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Ancient Civilizations:. Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia. Geography & Environment. “the land between the rivers…”. The Geography. On which continent was Mesopotamia located? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kingdoms and Empires of Mesopotamia

Ancient Civilizations:

Ancient Civilizations:Mesopotamia

Geography & Environmentthe land between the riversOn which continent was Mesopotamia located?Asia; in what is modern day Iraq, Syria & Turkey

The GeographyOn which river did the ancient Mesopotamians settle?Between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers; in an area known as the Fertile Crescent

The Geography

Early Mesopotamian KingdomsMesopotamian CulturesMesopotamia did NOT represent a unified kingdom, instead it was made up of a series of kingdoms that occupied a specific geographical space

Sumer Akkad BabyloniaAssyriaNeo-BabyloniaPersia

Mesopotamian CulturesThe first civilizationSumer3500 2300 BCE

Geography:Located at the southern end of MesopotamiaNear the mouths of the Tigris & Euphrates

Sumerian Geography

Sumerian GeographyCity-state: A city + its surrounding landsIndependent political units that competed for trade & boundariesi.e. Uruk, Kish, Ur, Lagash

Characteristics:Shared cultureUnique government Outer wallsA central temple/ziggurat

Sumerian GeographySumerian Religion & GovernmentPolytheism:The worship of more than one godBelieved gods were immortal & all powerful; humans were to serve the gods

Ziggurat:Temples where sacrifices and offerings were made to the gods Animals, food, wine, etc.Sumerian Religion & GovernmentCity-states were ruled by priest- kings who were viewed as powerful agents of the gods

Sumerian Religion & GovernmentSumerian Culture & KnowledgeDespite their religious practices, Sumerians had little, if any, belief in an afterlifeBelieved that the souls of the dead went to the land of no returnSumerian Culture & KnowledgeDeveloped a form of writing language known as cuneiform

Sumerian Culture & KnowledgeInvention of the wheel (3000 BC)Economy based on farming & tradeCULTURAL DIFFUSION

Sumerian Culture & KnowledgeOther notable contributions:Invention of the sail & plowThe usage of bronzeDevelopment of a number system

Slaves: Foreigners & children sold into slavery22

BabyloniaThe first system of justice1790 1590 BCEThe Babylonian EmpireIn 1792 BC a new empire took control of Mesopotamia BabyloniaReached its height during the reign of Hammurabi

The Babylonian EmpireHammurabis Code:Written code of lawsStressed responsible behaviorCapital punishment

an eye for an eye, a tooth for a toothPunishments based on SOCIAL CLASSLaws focused on ALL aspects of society

The Babylonian Empire