university of groningen managing sickness absence schreuder, johanna johanna alice harma schreuder...

Download University of Groningen Managing sickness absence Schreuder, Johanna Johanna Alice Harma Schreuder geboren

Post on 16-Oct-2020




0 download

Embed Size (px)


  • University of Groningen

    Managing sickness absence Schreuder, Johanna Alice Harma

    IMPORTANT NOTE: You are advised to consult the publisher's version (publisher's PDF) if you wish to cite from it. Please check the document version below.

    Document Version Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record

    Publication date: 2012

    Link to publication in University of Groningen/UMCG research database

    Citation for published version (APA): Schreuder, J. A. H. (2012). Managing sickness absence: leadership and sickness absence behaviour in hospital care Groningen: s.n.

    Copyright Other than for strictly personal use, it is not permitted to download or to forward/distribute the text or part of it without the consent of the author(s) and/or copyright holder(s), unless the work is under an open content license (like Creative Commons).

    Take-down policy If you believe that this document breaches copyright please contact us providing details, and we will remove access to the work immediately and investigate your claim.

    Downloaded from the University of Groningen/UMCG research database (Pure): For technical reasons the number of authors shown on this cover page is limited to 10 maximum.

    Download date: 11-02-2018

  • i


    Schreuder (thesis).indd 1 23-08-12 13:11

  • ii Managing sickness absence

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 2 23-08-12 13:11

  • iii



    leadership and sickness absence behaviour in hospital care


    ter verkrijging van het doctoraat in de Medische Wetenschappen

    aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen op gezag van de

    Rector Magnificus, dr. E. Sterken, in het openbaar te verdedigen op

    woensdag 3 oktober 2012 om 14.30 uur


    Johanna Alice Harma Schreuder geboren op 19 januari 1966

    te Noord-Scharwoude

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 3 23-08-12 13:11

  • iv Managing sickness absence

    Promotores: Prof. dr. J.W. Groothoff Prof. dr. J.J.L. van der Klink

    Copromotor: Dr. C.A.M. Roelen

    Beoordelingscommissie: Prof. dr. E.H.L.M. van de Loo Prof. dr. M.F. Reneman Prof. dr. W.W. van Rhenen

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 4 23-08-12 13:11

  • v

    Paranimfen: Mintsje de Boer Johan Schreuder

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 5 23-08-12 13:11

  • vi Managing sickness absence

    Cover painting Gerrit Breteler

    Graphics Paul Roorda, QDY

    Cover design & lay-out Marcel Zinger, Grafimedia

    Print Grafimedia, University Services Department, University of Groningen, the Netherlands

    Schreuder, Jolanda

    Managing sickness absence Leadership and sickness absence behaviour in hospital care

    Thesis University of Groningen, the Netherlands – with summary in Dutch

    ISBN: 978-90-367-5710-2 978-90-367-5717-1 (E-book)

    This study was conducted within the research institute SHARE and under the auspices of the research program Public Health Research (PHR)

    The publication of this thesis was generously supported by:

    University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen

    Copyright © 2012 Jolanda A.H. Schreuder

    Niets uit deze uitgave mag worden verveelvoudigd, opgeslagen in een geautomatiseerd gegevensbestand of openbaar gemaakt in enige vorm of op enige wijze zonder voorafgaande schriftelijke toestemming van de auteur.

    No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner or by any means without written permission of the author or, when appropriate, the publisher of the publications.

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 6 23-08-12 13:11

  • vii


    leadership and sickness absence behaviour in hospital care

    J.A.H. Schreuder

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 7 23-08-12 13:11

  • viii Managing sickness absence


    1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction

    35 CHAPTER 2 Sickness absence frequency among women working in hospital care Occupational Medicine 2009; 59: 502–505

    45 CHAPTER 3 Effort – reward imbalance is associated with the frequency of sickness absence among female hospital nurses: a cross sectional study International Journal of Nursing Studies 2010; 47: 569–576

    63 CHAPTER 4 Coping styles relate to health and work environment of Norwegian and Dutch hospital nurses: a comparative study Nursing Outlook 2012; 60(1): 37-43

    79 CHAPTER 5 Self-rated coping styles and registered sickness absence among nurses working in hospital care: a prospective 1-year cohort study International Journal of Nursing Studies 2011; 48(7): 838-846

    99 CHAPTER 6 Inter-physician agreement on the readiness of sick-listed employees to return to work Disability and Rehabilitation 2012; 19: (ahead of print)

    113 CHAPTER 7 Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff Health Care Management Review 2011; 36(1): 58-66

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 8 23-08-12 13:11

  • ix

    131 CHAPTER 8 Leadership effectiveness and recorded sickness absence among nursing staff: a cross-sectional pilot study Journal of Nursing Management 2011; 19: 585–595

    151 CHAPTER 9 Leadership effectiveness and staff sickness absence: a controlled before and after study Submitted

    169 CHAPTER 10 Characteristics of zero-absenteeism Submitted

    183 CHAPTER 11 Five years of zero-absenteeism: potential source of team- empowerment and lower sickness absence in healthcare Submitted

    199 CHAPTER 12 Discussion

    221 SUMMARY





    Schreuder (thesis).indd 9 23-08-12 13:11

  • x Managing sickness absence

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 10 23-08-12 13:11

  • Chapter 1 1

    CHAPTER 1 Introduction

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 1 23-08-12 13:11

  • 2 Managing sickness absence

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 2 23-08-12 13:11

  • Chapter 1 3


    A complex mixture of legislation, processes, stakeholders and circumstances influ- ence an individual’s decision to call in sick, stay at work or return to work. In the past, sickness absence was considered a socioeconomic and political topic rather than a medical or public health issue. This changed when it was reported that high levels of sickness absence predicted future health outcomes, early retirement, and mortality [1-3]. Nowadays, sickness absence is seen as a major public health prob- lem and sickness absence research is a top priority in Europe [4].

    1.1 Unscheduled absence, sickness absence and zero-absenteeism

    Employee absences include scheduled and unscheduled time off. Only 35% of the unscheduled absences are attributed to personal illness. The other 65% of absences are due to other reasons, including family issues, personal needs, entitlement men- tality (i.e. the feeling that one is entitled to a day off) and stress (figure 1). Without insight into the specific reasons for absence, organizations may be surprised to learn that many unscheduled absences have nothing to do with illness [5].

    In this thesis, sickness absence is defined as non-attendance at work due to a health complaint, while the employer expects attendance [6]. Most countries have policies or social security systems that compensate sickness absence. If there is no policy






    35% Personal Illness 65% Other

    35% Personal Illness

    21% Family Issues

    18% Personal Needs

    14% Entitlement Mentality

    12% Stress

    Source: Navarro & Bass [5]

    FIGURE 1. Reasons for unscheduled absence

    Schreuder (thesis).indd 3 23-08-12 13:11

  • 4 Managing sickness absence

    for taking paid time off, many workers continue to go to work when they are ill [7] which can lead to sickness presenteeism, a construct that is explained later in this chapter [8]. Countries with very limited sickness absence benefits are Japan, Canada and the United States [9]. In Japan the overall sickness absence rate is very low and estimated between 0.2% and 1% with a mean of 0.4% [10]. In 2011, the sickness absence rate was 2.1% in the United States [11]. In Canada the total work time missed for personal reasons was 3.2%, which included illness or disability as well as personal or family responsibilities [12].

    1.1.1 Sickness absence levels in Europe In Europe, sickness absence rates differ between countries. According to the In- ternational Monetary Fund, European sickness absence rates in 2000-2008 ranged from 1.5% (Iceland) to 6.2% (Sweden)[13]. All countries have a labor law that requires employers to provide paid sick days and/or paid sick leave [9]. The extent to which sick days are paid influences sickness absence rates. Gimeno et al. found that countries with full pay periods for temporary work incapacity (that is Finland, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Austria, or Belgium) had higher sickness absence levels than countries where paid sickness benefits are limited (UK, France) [4]. Scheil-Adlung and Sandner [14] compared sickness absence days as p