unit 1 chapters 1-5 textbook chapters 1-5 textbook topics: topics: colonization: european interest...

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Key features of European society before the 15th Century. 1. Sparsely populated.  The Black Death, a catastrophic epidemic of the bubonic plague that began in 1347, decimated Europe, killing 25m people, reducing the population from 85m to 60m…..resulted in Economic decline, but also less demand for land…

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Unit 1 Chapters 1-5 Textbook Chapters 1-5 Textbook Topics: Topics: Colonization: European interest in 15 th Century? Colonization: European interest in 15 th Century? Features of Spanish Colonization Features of Spanish Colonization Native American Civilization: Elements of Civilization Native American Civilization: Elements of Civilization British Colonization: Political, Economic, Religious, Social Development of British Colonies British Colonization: Political, Economic, Religious, Social Development of British Colonies 17th and 18th Century Colonial Developments: Regionalization: North v South 17th and 18th Century Colonial Developments: Regionalization: North v South Role of Religion: Great Awakening Role of Religion: Great Awakening French Colonization French Colonization Topic 1 Why did Europeans, in the 15 th Century, become interested in overseas Colonization? (Why not before this?) Why did Europeans, in the 15 th Century, become interested in overseas Colonization? (Why not before this?) Key features of European society before the 15th Century. 1. Sparsely populated. The Black Death, a catastrophic epidemic of the bubonic plague that began in 1347, decimated Europe, killing 25m people, reducing the population from 85m to 60m..resulted in Economic decline, but also less demand for land 2. Mentality of the Middle Ages, inward- looking and relatively static outlook. Leif Ericson (11th Century) and others had seen part of the new world - European's were capable of crossing the ocean to find it - but even had their discoveries become common knowledge there would have been little interest on the part of others to follow. Europeans in the Middle Ages were not an adventurous people..their outlook was overwhelmingly provincial Close up of Leif in front of Hallgrmskirkja, in Reykjavk, Iceland. The statue was a gift from the United States government; he may have reached the US 500 yrs before Columbus Vinland, near Newfoundland HallgrmskirkjaReykjavk IcelandUnited States 3. Europe was divided into innumerable small duchies and kingdoms Power was for the most part so widely dispersed that no single leader was capable of launching great ventures. Powerful nation states had not yet emerged. Yet, Europeans were aware of the Orient and its exotic goods (spices, silk, herbs, perfumes..) from.. Yet, Europeans were aware of the Orient and its exotic goods (spices, silk, herbs, perfumes..) from.. News brought back by Christian Missionaries and the Crusaders who had gone to defend the Holy Land from Moslem attacks News brought back by Christian Missionaries and the Crusaders who had gone to defend the Holy Land from Moslem attacks The writings of Marco Polo: he spent The writings of Marco Polo: he spent 20 years there in the 13 th Century: But interest in / demand for these goods was low because of Economic, Political, Social conditions in Europe and But interest in / demand for these goods was low because of Economic, Political, Social conditions in Europe and The long, unsafe transportation route, dominated by Arab and Italian merchants, that the goods were brought across The long, unsafe transportation route, dominated by Arab and Italian merchants, that the goods were brought across Summary.Changes in Europe during the 15th Century encouraging Colonization.Overview 1. Emergence of new governments / rulers 1. Emergence of new governments / rulers 2. Population Increase 2. Population Increase 3. Expansion of Commercial activity / Economy 3. Expansion of Commercial activity / Economy 4. Emergence of Mercantilism as dominant Economic philosophy 4. Emergence of Mercantilism as dominant Economic philosophy 5. Spread of Renaissance spirit 5. Spread of Renaissance spirit 6. Developments in Navigational Technology 6. Developments in Navigational Technology 7. Breakthrough voyages of Diaz (1488) and Da Gama (1498) 7. Breakthrough voyages of Diaz (1488) and Da Gama (1498) 1. Emergence of New Governments. Strong new monarchies emerged: they created centralized nation states, with national courts, national armies, and perhaps most important, national taxation systems Strong new monarchies emerged: they created centralized nation states, with national courts, national armies, and perhaps most important, national taxation systems As these ambitious kings and queens consolidated / centralized their power, subdued their nobles and increased their wealth, they became eager to enhance the commercial and political power of their nations. As these ambitious kings and queens consolidated / centralized their power, subdued their nobles and increased their wealth, they became eager to enhance the commercial and political power of their nations. Increased competition / rivalry with other nations Increased competition / rivalry with other nations They were ready to finance daring expensive voyages of exploration to find new land, increase supply of exotic goods. They were ready to finance daring expensive voyages of exploration to find new land, increase supply of exotic goods. Among the first united powerful nation states were Portugal, Spain, England, France, Netherlands - no coincidence that these were the states which became great colonial empires. Among the first united powerful nation states were Portugal, Spain, England, France, Netherlands - no coincidence that these were the states which became great colonial empires. The countries which were slow or late in unifying - Germany, Italy - were left behind in the race for colonies. The countries which were slow or late in unifying - Germany, Italy - were left behind in the race for colonies. 2. Population Increase Another great change taking place in Europe in the 15th Century was an increase in population. The population increased from about 55m in 1450 to almost 100 m by 1600..more competition / pressure for landsparked interest in acquiring land overseas Another great change taking place in Europe in the 15th Century was an increase in population. The population increased from about 55m in 1450 to almost 100 m by 1600..more competition / pressure for landsparked interest in acquiring land overseas 3. Expansion of Commerce. Rise in population increased, meant increased prosperity for merchants, meant an increase in the demand for expensive goods, esp. exotic goods of the Orient, from those growing in wealth..must find faster, cheaper routes Rise in population increased, meant increased prosperity for merchants, meant an increase in the demand for expensive goods, esp. exotic goods of the Orient, from those growing in wealth..must find faster, cheaper routes 4. Emergence of Mercantilism as the Dominant Economic Policy Main ideas of Mercantilism the goal of economic activity should be to increase the nation's total wealth.the individual is of secondary importance the world's wealth was finite; strong nations had to aggressively accumulate as much as possible before sources became exhausted (gold, silver, commodities).strong nations should exploit weaker nations To build up gold reserves, strong nations should export more than they imported States that were economically strong would be able to fund huge armies, and dominate their neighbors and other nations Mercantilism was ultimately a political philosophy with a political motive: POWER Mercantilism was embraced by the new rulers of nation states: thus their support for Merchants searching for new routes, and explorers searching for new lands 5. Spread of Renaissance Spirit. A new emphasis on individualism, on living life now / carpe diem, that life should not be dominated by religion or by concerns or worries about the afterlife etc. A new emphasis on individualism, on living life now / carpe diem, that life should not be dominated by religion or by concerns or worries about the afterlife etc. Atmosphere of rebirth nurtured a healthy spirit of optimism, self reliance, ambition and venturesomeness; people were encouraged to be informed, to question, to be less superstitious, to believe that the world was round Atmosphere of rebirth nurtured a healthy spirit of optimism, self reliance, ambition and venturesomeness; people were encouraged to be informed, to question, to be less superstitious, to believe that the world was round Columbus would come to believe in this he was a product of the Renaissance. Columbus would come to believe in this he was a product of the Renaissance. An outward-looking, risk-taking mentality slowly overcame that of the Middle Ages. An outward-looking, risk-taking mentality slowly overcame that of the Middle Ages. Renaissance ideas were spread through books printed on the new Printing Presses of Europe (Gutenberg; 1450) Renaissance ideas were spread through books printed on the new Printing Presses of Europe (Gutenberg; 1450) 6. Navigational Technology In 1416, Prince Henry the Navigator, set up a school of Navigation in Sagres, Portugal In 1416, Prince Henry the Navigator, set up a school of Navigation in Sagres, Portugal Brought the best cartographers, astronomers, and navigators Brought the best cartographers, astronomers, and navigators Goal was to help Portugal break Italian dominance of trade with the Orient by finding a sea route around Africa Goal was to help Portugal break Italian dominance of trade with the Orient by finding a sea route around Africa The Experts at Sagres developed improved The Experts at Sagres developed improved Ships: Caravels; faster, lighter sailing ships Ships: Caravels; faster, lighter sailing ships Maps; (17,000 miles of the African coastline and 13,000 miles of the Asiatic coast). Maps; (17,000 miles of the African coastline and 13,000 miles of the Asiatic coast). Compasses; gave accurate direction Compasses; gave accurate direction Astrolabes: helped plot position based on the position of the stars Astrolabes: helped plot position based on the position of the stars 7. Breakthrough Voyages Diaz - first to round the tip of Africa Called it Cape of Torment. Lat

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