ppm relative deviation to TIM/SORCE. Slide 10 The Future of TSI observations: Are relative observations sufficient? Werner Schmutz 10 14. May 2012 Slide 11 There are three TSI composites Werner Schmutz 11 20.12.2011 Slide 12 TSI-composites normalized Werner Schmutz 12 20.12.2011 normalized 2004-2005 DIARAD PMOD, ACRIM Slide 13 Composite 1996-2010 Werner Schmutz 13 14. May 2012 0.2 W/m 2 0.2 W/m 2 / 10-years Slide 14 Is there a long-term trend? Werner Schmutz 14 14. May 2012 Frhlich 2009, A&AL 501, L27-L30 Slide 15 Could we detect a long-term trend with a composite? Werner Schmutz 15 14. May 2012 Slide 16 Requirements for a TSI monitoring Werner Schmutz 16 14. May 2012 Any plan to rely on an unbroken chain of measurements is broken o Not only because of a potential gap; o But mainly because of the uncertainty is continuously increasing with time ! Accurate absolute measurements are required ! Slide 17 Requirements for a TSI monitoring Werner Schmutz 17 14. May 2012 Accurate absolute measurements are required: Nowadays possible ! But we certainly also want to assess the variations of TSI and therefore, we still need to aim for continues and overlapping data ! Slide 18 TSI monitoring today Werner Schmutz 18 14. May 2012 Presently, 4 operational space experiments observing TSI: -VIRGO (launched 1995) -ACRIM III (launched 2000) -TIM (launched 2003) -PREMOS (launched 2010) Slide 19 Part II: Spectral Solar Irradiance Werner Schmutz 19 14. May 2012 Slide 20 Werner Schmutz 20 14. May 2012 The open question ! Is the SIM observation really correct? Or is it rather a degradation problem? The bands 410-470 and 480-730 nm are anti-correlated to TSI variations Compensated by larger (than TSI) UV variations Slide 21 Werner Schmutz 21 14. May 2012 Anti-correlation in models Contrast between active and quite Sun (SSN 150 vs SSN 0) Black: Bright+Dark Red: bright components Blue: dark components Slide 22 Werner Schmutz 22 14. May 2012 VIRGO and PREMOS bands Slide 23 Werner Schmutz 215 nm PREMOS vs SOLSTICE 23 14.05.2012 Independant correction of PREMOS Strong correlation of 13.5 and 27 days modulation PREMOS sampling is faster Rotational modulation more accurate PREMOS SOLSTICE PREMOS Slide 24 NIST SSI workshop, February 2012 VIRGO SSI time series 1996 - now Christoph Wehrli & VIRGO Team PMOD/WRC Davos An attempt to assess instrument degradation in a self consistent way by: referring operational measurements to occasional backup operations correcting the backup channel by initial ageing of operational channel Slide 25 NIST SSI workshop, February 2012 VIRGO Sun Photometers Interference filter radiometer with 3 channels centered at 862nm, 500nm and 402nm (R,G,B); FWHM bandwidths 5nm; silicon PD detectors; rad-hard windows. Active (SPM-A) and Backup (SPM-B) instruments SPM-A: exposed continuously for helioseismology application SPM-B: exposed rarely for solar spectral irradiance measurements Calibrated by EG&G FEL lamps, NBS 1973 traceable Slide 26 NIST SSI workshop, February 2012 VIRGO SPM: Level1 data SPM-B: Number of backups 178 Total exposure time 2.6 days Slide 27 NIST SSI workshop, February 2012 Raw variations of SPM-B VIRGO-SPM-B changes are about 5 times larger than the (real) solar variations in TSI. Solar cycle 24 SSI variation is not obvious (smaller), hidden in instrumental ageing. 5*(TSI/ ) - 4 Slide 28 NIST SSI workshop, February 2012 Initial ageing of SPM-A Steep degradation during first hours! Linear degradation during first month {Commissioning activities until 29.03.1996} TSI (*100) Slide 29

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