reproduction of seed plants. alternation of generation all plants life cycle alternates diploid...

Download Reproduction of Seed Plants. Alternation of Generation All plants life cycle alternates Diploid Sporophyte  Haploid Gametophyte Sporophyte = Entire

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  • Reproduction of Seed Plants

  • Alternation of GenerationAll plants life cycle alternatesDiploid Sporophyte Haploid GametophyteSporophyte = Entire PlantGametophyte = hidden in plantGymnosperm gametophyte = inside conesAngiosperm gametophyte = inside flower

  • Gymnosperm vs AngiospermProduce Cones where reproduction occursPollen Cones (males)Seed Cones (females)Ovules = meiosis makes haploid female gametophytes

    Produce Flowers where reproduction occurSepals = protect flower while developingPetals = colored; attract insectsStamenFilament & Anther (male)CarpelOvary, Style, Stigma (female)

  • Male StructureFemale Structure

  • Life Cycle of GymnospermTakes 2 years to completeWind carries pollen (male)Lands on seed cones & pollinatesPollen Tube forms & allows pollen to reach female gametophyteNew Sporophyte Plant Formed!

  • Life Cycle of AngiospermAnther = produces male gametophytesOvary = produces female gametophytesStigma = sticky portion; pollen attaches to itSeeds develop inside protective structuresPollinated by wind or animalAnimal pollination WORKS BEST!!!!Animals transfer pollen from one flower to another

  • Double FertilizationTwo fertilizations occur between male & female gametophytes:One forms into EMBRYOSecond forms into ENDOSPERMEndosperm nourishes the seedling as it grows

  • Fruit DevelopmentAngiosperm seeds matureOvary walls thicken to form a fruit that hold seedsFruit = any seed surrounded by embryo wallIncludes: Apples, Grapes, StrawberriedIncludes Vegetables: peas, corn, beans, rice

  • Seed DispersalAnimals: eat fruits and poop out seedsWind: light-weight seeds can be carriedWater: seeds can float allowing water transport

  • Dormancy & GerminationDormancy = embryo is alive, but doesnt growCaused by environment not being good enoughTemperature and moisture needs to be idealGermination = early growth of plant embryoMonocots = single cotyledon beneath groundDicots = two cotyledons grow above ground

  • Plant ResponsesPlants respond to different factors:Phototropism = response to lightPlants grow toward lightGravitropism = response to gravityPlants grow against gravityThigmotropism = response to touchPlants react to touchVines

  • HormonesTo respond to stimuli, plants use hormonesAUXINSMost importantMakes shaded area of plant grow moreMakes area affected by gravity grow moreCytokininsStimulate cell division & dormancy of seedsGibberellinsIncreases size of stems & fruits

  • Evolve to EnvironmentWater plants can hold more gasesDesert plants can hold more waterMarine plants can tolerate saltCarnivorous Plants:Some can digest organismsSome are parasitic on other plants

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