Unit 1: Ancient Civilizations & Religions

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Unit 1: Ancient Civilizations & Religions. Ms. Doyle. Record in your notes EVERYTHING in Red. 8 Characteristics of Civilizations Cities Organized Governments Complex Religions Job Specialization Social Classes Arts & Architecture Public Works Writing. Day 2: Page 2: River Valleys. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<p>Unit 1: Ancient Civilizations &amp; Religions</p> <p>Unit 1: Ancient Civilizations &amp; ReligionsMs. DoyleRecord in your notes EVERYTHING in Red8 Characteristics of CivilizationsCitiesOrganized GovernmentsComplex ReligionsJob SpecializationSocial ClassesArts &amp; ArchitecturePublic WorksWriting</p> <p>Day 2: Page 2: River ValleysMesopotamia Rap</p> <p>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6thAH9PdBcI&amp;feature=plcp&amp;context=C37fcaefUDOEgsToPDskJMuohee0N-odxk0vHHK9xH </p> <p>Civilization Arose in the Fertile Crescent</p> <p>MesopotamiaThe region between the Tigris River and the Euphrates River is known as Mesopotamia.One of the first villages to emerge was Sumer. The villagers were called Sumerians.</p> <p>Polytheism- A belief in many gods.The Sumerians were polytheists. They believed that their gods were a lot like them except they were immortal and all-powerful.Anu- God of HeavenEnlil- God of Clouds &amp; AirEa- God of Water &amp; Floods.Afterlife: Sumerians believed that their souls went to the land of no return, a gloomy place between the earths crust &amp; the ancient sea.</p> <p>Who ruled Sumer?Priests &amp; KingsPriests had power because they knew how to please the gods and keep the city safe.Sumerians began by choosing a strong warrior to lead them into battle. These leaders eventually became kings. Kings became a hereditary position.</p> <p>Priests &amp; KingsWealthy MerchantsArtisans &amp; FarmersSlaves: By working obediently day &amp; nightthey could hope to earn their freedom.SOCIAL CLASSES IN SUMER*Women had more rights than women in many later civilizations.Draw pyramid and label in your notes!Purpose of Hammurabis CodeThere are 282 specific laws.88 Laws deal with marriage, family, property.3 Fundamental Principles:1. Principle of Retaliation to punish crimes. (Eye for an Eye)2. Principle of Punishment (Double Standards existed between social classes).3. Principle that the Government had a responsibility for what occurred in society.To cause justice to prevail in the land, to destroy the wicked &amp; evil, and to prevent the strong from oppressing the weakto enlighten the land and to further the welfare of the people.</p> <p>HammurabiPhoeniciansAround 1100 B.C. the Phoenicians were the most powerful traders around the Mediterranean Sea.300 Phoenician cities sprouted up around Africas Mediterranean SeaThe highly prized purple dye for which the Phoenicians were renowned was extracted from a gland of the murex snail. Each snail yielded only a drop of yellow liquid which darkened on exposure to light. Processing required slow simmering for about two weeks. Up to 60,000 snails were needed for each pound of dye.</p> <p>Ancient Egypt</p> <p>Geography &amp; TradeLocated in NE Africa along the Nile River and in the middle of the Sahara desertFertile soil b/c yearly floods irrigated the land &amp; deposited a rich layer of siltEgyptians built irrigation systems to store water for the dry seasonNile River=trade route Mediterranean=trade route with other cultures</p> <p>GovernmentHistory of ancient Egypt is divided into 3 time period: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, &amp; the New KingdomPower passed from one dynasty to another (ruling family)Egyptian Kings during the Old Kingdom were call pharaohs</p> <p>Government ContinuedPharaohs ran a strong organized central statePharaohs were both govt &amp; religious leadersPharaohs were believed to be Gods &amp; they held absolute power Pharaohs in the Old Kingdom preserved justice and order in societyPharaohs ran a bureaucracy (a system of government that includes different job functions and levels of authority)</p> <p>ReligionBeliefs about Gods, values, and the afterlife impacted the daily lives of Ancient EgyptiansEverything we know about Ancient Egypts religion we know from hieroglyphics inside the tombsEgyptians believed divine forces ruled their world and the afterlife</p> <p>Religion ContinuedChief God of Egypt was the Sun God (Re, pronounced Ray) get it sun raysOsiris= god of underworld, god of the Nile Isis=goddess of womanly virtue</p> <p>Egyptians believed each soul had to pass a test to win eternal lifeEgyptians believed the afterlife would be like life on earth so they buried the dead with everything they would need for eternity</p> <p>Social Classes in Ancient Egypt</p> <p>HieroglyphicsA form of Egyptian writing based on pictorial characters for words and sounds.</p> <p>Egyptian ContributionsDeveloped writing: hieroglyphicsHieroglyphics were written by scribes into stones Created a paper like writing material called papyrusDeveloped a calendar w/ 12 months &amp; 30 days a monthDeveloped geometryAdvancements in medicine diagnosing illnesses &amp; finding cures</p> <p>Indias Geographic Features</p> <p>The Indian subcontinent is a large, wedge-shaped peninsula that extends southward into the Indian Ocean.Subcontinent: A large region that is part of a continent, but is separated from the rest of the content in some way.</p> <p>Identification of Geographic Features in India</p> <p>Indus RiverGanges RiverPeninsula and/or Subcontinent</p> <p>Himalayan MountainsThis peninsula is surrounded on the north and northwest by huge mountains, the Himalayan Mountains. This has often limited India's contact with other cultures. This is known as cultural isolation.</p> <p>Trade with SumerMost of the people of the Indus valley were farmers. They were the first people to grow cotton and weave it into cloth. There is early evidence of trade with other civilizations including Sumer.</p> <p>Chinas Geographic Features</p> <p>Huang He or Yellow RiverYangzi RiverChinese civilization grew up in the river valley of the Huang He River (a.k.a.the Yellow River) and the Yangzi River.</p> <p>The mountains, deserts, jungles and other geographic features have isolated Chinese culture. Having little contact with others , the Chinese believed their culture was the center of the earth.</p> <p>Shang Dynasty</p> <p>About 1650 BC, the Shang gained control of northern China. Ruling families began to gain control, similar to small kingdoms. The Shang set up the first dynasty. Dynasty: A series of rulers from a family.</p> <p>Dynasty: A series of rulers from a family.</p> <p>The ancient civilization was much like others with nobility owning the land, merchants and craftspeople trading and living in the cities and a large population of peasants living in surrounding villages.Polytheistic PeoplesEarly Chinese people were polytheistic, and prayed to many Gods and nature spirits. They also looked to dead relatives to help them in daily life and to help them please the Gods.</p> <p>Ying and YangMany Chinese also believed that the universe held a delicate balance between opposing forces.The Ying and Yang must be in balance for prosperity and happiness to occur in ones life.</p> <p>Early Writing SystemThe Chinese civilizations made achievements in early writing systems that include both pictographs and ideographs and is now as one of the earliest writing systems.</p>