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<ul><li><p>THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 345</p><p>TABLE 38. WINE EXPORTS AS SHOWN BY THE REPORTS OF THE BUREAU OFFOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE, FISCAL YEARS 1901 TO 1925, INCLUSIVE</p></li><li><p>346 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY</p><p>TABLE 39, WINE IMPORTS AS SHOWN BY THE REPORTS OF THE BUREAU OF FOREIGNAND DOMESTIC COMMERCE, FISCAL YEARS 1901 TO 1931, INCLUSIVE</p></li><li><p>THE LIQUOR INDUSTRY 347</p><p>TABLE 40. APPARENT CONSUMPTION OF WINE IN THE UNITED STATES, FISCAL YEARS</p><p>1912 TO 1932, INCLUSIVE</p><p>TABLE 41. INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN WINES 1930</p><p>(In thousands of gallons)</p><p>* Estimated.</p><p>f Less than 1,000 gallons.Source: International Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics.</p></li><li><p>SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES *</p><p>YEASTS AND FERMENTATION</p><p>AHRENS. Das Gahrungs-Problem. In Sammlung Chemischer &amp;Technischer Vortraege. Vol. II. Stuttgart, 1902.</p><p>ALLEN, PAUL W. Industrial Fermentation. New York, 1926.BITTING, K. G. Yeasts and Their Properties. (Purdue Uni-</p><p>versity Monograph Series, No. 5.)BUCHNER, E. H., and M. HAHN. Die Zymase Gahrung.</p><p>Miinchen, 1903.EFFRONT. Biochemical Catalysts. New York, 1917.GREEN-WINDISCH. Die Enzyme. Berlin, 1901.GUILLIERMOND, A. The Yeasts. New York, 1920.HANSEN, E. CHR. Practical Studies in Fermentation. London,</p><p>1896.</p><p>HARDEN, ARTHUR. Alcoholic Fermentation. London, 1923.HENRICI, A. T. Molds, Yeasts, and Actinomycetes. New</p><p>York, 1930.</p><p>JORGENSEN. Micro-Organisms of Fermentation. London, 1900.KLOECHER. Fermentation Organisms. London, New York,</p><p>1903.LAFAR. Technical Mycology. London, 1910.MAERCKER. Handbuch der Spiritusfabrikation. Berlin, 1908.MATTHEWS, CHAS. G. Manual of Alcoholic Fermentation.</p><p>London, 1901.OPPENHEIMER. Dis Fermente. Leipzig, 1913-29.RIDEAL, SAMUEL. The Carbohydrates and Alcohol. London,</p><p>1920.</p><p>*The student will find directions to further bibliographies on all of the topicsincluded here, except whiskey, in: West and Berolzheimer. Bibliography of Bibli-ographies on Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Washington, 1925, 1929, 1932.</p><p>348</p></li><li><p>SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES 349</p><p>DISTILLATION. PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL</p><p>ELLIOT, C. Distillation in Practice. London, 1925.</p><p>ELLIOT, C. Distillation Principles. London, 1925.</p><p>HAUSBRAND, E. Principles and Practice of Industrial Distilla-tion. Trans, from the 4th German ed. by E. H. Tripp.London, 1925.</p><p>ROBINSON, C. S. The Elements of Fractional Distillation. NewYork, 1930.</p><p>YOUNG, SYDNEY. Distillation Principles and Processes. Lon-</p><p>don, 1922.ALCOHOL</p><p>FARMER, R. C. Industrial and Power Alcohol. London, 1921.</p><p>FOTH, GEORGE. Handbuch der Spiritus Fabrikation. Berlin,</p><p>1929.</p><p>FRITSCH, J., and VASSEUX, A. Traite Theoretique et Practiquede la fabrication de L'alcool et de Produits Accessoires.</p><p>Paris, 1927.</p><p>MclNTOSH, JoHN^G. Industrial Alcohol. London, 1922.SIMMONDS, CHAS. Alcohol: Its Production, Properties, Chem-</p><p>istry and Industrial Applications. London, 1919.DE VOL, EVERETT T. A Farmers' Practical Treatise on Fer-</p><p>mentation, Distillation and General Manufacture of Alcohol</p><p>from Farm Products with Subsequent Denaturing. Omaha,1921.</p><p>WRIGHT, FREDERICK B. Alcohol from Farm Products. NewYork, 1933.</p><p>DISTILLED LIQUORS</p><p>DE BREVANS, J. La Fabrication des Liqueurs. Paris, 1897.FOTH, GEORGE. Handbuch der Spiritus Fabrikation. Berlin, 1929.KULLMANN, OTTO. Die Spirituosen Industrie. Leipzig, 1912.MACDONALD, AENEAS. Whiskey. Porpoise Press, Edinburgh,</p><p>1930.</p><p>PIAZ, A. DAL. Die Cognac und Wein Spirit Fabrikation so wiedie Trester und Hefebranntweinbrennerei. Wien, 1891.</p><p>ROCQUES, X. Les Eaux-de-vie et Liqueurs. Paris, 1898.</p></li><li><p>350 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES</p><p>ROGERS^ ALLEN. Industrial Chemistry. New York, 1926.SCHEDEL, C. F. B. Der Distillateur. Leipzig, 1921.</p><p>WINES</p><p>ALWOOD, WILLIAM B. Experiments in cider making applicableto farm conditions and notes on the use of pure yeast in</p><p>wine making. Bull. 129, U. S. Bur. of Chem., 1909.</p><p>BABO, A. VON, and MACH. Handbuch des Weinbaues and der</p><p>Kellerwirtschaft, 4. Auflage. Berlin, 1910.</p><p>EARTH, MAX. Kellerbehandlung der Traubenweine, 2. Auflage.Stuttgart, 1903,.</p><p>BENEVEGNIN, LUCIEN, and others. Manuel de Vinification.</p><p>Payot et cie., Lausanne, 1930.</p><p>BIOLETTI, FREDERICK T. Defecation of Must for White Wine.California Agricultural Experiment Station, Circular 22.</p><p>Berkeley, 1906.</p><p>BIOLETTI, FREDERICK T. Manufacture of Dry Wines in HotCountries. California Agricultural Experiment Station,Bulletin 167. 1905.</p><p>BIOLETTI, F. T., and CRUESS, W. V. The Practical Applicationof Improved Methods of Fermentation in California Wines</p><p>during 1913 and 1914. California Agricultural Experi-ment Station, Circular 140. 1915.</p><p>BIOLETTI, F. T. The principles of wine making. California</p><p>Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 213. 1911.</p><p>BIOLETTI, F. T. The Best Wine Grapes for California. Cali-fornia Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 193. 1907.</p><p>BIOLETTI, FREDERICK T. Winery Directions. California Agri-cultural Experiment Station, Circ. 119. 1914.</p><p>BIOLETTI, FREDERICK T. The practical application of improvedmethods of fermentation in California wineries during 1913and 1914. California Agricultural Experiment Station,Circ. 140. 1915.</p><p>BOULLANGER, EUGENE. Distillerie Agricole et IndustrielleEaux-de-vie de Fruits. Paris, 1924.</p><p>DE BREVANS, J. La Fabrication des Liqueurs. Paris, 1897.</p></li><li><p>SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES 351</p><p>COSTE-FLORET, P. Precedes Modernes de Vinification.</p><p>1. Vin Rouges. Paris, 1899.2. Vin Blanc. Paris, 1903.</p><p>3. Les Residus de la Vendage. Paris, 1901.</p><p>CUNIASSE, L. Memorial du Distillateur Liquoriste. Paris,</p><p>1925-</p><p>DUBOR, GEORGES DE. Viticulture et Vinification Moderne.</p><p>Paris, 1894.</p><p>EMERSON, E. R. The Story of the Vine. New York and Lon-don, 1902.</p><p>FRITSCH, J. Nouveau Traite de la Fabrication des Liqueurs.Paris, 1926.</p><p>GRAZZI-SONCINI, G. Wine. Classification, Wine Tasting, Qual-ities and Defects. Translated by F. T. Bioletti. Sacra-</p><p>mento, 1892.GUNTHER. Die Gesetzgebung des Auslandes fiber den Verkehr</p><p>mit Wein. Berlin, 1910.</p><p>HAYNE, ARTHUR PERONNEAU. Bull. 117, Agricultural Experi-ment Station. University of California, 1897.</p><p>HUSMANN, GEORGE, and others. American Grape Growing andWine Making. New York, 1919.</p><p>KULISCH, P. Sachgemasse Weinverbesserung. Berlin, 1903.</p><p>LARRONDE, EUGENE. Vins et Boissons. Paris, 1894.MEISSNER, RICHARD. Untersuchung der Weinplize. Stuttgart,</p><p>1901.MENOTTI DAL PIAZ, A. Handbuch des Praktischen. Wein-</p><p>baues, 1908.</p><p>NESSLER-WINDISCH. Die Bereitung, Pflege, und Untersuchungdes Weines, 8. Auflage. Stuttgart, 1907.</p><p>PIQUE, RENE. Vinification et Alcoolisation des Fruits Tropicauset Produits Coloniaux. Paris, 1908.</p><p>RHEINBERG, H. Herstellung von Schaumwein unter ObstSchaumwein. Leipzig, 1913.</p><p>ROGERS, ALLEN. Industrial Chemistry. New York, 1926.SCHMITTHENNER, F. Weinbau und Weinbereitung. Leipzig,</p><p>1911.</p><p>SEMICHON, L. Traite des Maladies des Vins. Paris, 1905.</p></li><li><p>352 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES</p><p>SHEEN, JAMES R. Wines and other Fermented Liquors. Lon-</p><p>don, 1864.</p><p>SIMON, ANDRE L. Wines and the Wine Trade. London, 1921.SIMON, ANDRE L. Bibliotheca Vinaria; a bibliography of books</p><p>and pamphlets dealing with viticulture, wine making, distil-</p><p>lation, management, sale, taxation, use and abuse of wines</p><p>and spirits. G. Richards, Ltd., London, 1913.</p><p>THORPE, EDWARD. Dictionary of Applied Chemistry, Vols. i to</p><p>7. 1921-1927.</p><p>THUDICHUM, J. L. W. A Treatise on Wines. London, 1896.University of California College of Agriculture. Report of the</p><p>Viticultural Work during 1887 to 1895. Sacramento, 1896.VENTA, J. Les Levures dans la Vinification. Paris, 1911.VENTRE, JULES. Traite de Vinification Pratique et Rationnelle.</p><p>Montpettier, 1930-31.</p><p>VISETELLY, HENRY. A History of Champagne with Notes onother Sparkling Wines of France. New York and London,1882.</p><p>WILEY, HARVEY W. American Wines at the Paris Exhibitionin 1900: their composition and character. Also a mono-</p><p>graph on the manufacture of wines in California by HenryLachmann. U. S. Bur. of Chemistry. Bull. 72. 1903.</p><p>WINDISCH, K. Die chemischen Vorgange beim Werden desWeines. Stuttgart, 1906.</p><p>WORTMANN, JULIUS. Die wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen derWeinbereitung und Kellerwirtschaft. Berlin, 1905.</p><p>ANALYSIS</p><p>CUNIASSE, L. Memorial du Distallateur Liquorist Paris,</p><p>1925.</p><p>GRIFFIN, JOHN J. Chemical Testing of Wines and Spirits. Lon-</p><p>don, 1872.</p><p>LEACH, A. E. Food Inspection and Analysis. New York, 1920.PRESCOTT, ALBERT B. Chemical Examination of Alcoholic</p><p>Liquors. New York, 1880.ROCQUES, X. Encyc. Scient. des aide mem. Sect, de L'ingenieur.</p><p>Paris. Page 198.</p></li><li><p>SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES 353</p><p>ROSENHEIM, OTTO, and SCHIDROWITZ, PHILLIP. On some</p><p>Analyses of Modern "Dry" Champagne. In the Analyst25, 6-9, 1900.</p><p>Royal Commission on Whiskey and Other Potable Spirits. Re-</p><p>port and Appendix. 19089.TOLMAN, L. M., and TRESCOT, T. C. A Study of the Methods</p><p>for the Determination of Esters, Aldehydes and Furfural</p><p>in Whiskey. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 28, 1619-29 ( 1906).WILEY, H. W. Beverages and their Adulteration. Philadel-</p><p>phia, 1919.</p><p>STATISTICS</p><p>Bureau of Industrial Alcohol. Statistics Concerning Intoxica-</p><p>ting Liquors. U. S. Treas. Dept. Washington, 1932.International Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics. Rome, 1930.ROLLER, ARNOLD. La Production et la Consommation des</p><p>Boissons Alcooliques dans les Different Pays. Bur. Internat.</p><p>Centre L'Alcoolisme. Lausanne, 1925.</p><p>Rep. of the Bur. of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. U. S.</p><p>Dept. Comm. Washington, 1901 date.</p></li><li><p>INDEX</p><p>Absinthe, 203Acetaldehyde, 22, 23Acid-alcohol ratio in wine, 259Acid conversion process, no, inAcidity, charge during fermentation, 168</p><p>function of, 162</p><p>total, determination of, 278, 288</p><p>volatile, determination of, 279Aging, artificial, 128</p><p>British practice, 128charred barrels in, 128of liqueurs, 194President Taft*s report on, 128Snell &amp; Fain on, 129</p><p>Agrafe, 183Agricultural products, consumption of,</p><p>330, 334, 335Alcohol, boiling curve of, 80</p><p>crude, neutralization of, 90determination of, 261, 287distillation curve of, 81</p><p>Alcohol-extract ratio in wine, 259Alcohol, immersion refractometer tables,</p><p>308-319in cider, 188</p><p>recovery of, 127specific gravity tables, 302-307steam used for, 95theoretical yield, 18</p><p>yield from barley, 29yield from corn, 32yield from oats, 33yield from rye, 30</p><p>"A Icool d'industrie" 140Aldehydes, 91</p><p>determination of, 288Alembic des lies, 142Alkalinity of ash, 276Alkermes de Florence, 204Amines, in alcohol, 91Amino-acids, role in fermentation, 23Amyl alcohol, 23, 24Amylase, 10</p><p>Amylopectin, 1 1</p><p>Amylose, 1 1</p><p>Anaerobes, 58Analysis, reasons for, 230"Analyzer," 87, 90Angelica liqueur, 204Angostura Bitters, 226</p><p>Anisette, 205</p><p>Applejack, 152Apple, varieties, 188"</p></li><li><p>356 INDEX</p><p>Carbohydrates, 4Carbon dioxide in champagne, 181</p><p>Carboxylase, 22</p><p>Cassis, 209Catalysis, 13, 14Cent Sept Ans, 220</p><p>Cereal grains, average composition, 36</p><p>"Cerelose," 10</p><p>Champagne, dosage of, 179manufacture of, 180</p><p>pressure of, 183</p><p>Changes during fermentation,168</p><p>Chaptalizing, 176</p><p>"Chartreuse," 210</p><p>"Chauffe </p></li><li><p>INDEX 357Fermentation, Pasteur's formulation, 18</p><p>products of, 1 8, 19rate of, 19</p><p>temperature variation of, 19Filtration of liqueurs, 198</p><p>Fining of liqueurs, 196Fining of wine, 176Flavoring Agents, classified, 41Flavoring, permitted, 241Foreign trade in distilled spirits,</p><p>327Foreshots, 105, 107Fortified wine, definition, 158</p><p>U. S. Dept. Agr. definitions, 236Fractional distillation, 79French Vermouth, 228</p><p>^-Fructose, 5Fungi, 46Furfural, determination of, 289Fusel Oil, 18, 23, 90determination of, 290</p><p>Galactose, 5Gallizing, 176Garus' Elixir, 216Gas pressure, in champagne, 183Gelatin, in fining, 178</p><p>in fining liqueurs, 198Geneva gin, 149Gin, analysis of, 256</p><p>F.A.C.A. definition, 234"Gin head," 149Gin still, 151^/-Glucose, 10</p><p>Glucose, commercial, 10</p><p>Glyceraldehyde, 21</p><p>Glycerol, 18, 22</p><p>Glycerol-Alcohol Ratio, 266</p><p>Glycerol in wines, determination of,262-266</p><p>Glycogen, 21Golden Elixir, 217Grand mousseaux, 183Grape juice, changes during fermenta-</p><p>tion, 164Grape pomace, brandy from, 140Grapes, American Varieties, 38crushing of, 166for champagne, 180not recommended, 40planted in U. S., 37recommended, 40stemming of, 165yield per acre, 39</p><p>"Grappo," 140Gray mold, 57Green chartreuse, 210Green malt, 77Guianolet d*Angers, 213</p><p>Hamburg brandy, 143Hemicellulose, 12</p><p>Hendaye's Elixir, 217Hexabioses, 6</p><p>Hexose, 4Hexose-di-phosphate, 20Holland Gin, 149"Home trade" rum, 144Hot feints, 90Huile de Kirsc/twasser, 218Huile de roses, 223</p><p>Imitation champagne, 187Imitation liquors, F.A.C.A. definitions,</p><p>240Immersion refractometer tables for al-</p><p>cohol, 308-319Immersion refractometer table for wood</p><p>alcohol, 294Imports, of distilled spirits, 342</p><p>of wine, 346Infusion, description, 192Infusions, grades of, 209International trade in wine, 347Invertase, 16</p><p>Irish whiskey, 100F.A.C.A. definition, 234manufacture of, 103</p><p>Isinglass, in fining liqueurs, 197in fining wine, 177</p><p>Italian Vermouth, 228</p><p>Jamaica rum, analyses of, 254, 255manufacture of, 144, 145</p><p>Kirschwasser Liqueur, 217Kornbranntwein, 154</p><p>Lactacidase, 21</p><p>Lactic acid, 21, 22Lactic acid bacteria, 59</p><p>use, 65Lactose, 5, 6</p><p>Laevulose, 5</p><p>Lipase, 16</p><p>Liqueur de Dessert, 216</p><p>Liqueurs, analyses of, 259classification, 190methods of analysis suggested, 297operation in manufacture of, 192</p><p>Liqueurs par distillation, 191</p><p>par infusiont 191"Local trade" rum, 144Low wines, 84, 105, 107"Lyne arm," 107</p><p>Maize, 31Malt, definition, 71</p><p>drying, 77</p></li><li><p>358 INDEX</p><p>Malt, green, 77</p><p>steeping for, 75Maltase, 10, 16</p><p>Malting, changes during, 73compartment system, 77drum system, 76end of, 74floor system, 76</p><p>yield in, 78Maltose, 5, 10</p><p>Mash tun, 102Mashing, 101, 104American practice, 117</p><p>Mass Action Law, 17Massecuite, 146Methanol, detection of, 296</p><p>Methyl alcohol, determination of, 291-293</p><p>Methyl-glyoxal, 22</p><p>Milk, in fining liqueurs, 198in fining wine, 177</p><p>Molasses, 146</p><p>Molds, 52, 56Monosaccharides, 4Mucor, 56Munson and Walker's Table, 320-325Must, 51</p><p>sterilization of grape, 173</p><p>wine, composition of, 162</p><p>Mycoderma vini, 54, 55, 58</p><p>Neutral whiskey, definition, 233</p><p>"Nigger rum," 144Nitrates, in wine, detection of, 286</p><p>Nitrogen, determination of, 282</p><p>"Noble Mold," 57Noyaux, 219</p><p>Oats, average composition of, 33occurrence, 32yield from, 33</p><p>Open fermentation, 168Orange flower cream, 220</p><p>Oxydase, 57control of by SO2, 62</p><p>Oxygen, 17</p><p>Parfait Amour, 221Patent still, 87, 88</p><p>yield from, 114</p><p>Pelargonic ether, 148Penillium glaucum, 56, 58, 59Pentosans, determination of, 2^3-285</p><p>Pepsin, 13</p><p>Phosphates, role in fermentation, 20</p><p>Phosphoric acid, determination of, 277</p><p>Pineapple Liqueur, 222</p><p>Pinette, 170Plaster of Paris, in wine, 175</p><p>Plumule, of malt, 74</p><p>Polysaccharides, 4Pot ale, 105Potassium metabisulphite, use of, 174Pot still, with rectifier, 85</p><p>yield from, 113Production of distilled spirits, 327, 336Protein, determination of, 282</p><p>role in fermentation, 24Proteolysis, 72Protoplasm, 46, 47Pseudo-yeasts, 52, 54Punch Liqueur, 222Pyruvic acid, 22</p><p>Quince Brandy, 222</p><p>Racking, 171Raffinose, 4, 15Ratafia de cassis, 209Ratafia de cerises, 212</p><p>de Goings, 222de FrambroiseSj 223</p><p>Raw Materials, classification, 25Rectification, definition, 79Rectifier, 90Recuperator, 92, 94Red wine, difference from white wine,</p><p>159manufacture of, 163</p><p>Reflux, definition, 79</p><p>Refractometer, immersion, table for</p><p>wood alcohol, 294tables for alcohol, immersion, 308-319</p><p>Resins, in alcohol, 91Rose liqueur, 223Rum, analyses of...</p></li></ul>

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