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1 US History EOCT Study Guide US History EOCT Study Guide 1. SSUSH1: The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. a. Explain Virginia’s development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, and relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s Rebellion, and the development of slavery. i. What was the Virginia Company? - A joint stock company that was composed of a group of investors ii. How did Virginia develop into a colony? - The Virginia Company took the money and invested it. They had hope into making profits. iii. What was the significance of tobacco cultivation? How did it effect such settlements like Jamestown? - The tobacco allowed them to make money in return help them to become successful. iv. Who was Powhatan? Why was he important? - Chief of the Powhatan Indians around Jamestown who helps the settlers during the winter. v. What was the House of Burgesses? What was its significance? - It was legislative assembly who helped to create laws. vi. What was Bacon’s Rebellion? Why was it significant? What changes did it cause? -Raid on Jamestown because would not protect people in west. Almost destroyed Jamestown, however, led to a better political structure. vii. How did slavery develop in the New World? What events led to slavery being introduced into the colonies? -must find free or cheap labor; trans-atlantic trade started in carribean aread then began to move west. b. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way covenant,

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1 US History EOCT Study Guide US History EOCT Study Guide

1. SSUSH1: The student will describe European settlement in North America during the 17th century. a. Explain Virginias development; include the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, and relationships with Native Americans such as Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses, Bacons Rebellion, and the development of slavery. i. What was the Virginia Company? - A joint stock company that was composed of a group of investors ii. How did Virginia develop into a colony? - The Virginia Company took the money and invested it. They had hope into making profits. iii. What was the significance of tobacco cultivation? How did it effect such settlements like Jamestown? - The tobacco allowed them to make money in return help them to become successful. iv. Who was Powhatan? Why was he important? - Chief of the Powhatan Indians around Jamestown who helps the settlers during the winter. v. What was the House of Burgesses? What was its significance? - It was legislative assembly who helped to create laws. vi. What was Bacons Rebellion? Why was it significant? What changes did it cause? -Raid on Jamestown because would not protect people in west. Almost destroyed Jamestown, however, led to a better political structure. vii. How did slavery develop in the New World? What events led to slavery being introduced into the colonies? -must find free or cheap labor; trans-atlantic trade started in carribean aread then began to move west. b. Describe the settlement of New England; include religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King Phillips War), the establishment of town meetings and development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter. i. What events led to the development of the New England Colonies? -religious dissent from England ii. How did religion effect the development of each region? - New England was the Puritans. Middle Colonies were Quakers as well as filled with diversity. Southern Colonies consisted of plantation system and religion was not much of a necessity. iii. What were the different types of relationships between tribes in each region? iv. What was King Phillips War? Why was it significant? -Native Americans to prevent colonies from moving westward. To have complete control of colonial territory and not or dont fear Native Americans. v. What was the purpose of town meetings? What was the purpose of a legislature? - it provided some form of government. vi. What events led to the development of Rhode Island?

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- Roger Williams separate church and state; Ann Hutchinson you dont need or have to have the church to find religion vii. What was the Half-Way Covenant? - was a partial membership to the church; helped incorporate children by making it to be an incentive to join the church viii. What were the Salem Witch Trials? How were they significant? -accused of being witches; showed corruption of the Puritan churches; showed they had the power to kill you ix. What caused the loss of the Massachusetts Charter? -kept pushing for self rule; king not going to finance or protect you; pushed for self rule c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania. i. Why did the mid-Atlantic Colonies develop? What were the major reasons? - Mid Atlantic Colonies: religious dissent, farm production. ii. How was New Amsterdam created? Why was it important? - Dutch created New York (New Amsterdam) good trading colony. iii. Why did the English take New Amsterdam? -wanted it for trading iv. How and why was Pennsylvania developed? -safe haven for Quakers and all other groups d. Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec. i. What were the main reasons for the French settling Quebec? -helped them to carry out the fur trade and establish more colonies along the river;

2. SSUSH2: The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed. a. Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade. i. What is Mercantilism? Who benefits from it? - this theory held that Earth had a limited supply of wealth in the form of natural resources, especially gold and silver, so the best way to become a stronger nation was to acquire the most wealth; export more than you import; British ii. What was the trans-Atlantic trade system? - was a system between Africa, Americas, and Europe. Goods and slaves were exported and imported from these three regions. Slaves were brought to the Americas to work on plantation, etc. b. Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population, and AfricanAmerican culture. i. What was the middle passage? -the passage between Africa and America ii. What was shipped through the middle passage? -slaves, goods iii. How did the African American population grow during this time? In 1700, there were thousands of African slaves throughout the British colonies. The vast majority of these slaves were located in the southern

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colonies, where they had supplied the labor for the regions agriculturally based economy. c. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism. i. Who was Ben Franklin? -was a president of the United States and an ambassador for France. He is known for social mobility. ii. How did he develop into an American Icon? -Over his lifetime, Franklin evolved himself into being one of the worlds leading authors, philosophers, scientists, inventors, and politicians. iii. What is Social Mobility? Individualism? -Social Mobility: to rise in society -Individualism: ways to improve himself d. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening. i. What was the Great Awakening? -Christians waking up and having a revival ii. How did it affect American society? -many began to wrap themselves in their religion again iii. How did it affect religion? -made an increase because people needed something to turn to

3. SSUSH3: The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution. a. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the American Revolution. i. What was the French and Indian War? Who won? How did it affect colonists? -It was a war that involved French and Indians. -It was the American part of a larger war known as the Seven Years' War. -It lead to the domination of Britain in northern America. -A consequence of this is that once there was no major European power to threaten the colonists, they didn't see a need for keeping Britain around any more ii. What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris 1763? How did it affect the colonists? -Forced France to turn over control of Canada to Britain -France surrendered all land east of Mississippi River -Gave the British control of all of Britains American colonies. iii. How did the French and Indian War lead to the American Revolution? -It left Britain in a large amount of debt. In order to pay off their debt, they began to tax the American colonist, which consequently led to the American Revolution. b. Explain colonial response to such British actions as the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act, and the Intolerable Acts as seen in Sons and Daughters of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence. i. What were the following acts? How did the colonists respond? 1. Proclamation of 1763 Americans could not settle past the Appalachian Mountains, for fear that it might result in conflicts with the Native Americans.

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2. Stamp Act required the colonists to have special stamps on printed goods. This stamped paper was equivalent to paying a tax. 3. Intolerable Acts as a punishment for the Boston Tea Party, they closed off the port of Boston. They also forced British troops to be housed on their property. ii. Who were the Sons and Daughters of Liberty? -The SoL urged colonial resistance to the Stamp Act using any means available... even violence. -The DoL made goods so that the colonists wouldnt have to rely on British imports. iii. Who were the Committees of Correspondence? -Did much of the planning for the First Continental Congress -The first organization linking the colonies in their opposition to the Bristish rule. c. Explain the importance of Thomas Paines Common Sense to the movement for independence. i. Who was Thomas Payne? -A patriotic philosopher ii. What was Common Sense? How did it effect the independence movement? -A small pamphlet that urged colonists to support independence from Britain and they were persuaded by the logic in Paynes arguments.

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4. SSUSH4: The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution. a. Explain the language, organization, and intellectual sources of the Declaration of Independence; include the writing of John Locke and Montesquieu, and the role of Thomas Jefferson. i. What was the Declaration of Independence? -An act passed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776 declaring the thirteen American Colonies independent of British rule. ii. Why are its language, organization, and intellectual resources important? iii. Who was John Locke? What did he write? How did it affect the DOI? -a British philosopher who argued that governments only purpose was to protect man's natural rights. iv. Who was Montesquieu? What did he write? How did it affect the DOI? - French philosopher who developed a number of political theories in his Spirit of the Laws. v. What was Thomas Jeffersons role in writing the DOI? -He wrote the first draft and made revisions suggested by Ben Franklin, John Adams, and others. b. Explain the reason for and significance of the French alliance and foreign assistance and the roles of Benjamin Franklin and the Marquis de Lafayette. i. Explain the significance of the colonist alliance with France during the Revolution. -Caused Britain to face a war in both America and Europe -They would have to pull troops out of the American colonies to fight France closer to home. ii. How did Ben Franklin and Lafayette help this alliance? -Franklin served as an American ambassador to France -Lafayette commanded American troops and fought battles in many states. c. Analyze George Washington as a military leader; include the creation of a professional military and the life of a common soldier, and describe the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and Valley Forge. i. How effective of a leader was George Washington as a military leader? -Commander in Chief of the Continental Army -Extraordinary leadership abilities -He reorganized the army, secured additional equipment and supplies, and started a training program to turn inexperienced recruits into a professional military. ii. How did the Continental Army become a professional fighting force? -They underwent rigorous training programs and harsh conditions iii. What was life like at Valley Forge? -Life was hard for the common soldier -Disease spread throughout the camp and Washington ordered for an intense training program iv. What was the significance of the crossing of the Delaware River and the victory at Trenton? -Showed that Washingtons army could fight as well as an experienced European army. d. Explain Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis, and the Treaty of Paris, 1783. i. What happened at Yorktown?

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-the site of Cornwallis's surrender in the American Revolution. ii. Who was General Lord Cornwallis? -the British general that was defeated at Yorktown to signify the end (and loss) of the Revolutionary War. iii. What was the Treaty of Paris 1783? What were the terms of the Treaty? -a document which formally ended the American Revolutionary War.

5. SSUSH5: The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government. i. What were the Articles of Confederation? -The first government of the United States was based on this. ii. What were the weaknesses of the AOC? -The federal government created by the Articles of Confederation are very weak. -No executive branch and lacked the power to tax, regulate commerce, or establish one national currency. -It gave individual states more power than the federal government had. iii. What was Shays Rebellion? -A 1786 uprising of Massachusetts farmers concerned about the loss of their land. iv. How did the rebellion show the weaknesses of the AOC? -Without the power to tax, Americas weak government could not repair the national economy. b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. i. Who were Federalists? What did they believe? ii. Who were anti-federalists? What did they believe? iii. What did both sides feel about: 1. The form of government? 2. Factions? 3. Checks and Balances? 4. Powers of the executive branch? 5. How did James Madison and Alexander Hamilton influence the creation of the Constitution? c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers, limited government, and the issue of slavery. i. What was the Great Compromise? How did satisfy both large and small states? ii. How did the Constitution deal with slavery? iii. How did the Constitution deal with separation of powers? iv. How did the Constitution deal with limited government? d. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states rights. i. What is the Bill of Rights? ii. How do they protect individual freedoms?

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iii. What rights do the first 10 amendments protect? e. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams; include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties (Alexander Hamilton). i. Why was George Washingtons presidency so important? ii. How did John Adams change the office of President? iii. What was the Whisky Rebellion? iv. What was the policy of neutrality in Europe? What problems did it cause? v. What caused the development of political parties? 6. SSUSH6: The student will analyze the nature of territorial and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation. a. Explain the Northwest Ordinances importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states. i. What was the Northwest Ordinance? ii. How did it affect westward expansion? iii. How did it deal with: 1. Slavery? 2. Education? 3. New States? b. Describe Jeffersons diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France and the territorys exploration by Lewis and Clark. i. How did Jefferson obtain the Louisiana Purchase? -President Jefferson bought it from Frenchs Napoleon Bonaparte for $15 million. As a result, the United States nearly doubled in geographic area. ii. What was the goal of the Lewis and Clark Expedition? -To explore Louisiana and western lands all the way to the Pacific Ocean. -Lewis and Clark charted the trails west, mapped rivers and mountain ranges, wrote descriptions and collected samples of unfamiliar plants and animals, and recorded facts and figures about the various Native American tribes and customs west of the Mississippi River. c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the wars significance on the development of a national identity. i. What caused the War of 1812? ii. What were the significant events of the war? iii. How did the war affect national identity? d. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the development of the nations infrastructure. i. What is the importance of the Erie Canal? -Connected the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. -It stretches 363 miles from Lake Erie to the Hudson River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean at New York City. -Served as a turnpike for barges where a road could not easily be built, and greatly lowered transportation cost. -Helped unite new regions with the Atlantic states. ii. What was the importance of New York City? -Trade grew when the Erie Canal made the citys harbors the link between European merchants and the great agricultural markets across the Appalachians from New York City. The city was home to the biggest

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gathering of artisans and crafts workers in the United States, and its banking and commercial activities. would soon make it the leading city in all of North America. iii. How did national infrastructure develop? -?????????????????????????????????????????

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7. SSUSH7: Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it. a. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitneys invention of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets. i. What was the Industrial Revolution? How did it effect the US? -The name given to the stage of the 19th century when power-driven machines operated by semiskilled or unskilled workers replaced hand tools operated by skilled workers. -Altered the quality of work for many people. ii. What was the Cotton Gin? -A machine that rapidly removes cotton plant seeds from the valuable cotton fiber used to make thread and fabric. iii. What is the significance of interchangeable parts? -Only the broken part of a machine would have to be replaced instead of the whole machine. b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny. i. What was the significance of interchangeable parts? -Only the broken part of a machine would have to be replaced instead of the whole machine. ii. What is manifest destiny? How did it affect westward expansion? -The name given to the idea that the United States would naturally occupy the territory between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public school. i. What was the Temperance Movement? -People should drink less alcohol or alcohol should be outlawed all together. ii. What was abolitionism? -Slavery should be abolished and should not be allowed in new states. iii. What efforts were made to change public schools? -All children should be required to attend free schools supported by taxpayers and staffed by trained teachers. d. Explain womens efforts to gain suffrage; include Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the Seneca Falls Conference. i. What was the Womens Suffrage Movement? -To gain civil rights for women equal to those for men. ii. Who was Elizabeth Cady Stanton? -An outspoken advocate for womens full rights of citizenship, including voting rights and parental and custody rights. iii. What was the Seneca Falls Conference? -Americas first womens rights convention e. Explain Jacksonian Democracy, expanding suffrage, the rise of popular political culture, and the development of American nationalism. i. What is Jacksonian Democracy? -It sought a stronger presidency and executive branch, and a weaker Congress. ii. How did he expand suffrage? -Gave the right to vote to all males.

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-Out of respect for the comman man, it also sought to broaden public participation in government, so it expanded suffrage to all white males, not just landowners. iii. What was popular political culture? -??????????????????????????????????????? iv. What is the concept of nationalism? -????????????????????????????????? 8. SSUSH8: The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion. a. Explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics; include the slave rebellion of Nat Turner and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglas, and the Grimke sisters). i. How did slavery affect American politics? -Most white southerners opposed abolition. -Many proslavery whites said that many slaves have better lives than they would have if they were free. ii. What was the Nat Turner rebellion? -Slave rebellion on four Virginia plantations killing 60 whites. iii. Who were the following abolitionists? 1. William Lloyd Garrison? -A writer and editor, was an important white abolitionist. He founded regional and national abolitionist societies and published an antislavery newspaper that printed geographic stories of the bad treatment received by slaves. 2. Fredrick Douglas? -A former slave who worked for Garrison and traveled widely, giving eloquent speeches on behalf of equality for African Americans, women, Native Americans, and immigrants. He later published biographies and his own antislavery newspaper. 3. The Grimke sisters? -Sarah and Angelina, were southern women who lectured publicly throughout the northern states about the evils of slavery they had seen growing up on a plantation. Their public careers began when Garrison published a letter from Angelina in his newspaper. b. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories. i. What was the Missouri Compromise? -Said that main would be admitted to the Union as a free state, Missouri would be admitted as a slave state, and slavery would be prohibited in the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase except for Missouri. ii. How did it affect slavery in new states and territories? -Senate would retain its equal balance between proslavery and antislavery senators until the next state was admitted to the Union. c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states rights ideology; include the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism. i. Describe the Nullification Crisis? -Southern states sought to nullify a high tariff Congress had passed on manufactured goods imported from Europe.

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-This helped the North but hurt the South. ii. What is states rights ideology? -The idea that states have certain rights and political powers separate from those held by the federal government that the federal government may not violate. iii. Who was John C Calhoun? -Vice President under President Andrew Jackson iv. What is sectionalism? d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso. i. What were the causes, events, and effects of the War with Mexico? ii. What was the Wilmot Proviso? How did it try to effect slavery in the new territory? e. Explain the Compromise of 1850. i. What were the major components of the compromise of 1850? -that state of New Mexico would be established by carving its borders from the state of Texas. -New Mexico voters would determine whether the state would permit or prohibit the practice of slavery. -California would be admitted to the Union as a free state. -All citizens would be required to apprehend runaway slaves and return them to their owners. Those who failed to do so would be fined or imprisoned. -The slaved trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia, but the practice of slavery would be allowed to continue there. 9. SSUSH9: The student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War. a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott case, and John Browns Raid. i. What were the major components of the Kansas-Nebraska Act? -Repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and gave the settlers in all new territories the right to decide for themselves whether theirs would be a free or a slave state. ii. What was popular sovereignty? Why did it fail? -Rule by people -Violence between proslavery and antislavery voters had created warlike conditions. It had failed. (Kansas Nebraska Act & Bleeding Kansas) iii. What was the Dred Scott Case? How did it affect slavery? -1857 An African American slave name Dred Scott claimed he should be a free man because he had lived with his master in slave states and in free states. The Court rejected Scotts claim, ruling that no African American could ever be a U.S. citizen. -Gave slavery the protection of the U.S. Constitution. iv. What was John Browns raid? How did it affect views on slavery? -??????????????????????????? b. Describe President Lincolns efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency powers, such as his decision to suspend habeas corpus. i. Describe the main points in Lincolns 2nd Inaugural Address?

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-He did not believe southern states had the right to secede from the Union and thought they were merely rebelling against the government. ii. Describe the main points and effects of the Gettysburg Address? iii. What are emergency powers? How did Lincoln use them? iv. What is Habeas Corpus? Why did Lincoln suspend it? -The legal rule that anyone imprisoned must be taken before a judge to determine if the prisoner is being legally held in custody. -Lincoln used his emergency powers to legalize the holding of Confederate sympathizers without trial and without a judge agreeing they were legally imprisoned. c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis. i. What were the Civil War roles of: 1. General Grant Union Commander 2. General Lee Commander of the Confederate Army after Johnston was injured 3. General Stonewall Jackson Confederate General and right hand man to Robert E. Lee 4. General Sherman Union General who burned down Atlanta 5. President Jefferson Davis (CSA) first and only President of Confederate of America d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle for Atlanta. i. What was the significance of the following places? 1. Fort Sumter? -Open battle of the civil war 2. Antietam? -Lees failure to win it encouraged Lincoln to issue that Emancipation Proclomation. -bloodiest one day battle 3. Vicksburg? -This Union victory, coupled with the Union victory at Gettysburg, was the turning point of the war. -split the south in half 4. Gettysburg? -Deadliest battle of the American Civil War. -most decisive battle of the war; turning point 5. Atlanta? -South knew it would lose the war, and the North knew it would win. -Shermans march of sea which destroyed much of the Souths supplies. e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation. i. What was the Purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation? -tried to free the slaves in the South ii. How did it change the purpose of the war? -gave them a moral focus for the war

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Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North and the South through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial output. i. What were the differences between the North and South in the following areas: 1. Population the North was much more populated than South. This allowed for them to assemble an army much larger than South. 2. Railways More railroads. Greater capacity to transport troops and supplies to aid the war effort. 3. Industrial output the North was much more industrialized than the South. The Souths possession of slaves was the reason why they failed to industrialize as well as the North, and the ultimate reason why the lost the Civil War.

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10. SSUSH10: The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction. i. What were the major differences between reconstruction plans coming from the President and the Radical Republicans? - President Republicans: Southerners who swore allegiance to Union; former Confederate states could hold constitutional conventions to set up state governments ; states had to void and ratify the 13th amendment; once ratify, states could hold elections -Radical Republicans: put under military rule; had to have new constitutional conventions (southern states); African American allowed to vote; Southerners who supported Confederacy were not allowed to vote; Southern states had to guarantee equal rights to African America b. Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide advanced education (e.g., Morehouse College) and describe the role of the Freedmens Bureau. i. What methods were used to redistribute land to former slaves and provide education ii. What was the Freedmens Bureau? What was its significance? - Freedmens Bureau (1865); provided clothes medical attention, food, education, and even land to African American coming out of slavery. Helped African American transition to freedom throughout the South. c. Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. i. What was the 13th amendment? How did it change America? -outlaw slavery; ii. What was the 14th amendment? How did it change America? -guaranteed no one be deprived of life, liberty, or the pursuit of happiness; iii. What was the 15th amendment? How did it change America? -denied no citizen be denied the right to vote d. Explain Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction. i. What are the Black Codes? Why were they created? -laws the limited the rights of freed blacks so much they were basically kept living like slaves. Such restrictions allowed whites to continue to control on profit from labor of African American. ii. What was the KKK? What were their major objectives? -KKK: a secretive organization who used violence, murder, and threats to intimidate blacks and those who favored giving African Americans equal rights iii. What other forms of resistance were used to stop racial equality during Reconstruction? - Jim Crow laws, literacy tests, and poll tax e. Explain the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in relationship to Reconstruction. i. Why did congress attempt to impeach Johnson? - tried to fire Secretary of War Edwin Stanton because he closely tied to Radical Republicans ii. Why did they fail to remove him from office?

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-Senate voted to spare Johnson by one vote. He violated tenure in Office Act: limited presidential power to hire and fire governmental position. 11. SSUSH11: The student will describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction. a. Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the organization of big business. i. How did the railroad expansion help industries? -Helped expand the industries that supplied the railroad companies need for steel rails laid on wood ties, iron locomotives burning huge quantities of coal, wooden freight cares, and passenger cars with fabris-covered seats and glass windows. ii. How did the railroad industry affect the steel industry -Railroads were the biggest customers for the steel industry because thousands of miles of steel track were laid. -Steel producers developed cheap, efficient methods for the mass production of steel rails. -These low-cost methods enabled more industries to afford the steel companies products. b. Describe the impact of the railroads in the development of the West; include the transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese labor. i. What events affected the development of the Transcontinental Railroad? -Helped contribute to the development of the West. -use of Irish and Chinese immigrants to build the railroad ii. How did the use of Chinese labor lead to changes in immigration policy? -These immigrants accepted lower pay than other laborers demanded. -They were taking jobs away from Americans -Chinese Exclusion Act forbade any laborers from China to enter the US for 10 years. c. Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and monopolies i. Who was John D. Rockefeller? -Founder of the Standard Oil Company ii. What was the Standard Oil Company? -The most famous big business of the era. -Rockefeller gained control of most other oil companies and created a trust. iii. What are Trusts and Monopolies? -A single company that controlled virtually all the U.S. oil production and distribution. d. Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison; include the electric light bulb, motion pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life i. Who was Thomas Edison? -The most famous American inventor of the period. ii. How these inventions affect Americans: 1. Light bulb illuminate buildings, streets, and neighborhoods - Allowed for 8 hour work day; night life 2. Motion pictures (movies) 3. Phonographs (entertainment)

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12. SSUSH12: The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth. a. Describe Ellis Island, the change in immigrants origins to southern and eastern Europe and the impact of this change on urban America. i. What was the purpose and Ellis Island? -Allows immigrants from Europe to come to the United States ii. Where did immigrants during this time period come from? -Asia and Europe iii. How did this change urban America? -The new immigrants were likely to be poor. -Worked as unskilled laborers and worked mostly in cities -Did not fit into American culture and tried to bring their culture to America b. Identify the American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers. i. What was the American Federation of Labor? What was their purpose? -Used strikes to convince employers to give workers shorter work days, better working conditions, higher wages, and greater control over how they managed their workplace responsibilities. ii. Who was Samuel Gompers? -He led the American Federation of Labor c. Describe the growth of the western population and its impact on Native Americans with reference to Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee. i. How did the Western US during this time in regards to Native Americans? ii. What happened at Wounded Knee? iii. Who was Sitting Bull? d. Describe the 1894 Pullman strike as an example of industrial unrest. i. What was the 1894 Pullman strike? Why did it happen? ii. How did it signify industrial unrest during this time? 13. SSUSH13: The student will identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in the Progressive Era. a. Explain Upton Sinclairs The Jungle and federal oversight of the meatpacking industry. i. Who was Upton Sinclair? - he wrote about the meat industry in his book the Jungle ii. What affects did The Jungle have on federal oversight on food and drug processing? -helped to bring about the FDA and USDA b. Identify Jane Addams and Hull House and describe the role of women in reform movements. i. Who was Jade Addams? What was the Hull House? - was known as the mother of social work; offered assistance to immigrants and under privileged citizens c. Describe the rise of Jim Crow, Plessey v. Ferguson, and the emergence of the NAACP. i. What are Jim Crow Laws? -Segregation laws that required separate public and private facilities. ii. What was the ruling of Plessey v. Ferguson? How did it change America? -Upheld the constitutionality of the Jim Crow laws

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-Under the separate but equal doctrine, the Court ruled that racial segregation was legal in public accommodations. iii. Who is the NAACP? What is its mission? -National Association for the Advancement for Colored People -Seek full civil rights for African Americans. d. Explain Ida Tarbells role as a muckraker. i. Who was Ida Tarbell? -revealed abuses about Standard Oil Trust ii. What was a Muckraker? -journalists who uncovered muck of the U.S. Society iii. How did they change American society? -They investigated and exposed political corruption, child labor, slum conditions, and other social issues. e. Describe the significance of progressive reforms such as the initiative, recall, and referendum; direct election of senators; reform of labor laws; and efforts to improve living conditions for the poor in cities. i. What are the following political reforms: 1. Initiative To force a public vote on an issue 2. Recall Remove public officials from office. 3. Referendum The government must present the issue to the public. 4. Direct election of senators Each states legislatures elected that states U.S. senators. 5. Reform of labor laws ii. What progressive reforms improved living conditions for poor people in cities?

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14. SSUSH14: The student will explain Americas evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the twentieth century. a. Explain the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and anti-Asian immigration sentiment on the west coast. i. What was the purpose of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882? -Banning all future Chinese immigration -To help bring jobs to Americans -to restrict Chinese from coming to America ii. What did it say about anti-Asian sentiment on the West Coast? -When Chinese workers accepted the low wages for jobs whites held, employers lowered pay for all workers. -This angered the white workers. b. Describe the Spanish-American War, the war in the Philippines, and the debate over American expansionism. i. What were the major events of the Spanish-American War? What did the US gain from it? ii. What happened during the war in the Philippines? iii. What is expansionism? How did these events change America? c. Explain U.S. involvement in Latin America, as reflected by the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine and the creation of the Panama Canal. i. What is the Roosevelt Corollary? How did it affect Latin American relations? -US had the right to intervene in Latin American countries in economic crisis, whether or not a European power planned to intervene -Improved relations with Latin American countries -America controlled territories in both Atlantic and Pacific oceans. ii. What is the Panama Canal? Why did the US create it? - a canal between the North and South America; U.S. created to make traveling from Atlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean faster and easier 15. SSUSH15: The student will analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War I. a. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare. i. What is the policy of neutrality? - remaining neutral; not evolving oneself in foreign affairs ii. Why did the US stay neutral at the beginning of WWI? iii. What is unrestricted submarine warfare? How did it affect the US? b. Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs. i. What happened on the home front during WWI? -many young people on the war front were dying because they were inexperienced ii. What was the Great Migration? iii. What was the Espionage Act? iv. Who was Eugene Debs? What were his goals? c. Explain Wilsons Fourteen Points and the proposed League of Nations. i. What were the major purposes of Wilsons 14 Points? ii. What was the League of Nations? iii. What parts of the 14 Points plan were adopted?

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d. Describe passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth Amendment, establishing woman suffrage. i. What was the 18th amendment? Why was it passed? -Prohibition; ii. What is prohibition? -made alcohol illegal iii. What was the 19th amendment? What did it establish? -gave the women the right to vote 16. SSUSH16: The student will identify key developments in the aftermath of WW I. a. Explain how rising communism and socialism in the United States led to the Red Scare and immigrant restriction. i. What is communism? Socialism? - Communism: was based on a single-party government ruled by a dictator. -Socialism: A political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole ii. What was the Red Scare? - People were scared and feared Communism or anyone associated with it b. Identify Henry Ford, mass production, and the automobile. i. Who was Henry Ford? ii. What was mass production? iii. How did Ford change industry and production? c. Describe the impact of radio and the movies. i. How did radios affect Americans? -First source of massive communication -allowed Americans to listen to President speeches, etc. ii. How did movies affect Americans? - became a form of entertainment d. Describe modern forms of cultural expression; include Louis Armstrong and the origins of jazz, Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance, Irving Berlin, and Tin Pan Alley. i. What was the Harlem Renaissance? ii. How did the following people / places / events influence the renaissance? 1. Louis Armstrong - a trumpeter and singer from New Orleans, among the most noted jazz musicians 2. Jazz -popular form of music after World War 1 3. Langston Hughes -wrote poetry, short stories, and plays about black experiences that reminded black Americans of their African heritage 4. Irving Berlin -composed 3,000 songs 5. Tin Pan Alley -center of the music industry; referred to various music houses in NYC where songwriters and musicians composed and published songs

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17. SSUSH17: The student will analyze the causes and consequences of the Great Depression. a. Describe the causes, including overproduction, under-consumption, and stock market speculation that led to the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. i. Describe the following causes of the Great Depression 1. Overproduction -more products than needed 2. Under consumption - not enough products in circulation 3. Speculation - made high risk investments in hopes of making large returns ii. The Crash of 1929 -October 29, 1929 (also known as Black Tuesday) stock market crashed; due to people were buying things on credit b. Explain the impact of the drought in the creation of the Dust Bowl. i. How did drought affect the depression? ii. How did the Dust Bowl effect the depression? c. Explain the social and political impact of widespread unemployment that resulted in developments such as Hoovervilles. i. How did unemployment affect Americans during this time? ii. What were Hoovervilles? -Shanty-towns built by the homeless during the Great Depression

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18. SSUSH18: The student will describe Franklin Roosevelts New Deal as a response to the depression and compare the ways governmental programs aided those in need. a. Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a works program and as an effort to control the environment. i. What was the TVA? What was it created to do? b. Explain the Wagner Act and the rise of industrial unionism. i. What was the purpose of the Wagner Act? ii. What is industrial unionism? c. Explain the passage of the Social Security Act as a part of the second New Deal. i. What is the Social Security Act? ii. What was the second New Deal? d. Identify Eleanor Roosevelt as a symbol of social progress and womens activism. i. Who was Eleanor Roosevelt? ii. What did she do as a womens activist? e. Identify the political challenges to Roosevelts domestic and international leadership; include the role of Huey Long, the court packing bill, and the Neutrality Act. i. Who was Huey Long? ii. What was the Court Packing Bill? iii. What was the Neutrality Act? 19. SSUSH19: The student will identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the federal government. a. Explain A. Philip Randolphs proposed March on Washington, D.C., and President Franklin D. Roosevelts response. i. Who was A Philip Randolph? What did his March on Washington seek to do? ii. How did FDR respond? b. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of JapaneseAmericans, German-Americans, and Italian-Americans. i. How did Americans treat Japanese-Americans after Pearl Harbor ii. How were German-Americans and Italian-Americans treated? c. Explain major events; include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the fall of Berlin. i. What was the Lend-Lease program? ii. Why was the Battle of Midway important? iii. What was D-Day? iv. What was the significance of the Battle of Berlin? d. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of women in war industries. i. What is War Mobilization? ii. What is Rationing? iii. What is war-time conversion? iv. What was the role of women during the war? e. Describe Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing the atomic bomb. i. What was atomic bomb? ii. How did it affect the US in scientific, economic, and military sectors?

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20. SSUSH20: The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. a. Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy. i. What was the Marshall Plan created to do? ii. What are examples of the US commitment to Europe? iii. What was the Truman Doctrine? Why was it created? iv. What was the Containment Policy? b. Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China and the outbreak of the Korean War and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy. i. How did China become Communists? ii. What was the Korean War about? What did it represent? iii. What was McCarthyism? c. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis. i. How did the Cuban Revolution affect the US? ii. What happened at the Bay of Pigs? iii. What was the Cuban Missile Crisis? d. Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive and growing opposition to the war. i. What were the major events of the Vietnam War? ii. What was the significance of the Tet offensive? 21. SSUSH21: The student will explain economic growth and its impact on the United States, 1945-1970. a. Describe the baby boom and its impact as shown by Levittown and the Interstate Highway Act. i. Who are the Baby Boomers? -the people that had been born after World War 2 ii. What are Levittowns? -new suburbs Levitt created (build houses quickly at and sell at a lower price) iii. What was the Interstate Highway Act? - construction of federal interstate highway system iv. How did all of these affect modern America? - led to new growth b. Describe the impact television has had on American culture; include the presidential debates (Kennedy/Nixon,1960) and news coverage of the Civil Rights Movement. i. What was this significance of the Kennedy / Nixon debates? -first televised debate ii. How did TV affect the Civil Rights Movement? -showed violence often inflicted on African Americans which played a major role in winning support for the cause. c. Analyze the impact of technology on American life; include the development of the personal computer and the cellular telephone. i. Describe the importance of the personal computer and the cell phone as modern conveniences? - allowed for communication and resources d. Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I and President Eisenhowers actions. i. What was the impact of Sputnik I to US-USSR relations?

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-both entered into a space race in 1958; congress passed the National Defense Education Act to provide aid for education and was geared towards boosting studies for science, math, and foreign languages

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22. SSUSH22: The student will identify dimensions of the Civil Rights Movement, 19451970. a. Explain the importance of President Trumans order to integrate the U.S. military and the federal government. i. What effect did President Trumans order to integrate the US troops have on the Civil Rights Movement? b. Identify Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball. i. What were the social effects of Jackie Robinson and the integration of Baseball? - he was the first African American on a major league baseball team, before no African American could play or participate in the league. c. Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision. i. What court decision did Brown v. Board of education reverse? Why this decision was resisted so much? -Plessy v. Ferguson and ruled that racial segregation in public schools in unconstitutional d. Describe the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr.s Letter from a Birmingham Jail and his I have a dream speech. i. What issues did the Letters from a Birmingham Jail expose and address? What was the significance of the I Have a Dream Speech? e. Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. i. What was the affects of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? ii. What was the affects of the Voting Rights Act of 1965? 23. SSUSH23: The student will describe and assess the impact of political developments between 1945 and 1970. a. Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision. i. Who was Earl Warren? ii. What cases did his court hear and how did they affect America? b. Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation. i. How did JFKs assassination affect America? ii. How did it affect Civil Rights legislation? c. Explain Lyndon Johnsons Great Society; include the establishment of Medicare. i. What was the Great Society? ii. What were Medicare / Medicaid? d. Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968; include the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, and the events surrounding the Democratic National Convention. i. Describe the significance of the following events 1. Assassination of Dr. King 2. Assassination of RFK 3. Democratic Convention of 1968 24. SSUSH24: The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and organizations of the 1960s.

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a. Compare and contrast the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom rides, and changing composition. i. What was the purpose of the SNCC and the SCLC? What are the differences in their approaches to Civil Rights reforms? ii. What were sit-ins? Freedom rides? b. Describe the National Organization of Women and the origins and goals of the modern womens movement. i. What was the purpose of NOW? ii. What were their main goals? c. Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement. i. Where did the movement start? ii. What happened at Kent State? d. Analyze Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers movement. i. Who was Chavez? What did he fight for? ii. Who were the UFW? e. Explain Rachel Carson and Silent Spring, Earth Day, the creation of the EPA, and the modern environmentalist movement. i. Who was Rachel Carson? What was Silent Spring? ii. What is Earth Day? iii. Who is the EPA? What are their responsibilities? f. Describe the rise of the conservative movement as seen in the presidential candidacy of Barry Goldwater (1964) and the election of Richard M. Nixon (1968). i. Who was Barry Goldwater? What did he start? ii. What is the significance of the election of Nixon?

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25. SSUSH25: The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968. a. Describe President Richard M. Nixons opening of China, his resignation due to the Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward government, and the Presidency of Gerald Ford. i. Why did Nixon go to China? ii. What was the Watergate Scandal? iii. What was significant about President Ford? b. Explain the impact of Supreme Court decisions on ideas about civil liberties and civil rights; include such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973) and the Bakke decision on affirmative action. i. What was significant about Roe v. Wade? ii. What is Affirmative Action? c. Explain the Carter administrations efforts in the Middle East; include the Camp David Accords, his response to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, and the Iranian hostage crisis. i. What did Carter do during 1. The Camp David Accords? 2. The Iranian Revolution? 3. The Iranian Hostage Crisis? d. Describe domestic and international events of Ronald Reagans presidency; include Reaganomics, the Iran-contra scandal, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. i. What happened domestically and internationally during Reagans presidency? ii. What was Reaganomics? iii. What was the Iran-contra scandal? iv. Why did the Soviet Union collapse? e. Explain the relationship between Congress and President Bill Clinton; include the North American Free Trade Agreement and his impeachment and acquittal. i. What happened during the Clinton administration? ii. What was NAFTA? iii. Describe Clintons impeachment and acquittal. f. Analyze the 2000 presidential election and its outcome, emphasizing the role of the Electoral College. i. What is the Electoral College? ii. Who won the race of 2000? g. Analyze the response of President George W. Bush to the attacks of September 11, 2001, on the United States, the war against terrorism, and the subsequent American interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq i. What were the reasons for the 9/11 attacks? ii. How did President Bush respond?