The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ Jewish Independence

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ Jewish Independence </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Announcements </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Intertestamental Period WeekDateTopic 105 Mar 14Overview 212 Mar 14Babylonian Period (605-539 BC) 319 Mar 14Persian Period (539-332 BC) 426 Mar 14Greek Period (332-323 BC) 502 Apr 14Ptolemaic (323-198 BC) 609 Apr 14Syrian (198-168 BC) 716 Apr 14Maccabean Part 1 (168-153 BC) 823 Apr 14Maccabean Part 2 (153-139 BC) 930 Apr 14Independence (139-63 BC) 1007 May 14Rome Intervenes (63 37 BC) 1114 May 14Herod (37 BC 4 BC) 1221 May 14The IT Period and Christianity (4 BC 70 AD) 1328 May 14Review </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Todays Objectives Review last weeks lesson Learn about Simons leadership and the alliances he renews with Sparta and Rome Learn about John Hyrcanus conquests Review what further divides the Pharisees and Sadducees Learn about Aristobulus and Jannaeus Learn about Jannaeus cruelty which leads to further civil war Learn how the civil war ultimately leads to Roman intervention in 63 BC </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Last Week Reviewed the story of Mattathias and his five sons, three die during the early revolt The Seleucid empire splits between to factions, one from Demetrius and one from Epiphanes Learned about Jonathan's role in enlarging Judahs political power Learned how Jonathan dies at the hands of Demetrius and how Simon becomes leader Learned about Romes transition into the super power of the known world </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Reference Material KJV (w/ Apocrypha) 1 st and 2 nd Maccabbees Josephus The Complete Works Herodotus The History Intertestamental History Mark Moore Ancient Rome Simon Baker Harding University BNEW 112 Course Notes Dr. Thompson Intertestamental Period John Battle </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Simon Makes an alliance with Demetrius II Demetrius II takes the throne of Syria Grants independence to Judea in 142 BC Grants immunity from taxation Jews were able to drive the Syrian garrison out of the Akra Built a Hasmonean palace on its foundation Hasidim gave Simon the title Leader and High Priest Forever (I Macc 14:41) Until there should arise a faithful prophet He is murdered in 135 BC by a son-in-law </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Simon courts Rome and Sparta After Jonathan is killed, Rome and Sparta Sends Simon a message to renew the alliance Previously made with Judas and Jonathan Simon Reads before the assembly in Jerusalem Spartans also sent a message Expressive and complimentary decree Names Simon the priest and ruler whom the people could not remove (I Macc 14:44) Decree to be posted in a conspicuous place </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> John Hyrcanus Simon and two of his sons are killed in 135 BC, his third son John Hyrcanus, escapes Hyrcanus rules from 135-104 BC Antiochus VII is the last strong king of the Seleucid empire, dies in 129 BC Hyrcanus is free to expand Judah Takes territory in Perea, then Idumea and Edom Conquers the Samaritans and defeats several strong Greek cities in the region Opens up for future expansion into Galilee </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Coin of Hyrcanus I </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Start of reign Conquered Hyrcanus I Conquests </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Religious and Political Developments Seleucid/Syrian interference eroded Jewish Hellenizers Lose support of Seleucid/Greek power Become supporters of the king Became known as Sadducees Hasidim Had been more popular, equate to the Roman plebes Associated with the common people Began opposing the Hasmonean power Oppose those holding secular ruler and high priest Called Pharisees Hyrcanus finally allies with the Sadducees </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Aristobulus I Rules from 104-103 BC Son of Hyrcanus, assuming the rule by murdering one brother and imprisoned two other brothers and mother First Hasmonean to assume the title of king Incorporates the territory of Galilee Becomes key supporters of Judaism Reigns only one year Dies as a result of drinking and disease Wife was Salome Alexandra </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Alexander Jannaeus Ruled from 103-76 BC Surviving brother of Aristobulus Astrobulus wife frees Jannaeus from prison and marries him Jannaeus killed one surviving brother, one is left living Seeks to add to Israels possessions Reached its greatest extent Land all around the Dead Sea, the Philistine coast, and several nearby Greek cities </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Start of reign Conquered Jannaeus I Conquests </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Civil War Civil war between Sadducees and Pharisees Jannaeus pours water libation at his feet rather than on the alter Enrages Pharisee, throw citrons at Jannaeus Many Pharisees killed in retaliation Pharisee appeal to Syria (ironically) Jannaeus/Sadducees flee Pharisee later recant Rejoin Jannaeus Syrian troops depart </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Cruelty of Jannaeus Jannaeus great banquet for the Sadducees Crucifies 800 Pharisees during the banquet Causes further split among the Pharisees Move to the desert Some become Essenes Believed to have written the Dead Sea Scrolls Describe a wicked priest who kills a teacher of righteousness Jannaeus dies, leaving his wife Salome in power </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Salome Alexandra Wife of Jannaeus Rules 76-67 BC, 70 years old Makes peace with the Pharisee Appoints her eldest son Hyrcanus II as high priest Favored the Pharisee Younger son Aristobulus II leads the army Favored the Sadducee Israel was in peace during her reign Instituted universal elementary education in the synagogues, teaching Hebrew scripture </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Hasmonean Kingdom in 63 BC </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Civil War Rome Intervenes Alexandra died in 67 BC, war breaks out Hyrcanus II is the rightful heir, but retires from office when Aristobulus II arrives with the army Hyrcanus II flees to Nabateans, Idumeans Idumeans, Nabateans support Hyrcanus II Aristobulus IIs son marries Hyrcanus daughter, Alexandra Hyrcanus seizes most of Judea with the help of the Idumeans and Nabateans </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Roman Intervention Civil war continues for several months News of fighting reaches the Roman general Pompey, who is campaigning in the East Pompey had become a very popular field commander Very successful campaign against pirates in the Mediterranean Sea in 67 BC Caesar supports Pompeys actions Pompey moves south to arbitrate in Judah Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus 106-48 BC, called Pompey the Great Fought with the Optimates, a conservative and aristocratic faction of the Roman Senate Initially a friend, he is later defeated by Caesar Sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated in 48 BC Defeated Spartacus in 71 BC Took command of the Third Mithridatic War in modern day Turkey Travels to Judea in 63 BC and seizes the opportunity to control the region </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Review Reviewed last weeks lesson Learned about Simons leadership and the alliances he renews with Sparta and Rome Learn how John Hyrcanus increased the Israels lands The Pharisees and Sadducees become further divided Learn about Aristobulus and Jannaeus take over, in succession Jannaeus cruelty leads to further civil war Roman intervenes in 63 BC </li> </ul>