TU 144 Survey

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<p>NASA/TM-2000-209850</p> <p>A Qualitative Piloted Evaluation of the Tupolev Tu-144 Supersonic TransportRobert A. Rivers and E. Bruce Jackson Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia C. Gordon Fullerton and Timothy H. Cox Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California Norman H. Princen Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Long Beach, California</p> <p>February 2000</p> <p>The NASA STI Program Office ... in ProfileSince its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program Office plays a key part in helping NASA maintain this important role. The NASA STI Program Office is operated by Langley Research Center, the lead center for NASAs scientific and technical information. The NASA STI Program Office provides access to the NASA STI Database, the largest collection of aeronautical and space science STI in the world. The Program Office is also NASAs institutional mechanism for disseminating the results of its research and development activities. These results are published by NASA in the NASA STI Report Series, which includes the following report types: TECHNICAL PUBLICATION. Reports of completed research or a major significant phase of research that present the results of NASA programs and include extensive data or theoretical analysis. Includes compilations of significant scientific and technical data and information deemed to be of continuing reference value. NASA counterpart of peer-reviewed formal professional papers, but having less stringent limitations on manuscript length and extent of graphic presentations. TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM. Scientific and technical findings that are preliminary or of specialized interest, e.g., quick release reports, working papers, and bibliographies that contain minimal annotation. Does not contain extensive analysis. CONTRACTOR REPORT. Scientific and technical findings by NASA-sponsored contractors and grantees.</p> <p>CONFERENCE PUBLICATION. Collected papers from scientific and technical conferences, symposia, seminars, or other meetings sponsored or co-sponsored by NASA. SPECIAL PUBLICATION. Scientific, technical, or historical information from NASA programs, projects, and missions, often concerned with subjects having substantial public interest. TECHNICAL TRANSLATION. Englishlanguage translations of foreign scientific and technical material pertinent to NASAs mission.</p> <p>Specialized services that complement the STI Program Offices diverse offerings include creating custom thesauri, building customized databases, organizing and publishing research results ... even providing videos. For more information about the NASA STI Program Office, see the following: Access the NASA STI Program Home Page at http://www.sti.nasa.gov E-mail your question via the Internet to help@sti.nasa.gov Fax your question to the NASA STI Help Desk at (301) 621-0134 Phone the NASA STI Help Desk at (301) 621-0390 Write to: NASA STI Help Desk NASA Center for AeroSpace Information 7121 Standard Drive Hanover, MD 21076-1320</p> <p>NASA/TM-2000-209850</p> <p>A Qualitative Piloted Evaluation of the Tupolev Tu-144 Supersonic TransportRobert A. Rivers and E. Bruce Jackson Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia C. Gordon Fullerton and Timothy H. Cox Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California Norman H. Princen Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Long Beach, California</p> <p>National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia 23681-2199</p> <p>February 2000</p> <p>AcknowledgmentsThe U.S. team would like to thank the entire Tupolev and IBP teams for helping us complete these flight tests both ahead of schedule and with a high degree of quality. We would like to extend a special thanks to the following Tupolev and IBP personnel for their exceptional contributions: Prof. Alexander Pukhov Edgar Krupyanski Vladimir Sysoev Sergei Borisov Victor Pedos Anatoli Kriulin Mikhail Melnitchenko Yuri Tsibulin</p> <p>Available from: NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) 7121 Standard Drive Hanover, MD 21076-1320 (301) 621-0390 National Technical Information Service (NTIS) 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161-2171 (703) 605-6000</p> <p>Table of ContentsNomenclature ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 2 Aircraft Description ............................................................................................................................................. 2 Aircraft Geometry ......................................................................................................................................... 2 Aerodynamic Surfaces .................................................................................................................................. 3 Propulsion System ........................................................................................................................................ 4 Fuel System ................................................................................................................................................... 5 Hydraulic System .......................................................................................................................................... 5 Electrical System .......................................................................................................................................... 6 Fire Detection and Extinguishing Systems ................................................................................................... 7 Air Conditioning and Pressurization Systems .............................................................................................. 7 Anti-Ice System ............................................................................................................................................ 8 Navigation and Communications .................................................................................................................. 8 Manual Flight Control System ...................................................................................................................... 9 Autopilot System ........................................................................................................................................ 14 Landing Gear .............................................................................................................................................. 14 Cockpit Layout ............................................................................................................................................ 15 Crew Arrangement ...................................................................................................................................... 15 Flight Equipment ........................................................................................................................................ 15 Flight Test Planning &amp; Preparation ................................................................................................................... 17 Method of Tests ........................................................................................................................................... 17 Planning Process ......................................................................................................................................... 17 Flight Readiness Review and Flight Task Examination ............................................................................. 18 Pilot Briefing ............................................................................................................................................... 18 Flight Monitoring and Control .................................................................................................................... 18 Flight Test Summaries ....................................................................................................................................... 20 Flight 21 - September 15, 1998 ................................................................................................................... 20 Flight 22 - September 18, 1998 ................................................................................................................... 21 Flight 23 - September 24, 1998 ................................................................................................................... 22 Observed Vehicle Characteristics ...................................................................................................................... 23 Ground Handling ........................................................................................................................................ 23 Thrust Management .................................................................................................................................... 23 Takeoff/Cleanup .......................................................................................................................................... 23 Handling Qualities ...................................................................................................................................... 24 Acceleration/Climb ..................................................................................................................................... 24 Supersonic Cruise ....................................................................................................................................... 25 Descent ........................................................................................................................................................ 25 Structural Characteristics ............................................................................................................................ 25 Low Speed Characteristics .......................................................................................................................... 26 Traffic Pattern ............................................................................................................................................. 26 Landing/Ground Roll .................................................................................................................................. 27 Conclusions ....................................................................................................................................................... 27 References ......................................................................................................................................................... 29 Appendix A: Description of Maneuvers ............................................................................................................ 30 Appendix B. Extended narratives for each U.S. piloted flight .......................................................................... 32</p> <p>i</p> <p>AbstractTwo U.S. research pilots evaluated the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic transport aircraft on three dedicated flights: one subsonic and two supersonic profiles. The flight profiles and maneuvers were developed jointly by Tupolev and U.S. engineers. The vehicle was found to have unique operational and flight characteristics that serve as lessons for designers of future supersonic transport aircraft. Vehicle subsystems and observed characteristics are described as are flight test planning and ground monitoring facilities. Maneuver descriptions and extended pilot narratives for each flight are included as appendices.</p> <p>Nomenclatureda de AC asymmetric elevon (aileron) deflection symmetric elevon (elevator) deflection alternating current MAC mean aerodynamic chord MCP N1 N3 PID PIO PLA s SPI RPM Mode Control Panel engine fan speed engine turbine speed parameter identification pilot-induced oscillation power lever angle (throttle setting) Laplace operator Sensitive Pitch Indicator revolutions per minute</p> <p>ACM air cycle machine ADI AGL AOA APU A/T CG DC DME EGT FE HSR ICS IDG ILS IMN INS ITB LG Attitude Director Indicator above ground level angle of attack Auxiliary Power Unit autothrottle center of gravity direct current Distance Measuring Equipment exhaust gas temperature flight engineer High Speed Research Interphone Communication System Integrated Drive Generator Instrument Landing System indicated Mach number Inertial Navigation System Integrated Test Block landing gear</p> <p>TACAN Tactical Air Navigation T.E. UHF V1 V2 VHF Vlof VOR Vr VRI trailing edge Ultra High Frequency decision speed safety speed Very High Frequency liftoff speed Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range rotation speed Vertical Regime Indicator</p> <p>1</p> <p>IntroductionUnder the auspices of the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) program, an out-of-service Tu-144 supersonic transport aircraft was re-engined, refurbished and proven as an experimental supersonic flying laboratory by Tupolev Aircraft Company (Tupolev ANTK). Nineteen flights of the modified aircraft (Tu-144LL) were flown by Tupolev research pilots in 1996-1997 and data for six flight experiments were acquired. A subsequent eight-flight program, flown in 1998, included three flights during which an evaluation of the handling qualities of the Tu-144LL was performed by NASA research pilots. This report describes the conduct and results of these three flights (known as flights 21, 22 and 23). Participants in the flight program included IBP Aircraft, Ltd. (as exclusive contractual representative of Tupolev), Tupolev ANTK, and the U.S. Piloted Evaluation Team: representatives from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and the Boeing Company. The flight experiments were performed jointly at Tupolevs flight research facility near Zhukovsky, Russia. The objectives of the follow-on eight flights were: 1. Provide the United States with first-hand piloting experience of the Tu-144LL Supersonic Flying Laboratory. The Tu-144LL was developed to support flight research beneficial to the development of a next generation supersonic transport aircraft. The Tu-144LL is one of only two supersonic transport aircraft types that are flying in the world today. To maximize the benefit of the Tu-144LL to U.S. aviation, members of the piloting community needed to understand the characteristics and capabilities of the research airplane. The pilots understanding of the airplane will greatly aid the planning of future aeronautical experiments using the Tu-144LL, and perhaps will lead to experiments relating to operational requirements for future high-speed civil transport aircraft. 2. Collect additional supersonic quantitative handling qualities data for the Tu-144...</p>