the rocky mountains

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f , , LLtN LtkkEN DF DSLDIDkkDLLLOLN NA11KL L1OL5BIRDS WEEDS FLOWERS INSECTS PONDLIFE CACTI INSECTPESTS TREES SPIDERS REPTILESANDAMPHIBIANS STARS MAMMALS SEASHORES CATS FISHES FOSSILS TROPICALFISH GAMEBIRDS ORCHIDS ZOOANIMALS SEASHELLSOFTHEWORLD ROCKSANDMINERALS EXOTICPLANTS BUTTERFLIESANDMOTHS NON-FLOWERINGPLANTS LLLOLN 5LLNLL L11OL5FLYING LANDFORMS GEOLOGY ZOOLOGY BOTANY HEART FAMILIESOFBIRDS LIGHTANDCOLOR WEATHER ECOLOGY OCEANOGRAPHY EVOLUTION INDIANARTS LLLOLN ILLO L1OL5BIRDSOFNORTHAMERICA SEASHELLSOFNORTHAMERICA TREESOFNORTHAMERICA MINERALSOFTHEWORLD NATIONALPARKSOFTHEWORLD LLLOLN kLL1LNAL L1OLTHEROCKYMOUNTAINS LLLOLN HANO8LLX5HENRYGASSER'SGUIDETOPAINTING THESKYOBSERVER'SGUIDE CAMPING SCUBADIVING ANTIQUES KITES CASINOGAMES PHOTOGRAPHY LLLOLN LL51KL L8KAKYWINES SAILING GUNS HORSES BICYCLING FISHING Golden,AGoldenGuide,andGoldenPress aretrademarksofWesternPublishingCompany,Inc. %RocKY MouNTAINS by MLKbLK1 b. N, |..,bc..n consutoton wth theUMIYLKITY LI LLLLKAOL NULUN TAIIBou|der, Co|orodo|llUSTRAT|CNS 8YSU ZA! NCGUCH| SWAINGCLDEN PREGG NEWXCRKVes!ern |ubshng Lompany, |nc.Kacne, VsconsinThisGoldenGuideattemptstointroduceandexplorea widelyknownregion-big,varied,andopenenoughto temptamultitudeofvisitors,manyofwhomstayto swellthefast-growingpopulation.Thehigh,coolmountainshavealongandinvolvedgeologichistoryanda wealthofrocks,ores,andminerals. Theclimatethey help createbeliesthesummerheatandproducesarichness and avarietyofplant andanimallifewhich all may en| oy. WithouttheexpertknowledgeofHugoRodeckandhis stafftheselectionandcheckingofdatawouldhavebeen difficultifnotimpossible.RichardBeidlemanofColorado Collegealsomadehiswidefieldexperienceavailable. MayIthankGordonAlexander,WilliamC.Bradley,John B.Chronic,DonEff,GladysR.Gary,RussellM.Honea, EdnaJohnson,AlbertKnorr,UrlessN.Lanham,T.Paul Maslin,ClarenceJ.McCoy,JohnRohner,OrerStewart, LowellE.Swenson,WilliamA.WeberandJoeBenWheat oftheUniversityofColoradoMuseum;alsoRobert|.Allen,H.RaymondGregg,Arnold. Grobman,Donald|.Hoffmeister,andAlexanderSpruntIV.Thanksgo,also,to theartist,SuZanNoguchiSwain,toSoniaBleekerZimfor herworkontheIndiantribes,andtoallthosewhoprovided photographs. H.S.Z Copyright1964byWesternPublishingCompany,Inc.Allrightsreserved includingrightsofreproductionanduseinanyformorbyanymeans,in eludingthemakingofcopiesbyanyphotoprocess,orbyanyelectronicor mechanicaldevice,printedorwrittenororal,orrecordingforsoundorvisual reproductionorforuseinanyknowledgeretrievalsystemordevice,unlesspermissioninwritingisobtainedfromthecopyrightproprietor.Produced intheU.S.A.byWesternPublishingCompany,Inc.PublishedbyGolden Press,NewYork,N.Y.libraryof CongressCatalogCardNumber:64-11054. HEREARETHEROCKI ES .... . ...... .Ani ntroducti ontothegreatmountai nsystem thatformsthebackboneofNorthAmeri ca.Cl i mate; morei nformati on.5 ROCKYMOUNTAI NSTODAY ............... :...15 The ol dandnewci ti es, t hei rattract i ons. Tours andtouri ng; cal endar ofevents.THEGOODOLDDAYS......................23 I ndi antri besofthemountai nsandadj acent pl ai ns;theSpani sh expl orers and theFrench trap pers. Lewi sandCl ar k andtheopeni ng of t he re gi on; mi ni ng, settl ementandrai l roads.THEGEOLOGI CSTORY.. .....................43 The anci entl ands thatwereupl i ftedandal tered tobui l dtheRocki es; thedeposi tsofrocks and mi neral s and theunusualfossi l s.ROCKYMOUNTAI NPLANTS...................61 Theri chvari etyofpl ants fromthepl ai ns to the mountai ntops.Fl owers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trees ANI MALLIFEOFTHEROCKI ES 62 73 Ther i chanddi versi fi edani mal lifewithspeci es nowbecomi ngrare.Mammal s . Bi rds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fi shes . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Amphi bi ans,Repti l es I nsects . WHATTOSEEANDDO................. . 87 97 1 08 1 1 0 1 1 3 N . ati onal Parks, MonumentsandForests;state parks, museums, campi ng ,sportsandother outdooracti vi ti es. I NDEX ........... . ......... . ........... . ... . 87 116 157 thisbook isan arbitraryarea of some 400, 000squaremiles,encompassing the core oftheRockies.Its2, 200-mile length includespartsof5 states TheRockyMountai ns forma5,000- mi l e j aggedbackbone forNorthAmeri cafromMexi cotoAl aska.More t hanah u ndrednorth - southra ngesma keu p thi s mounta i ncompl exwhi chreachesi tsgreatestwi dth (300mi l es)i nCol oradoandUta h . Col oradoal one boastsof54peaks over1 4,000 fthi gh. Mt. El berti n .Col oradoreachesu pto1 4,4 1 9 feetbut/ t hi s fal l s far shortofAl aska'sMt. McKi nl ey,_/ / 20,32 ft `

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5`TheRocki esarenotal l mountai nous . Betweenand ar ou ndt hesnow- cappedr angesa ndconi fer- covered sl opesar enat ur al par kl a nds,extensi vepl atea us,brushcoveredf l atsandsemi - ari ddeserts. Hugera nchesand fa r ml ands hug t he mountai ns wherel and has been cl eared and watermade avai l abl e.Atf i rstagri mbar r i er toconti nent al conquest,the Rocki esgradual l ybegantoattractsettl ersbeca useof f u rs,mi ner al s,forestsandagri cul t ur al l a ndfound there.Later,peopl ecamebeca useofthesti mu l at i ngcl i mate ands u per bscenery. TheRockyMounta i n regi on,sti l lfront i ercou ntryat the t u rnoft he centu ry,i snow boom i ngi npopul ati on,i ndust ri al devel opmentandcu l t uralgrowt h.Vacati onersandnewresi dents j oi nt he ol d- ti mers i nenj oyi ng thef reedomandexh i l arati on"outwherethe Westbegi ns. " Upturnededgeso f sandstonel ayershaveerodedintounusual shapes;near Col oradoSpri ngs,Colorado Si mpki ns-NationalAudubonSociety BobandlroSpring HerefordcattlepastureatthefootoftheSawto.othMountai nsnearStanl ey, I daho ThegreatRockyMounta i n systemi softendi vi dedi nto anor t her na ndasout her npart,whi char esepa ratedby brokenpl atea us extendi ng f romthe Wyomi ng Basi ntothe Sna keRi verPl ai n.TheNort hernRocki esbegi nnorthand westofYel l owstoneNat i ona l Pa r kandextendonnorthwestwa rdi ntoCanadaandAl aska . TheSouther nRocki esaremai nl y l ong,upl i ftedri dges wh i ch, i nri si ng,haveupt ur nedl ayersofsedi mentson ei thersi de. I n thenorththeRocki esaremoremassi ve anddonotf or mr i dgeswi t hu pt u r nedfooth i l l s . I nboth areas t heRocki es formtheConti nentalDi vi de,wherethe sl opesturnrai n andmel ti ngsnowi ntoei thert he Atl anti c orthe Paci fi c dr ai nage.The Di vi de andmost Rocky ranges arecrossedbymountai npasses(the l owestusabl e paths 7across t he mountai ns),th roughwhi chroads andrai l roads f u n nel atel evati onsbetween7, 500a n d1 2, 000ft. The d i scoveryofSouthPassi n1 8 1 2 andot hersafterward hastenedt heopeni ngoft heWest. Col or adohas1 36 namedpasses,a ndthe totalnu mber for theRocki esmay approach500.I ngeneral , mounta i nsoi li spoorandrockybuti nthe natur al basi ns orparksareri chgrassl ands. Onthe f l anks oft heRocki es-especi al l y tot he eastandi n ri ver val l eys -the soi l i s goodand, wi thi rri gati on,produces f i necrops.I r r i gat i onmeans t hatcorn,al f a l fa,mel ons,sugar beets andt r uckcropscanbera i sed .Wi thouti r ri gati on,dry fa r mi ngmayprod ucesorgh u m,wheat,cor norenough grassforpast ure. Whatusedtobeopenrangei snow fencedandi mprovedforcatt l e. Sheepma ke t hemostof th i n nermountai npast ures.The water of mountai nstrea msandl a kesi s carri ed by i ngeni ous t unnel s anddi tches tosu ppl ypowerandi rri gati onneeds. Other natural resourcesoftheRocki esi ncl ude great forestsofpi ne,spruceand _f i rwi thsomehardwoods atl owerl evel s. Thegeol ogi cacti vi tythat fol l owedtheupl i ftoft hemountai ns honeycombedt he countryrockwi th vei nsri chi nl ead,zi nc,si l ver,gol dandcopper. Petroleum hasbeendi scoveredi ntheWyomi ngbasi rsandel sewhere. Coal i smi nedi ntheRockyMou nta i n foothi l l s. Theexpl oi tat i onofthesenat ur al resou rcesa ndthe regi on'scl i mateandgeographi cposi ti onhavecreatedi nd u st r i eswhi chbol sterthemounta i n economy. Ra pi d tra nsportati onbyrai l andai r,pl usthesecur i tyof thei nl andarea ,maketheregi onattracti vetonew atomi c and el ectroni c i ndustri esaswel l as toheavyandl i ghtmanufact ur i ng. Theregi oni sfar l essdependent u poneastern manufact ur i ng t hani t was agenerati onago. 8The tou ri stand vi si torareattractedbywhat mi ghtbe consi deredl esser natu ral resou rces. Butthe combi nati on ofc l i mate,sceneryandar i ch nessofnat i vepl a ntsand ani mal s expresses theuni quephysi cal andbi ol ogi c factors t hat u ni tetomaket hi sregi onsooutsta ndi ng. Besi des, t heRocki esa remorecentra l l yl ocatedt hanonemi ght bel i eve.Denver,thegatewaytotheRocki es,i s830ai rmi l es fro mLos Angel es, 9 1 0f r omChi cago,1 , 460from Washi ngton,1 , 200from 'Atl a nta ,1 , 020 fromSeattl e,and 1 , 080 fromNew Orl ea ns.Ri chfarmsfl l theri verval l eysnearMi ssoula,Montana Bob andIraSpring ROCKYMOUNTAI NCLI MATEi saffectedbyal ti tude,l ati t udeandgeography. Temperaturefa l l s a bout 31h0F. wi t heveryt housand feetofel imb andd ropsa bout 1 V2 asonemovesnorthonedegreeofl at i t ude(about66 mi l es) .Dayti mes u mmertemperatu resmaybewar m or hot,butni ghtsarecool .I nmountai n va l l eys,wi nter temper at u resmaydropto-60F.but t hel owh u mi di ty hel psmodi fythe effectofbothheatandcol d. Snowmay be heavy t hrough spr i ng andmay persi sti n t he mountai ns a l l s u mmer . Westernsl opes gett hemostmoi st u re. The ea ster n" ra i n shadow"maygetasl i ttl easteni nchesa yea r . Ski es arecl oudl essornea rl yso,wi thsomesummer t hu nderstorms. I nwi nter theunusual chi nook wi nds bl ow downt heea stsl opes,rai si ng t he t emperatu remar kedl y i nj ustafewhours.CLI MATI CDATAFORSOMEROCKYMOUNTAI NCI TI ES Al ti - lati - Sl opeAvg.Jan.Avg.Jul y AnnualCi tyt udet udeE. orW.temp. temp.preci p.Banff, Al berta4, 53Bft. 5l'N East1 3"F57"F21i n.Calgary.Al berta3. 439ft. 5l'N EastIB' F75"f1 7 i n.Mi ssoul a , Mont. 3, 223 ft. 47'N West22'F6B'F14 i n.Hel ena. Mont. 4.047ft. 47'N East20'F66'F13 i n.Butte, Mont. 5.7 1 6 ft. 46'N Westz3'F65'F14 i n.W.Yel l owstone, Mont.6.667ft. 4

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