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Total Quality Management

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  • 1. Dr. Rabie Hussen. International Authorized Trainer.Expert in Business Administration.Expert in Human Development.

2. Total Quality ManagementDiploma. 3. References. 4. References. American Society for Quality, 2004. Jim Biolos, Six Sigma Meets theService Economy, Boston: HarvardBusiness School, 2002. David Garvin, and Artemis March. ANote on Quality: The Views ofDeming, Juran, and Crosby.Boston: Harvard Business SchoolPress, 1981. 5. References. Fredrick Reichheld, and W. EarlSasser Jr., Zero Deflections:Quality Comes to Services,Harvard Business Review(September October 1990). Otis Wolkins. Total Quality: AFramework for Leadership.Management Leadership Series.New York: Productivity Press, 1995. 6. References. Bruce E. Winston, Total QualityManagement, a heartfelt approachto doing things right, 1997 Edition,With revisions in 1999. John S. Oakland, PhD, CChem,Professor of Business Excellenceand Quality Management, LeedsUniversity Business School,Executive Chairman, OaklandConsulting . 7. Introduction. 8. Introduction. For more than two decades quality andquality management systems (QMS) havebeen leading buzzwords in the business world. Numerous consultants have built their careersaround these topics. Quality issues in business have beenresponsible for the development of neworganizations and even industries. For instance, the American Society for Quality(ASQ) and Six Sigma consulting (6-). 9. Introduction. The notion of quality in business focuses on thesavings and additional revenue thatorganizations can realize if they eliminate errorsthroughout their operations and produceproducts and services at the optimal level ofquality desired by their customers. Errors can take almost any form, for example,producing the wrong number of parts, sendingbank statements to customers who have alreadyclosed their accounts or sending an incorrectbill to a client. 10. In general, Quality is to reach (or exceed) the optimal leveldesired by the CUSTOMERS. 11. Introduction. All of these errors are very common, and thecosts incurred seem minimal. But over time when errors (mistakes) arerepeated the costs add up to a significantamount, so eliminating errors can result insignificant increases to the bottom line of abusiness. Errors (mistakes) increase costs, then decreaserevenue (profit). 12. Elimination of Errors (Mistakes)Comes First. 13. What is Quality ? 14. What is Quality ? According to the American Society for Quality,Quality can be defined in the following ways: Based on customers perceptions of a product /services design and how well the designmatches the original specifications. The ability of a product / service to satisfystated or implied Customers needs. Achieved by conforming to establishedrequirements within an organization. 15. Quality is the Ability of a product / service to satisfy (orexceeds) the Customers needs. 16. What is a Quality ManagementSystem ? 17. Quality Management System (QMS). A quality management system is amanagement technique used: To communicate to employees whatis required to produce the desiredquality of products / services. To influence employees actions tocomplete tasks according to thequality specifications. 18. (QMS) is a Management Technique used toCommunicate & Influenceactions. 19. What Are The Purposes Quality Management System ?What Purpose Does a QualityManagement System Serve? 20. Purposes of Quality Management System. Establishes a Vision & a Mission forthe Organization. Establishes a Vision & a Mission forthe employees. Sets standards for employees. Sets goals for employees. 21. Purposes of Quality Management System. Helps Eliminating Errors. Builds motivation within thecompany. Helps fight the resistance to changewithin organizations. Helps direct the corporate culture. 22. Vision, Mission, Standards, Goals, Errors, Motivation, Resistance, Culture & Organization (Corporate). 23. Why is Quality Important ? 24. Why is Quality Important ? Any Business success may simply be the extentto which your organization can produce ahigher-quality product / service than yourcompetitors are able to do at a competitiveprice. This means that, Quality is the main competitiveedge, even versus low prices. 25. Why is Quality Important ? When quality is the key to a companys success,quality management systems (QMS) allowsorganizations to: Keep the organization up with and meet thecurrent quality levels (Standards). Meet the Customers (Consumers) requirementfor quality (Satisfy Needs). Keep employees up with the latest technology(Updating). Retain employees through competitivecompensation programs & Attract others. 26. QUALITY is the main Competitive Edge. 27. History of The Quality Movement. 28. History of The Quality Movement. As early as the 1950s, Japanese companiesbegan to see the benefits of emphasizing qualitythroughout their organizations and enlisted thehelp of an American. Dr. W. Edwards Deming, who is credited withgiving Japanese companies a massive headstart in the quality movement. His methods include Statistical Process Control(SPC) and Problem-Solving Techniques (PST). 29. Dr. W. Edward Deming. 30. History of The QualityMovement. (SPC) & (PST) were very effective ingaining the necessary momentum tochange the mentality of organizationsneeding to produce high quality productsand services. Deming developed his (14 points) tocommunicate to managers how toincrease quality within an organization. 31. History of The QualityMovement. Deming believed that (85 percent) of all qualityproblems were the fault of management. In order to improve, management had to takethe lead and put in place the necessaryresources and systems. For example, consistent quality in incomingmaterials could not be expected whenpurchasers (buyers) were not given thenecessary tools to understand qualityrequirements of those products and services. 32. History of The Quality Movement. Purchasers (buyers) needed to fully understandhow to assess the quality of all incomingproducts and services, understand the qualityrequirements, as well as be able tocommunicate these requirements to vendors. In a well managed quality system, purchasers(buyers) should also be allowed to work closelywith vendors and help them meet or exceed therequired quality requirements. 33. History of The Quality Movement. According to Deming, there were twodifferent concepts of improvementprocess that quality systems needed toaddress: 1- Common (systematic) causes of errors. 2- Special (individual) causes of errors. 34. History of The Quality Movement.1- Systematic causes are shared bynumerous personnel, machines, orproducts. Systematic causes of error include:- Poor product / service design- Materials are not suited for their use.- Improper bills of lading.- Poor physical conditions. 35. History of The QualityMovement.2- Special causes are associated withan individual employees orequipment. Special causes of error include:- lack of skills- Lack of training.- Poor lot of incoming materials.- An equipment out of order. 36. - Edwards Deming.- Common Causes of Errors.- Special Causes of Errors. 37. History of The Quality Movement. Anotherinfluential individual in thedevelopment of quality control wasJoseph M. Juran, who, like Deming, wasworking in Japanese organizationsfocusing on improving quality. Juran also established the Juran Institutein 1979; its goals and objectives werecentered on helping organizationsimprove the quality of their products andservices. 38. Dr. Joseph M. Juran. 39. History of The Quality Movement. Juran defined quality as fitness for usemeaning that the users of products orservices should be able to rely on thatproduct or service with (100 percent) allthe time without any worry of defects. If this was true, the product could beclassified as fit for use (Qualified). 40. History of The Quality Movement. Qualityof design could be described aswhat distinguishes a Yugo from aMercedes-Benz and involves the designconcept and specifications. The quality of a product or service is onlyas good as its design and specifications(intention). 41. History of The Quality Movement. Thus, it is important to include qualityissues in the design process, as well as tohave in mind during the design phase The difficulties one might have inreplicating the product or service with theintended quality level. 42. History of The Quality Movement. Qualityof conformance is reflected in theability to replicate each aspect of aproduct or service with the same qualitylevel as that intended in the design. This responsibility is held by individualsto develop the processes for replication,the workforce and their training,supervision, and adherence to testprograms. 43. History of The Quality Movement. Availabilityrefers to freedom fromdisruptive problems throughout theprocess and is measured by the frequencyor probability of defects. For example, if a process does not have asteady flow of electricity and this causesdefective parts, or when an employeemust complete two jobs at once and istherefore forced to make concessions onthe quality of both products or services. 44. History of The Quality Movement. Safety is described by Juran ascalculating the risk of injury due toproduct hazards. For example, even if the product orservice meets or exceeds all qualitystandards and expectations, but there is apossibility that if it is not used properly itcould injure someone, the product will notbe considered high-quality. For example auto switched-off heater. 45. History of The QualityMovement. Field Service use refers to the abilityof the product to reach the end user(consumer) with the desired level ofquality. This involves packaging,transportation, storage and fieldservice competence, andpromptness. 46. History of The QualityMovement. Juranalso developed acomprehensive approach to qualitythat spanned a product or servicesentire life cycle. From design to customer relationsand all the steps in