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  • The Plant Kingdom

  • Key Characteristics of PlantsMulticellularCell specializationPhotosynthetic autotrophsSessileAlternation of GenerationsSporophytegametophyte

  • Green algae gave rise to plantsBoth use the same type of chlorophyll and assessory pigmentsDNA analysis shows commonalityBoth store food as starch and have cell walls made of cellulose.

  • Evolutionary Relationship Between Plants and Green Algae

  • Adaptation to Land

    Lost supportive buoyancy of waterNo longer surrounded by water and nutrients.Variation in climateRoots or rootlike structuresCuticleStomataEventually..Vascular tissuelignin

  • Requirements for Plants to Survive on Land

  • Without water, strategies for dipersal of sex cells needed to be developed

    Sex cells and zygote needed a means of dispersal that was independent of water.Protective structures were required to protect the developing embryos.The above were achieved with the origin of the seed plants.

  • CharacteristicsNonvascularLack true roots, leaves and stemsRootlike structure s are called rhizoidsRely on diffusion and poorly developed conducting tissues to distribute water and nutrients.Enclosed reproductive structuresArchegoniaAntheridia

  • Characteristics of Nonvascular Plants

  • Reproductive cycle for Bryophytes

  • Types of Nonvascular Plants


  • Hepatophytaliverwort

  • AnthocerophytaHornworts

  • Vascular Plants(tracheophytes)Conducting vessels also provide support.XylemPhloem

  • Seedless Vascular Plants(reproduce via spores)

  • Types of Seedless Vascular Plants

  • PSILOPHTAwhisk fernsEpiphytesRootless and leafless

  • LYCOPHYTAclub mossesProduces a sporangia bearing strobilus.

  • SPHENOPHYTAHorsetailsGenus: EquisetumLarge deposits of silica in their leaves.Jointed stems with whorled leaf arrangement.

  • SPHENOPHYTAHorsetails

  • PTEROPHYTATrue fernsBroad leaves called frondsLeaflets called pinnaeSporangium (sorus pl sori) are formed on the underside of the fronds.Unfolding fronds are called fiddleheads.Spores are dispersed by the wind.

  • PTEROPHYTATrue ferns

  • Fern reproductive life cycle

  • Seed producing plantsMajor adaptationsPollen (male gametophyte)Seeds (embryonic plant)(male and female gametophyte are greatly reduced in size)Two typesGymnosperms (lack flowers)Angiosperms (flowering plants)

  • Characteristics of Vascular Plants With Seeds

  • Characteristics of Gymnosperms

  • CYCADOPHYTACycadsLarge fernlike leavesPlants are either male or female and produce gametes in large strobilus


  • GinkophytaOnly one species in present day. Ginkgo bilobaAre resistant to air pollutionBear male and female cones on separate plants. Male produces pollen in strobilus-like cones. Female bears seed which develop a fleshy outer covering and resemble orange-yellow cherries. (Stinks!)

  • GINKGOPHYTAGinkgo biloba

  • CONIFEROPHYTACone-bearing treesMost diverse of the gymnosperms: produce seeds in woody cones. Include pine, fir, spruce, juniper, cedar, redwood, yew, and larch. Form large forests and have adapted to cold and dry habitat (taiga). Protected against water loss by leaves covered with a thick cuticle (cutin) and by covering its trunk and branches with bark.Conifers are evergreensThey do loose their leaves if aged or damaged.Keeping leaves allows photosynthesis to begin at the earliest moment in spring.Found where nutrients are scarce as they eliminate need to grow a whole new set of leaves (Deciduous trees lose their leaves).

  • Needles and Cones

  • Types of Gymnosperms


    Cone-bearing trees

  • Life Cycle of a pine


    Can be found in the deserts or mountains of Asia, Africa and central or South America. 3 genera1. Gnetum : A tropical climbing plant2. Ephedra (Shrub-like plants and found in U. S.)i. Mormon tea Scrubby cone-bearing plant with scale-like leaves.a. Source of ephedrine: used to treat asthma, emphysema, and hayfever. 3. Welwitschia (Desert dweller with large tuberous root)i. Has only 2 leaves and may live 100 yr.

  • Ephedra


  • Life Cycle of Conifers

  • ANTHOPHYTAFlowering plants

  • Characteristics of Angiosperms

  • Types of Angiosperms

  • Floral Structure

  • Ovule Formation in an Angiosperm

  • Female reproduction

  • Parts of a Pollen Grain

  • Pollen Grain Formation

  • Male reproduction

  • Double fertilization

  • Seed Structure


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