the intertestamental period: from babylon to the birth of christ seleucid period
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The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of ChristSeleucid Period
WeekDateTopic105 Mar 14Overview212 Mar 14Babylonian Period (605-539 BC)319 Mar 14Persian Period (539-332 BC)426 Mar 14Greek Period (332-323 BC)502 Apr 14Ptolemaic (323-198 BC)609 Apr 14Syrian (198-168 BC)716 Apr 14Maccabean Part 1 (168-153 BC)823 Apr 14Maccabean Part 2 (153-139 BC)930 Apr 14Independence (139-63 BC)1007 May 14Rome Intervenes (63 37 BC)1114 May 14Herod (37 BC 4 BC)1221 May 14The IT Period and Christianity (4 BC 70 AD)1328 May 14Review
Todays ObjectivesReview last weeks lessonLearn about Antiochus III and Antiochus IV Epiphanies ruled over PalestineLearn about Roman influence over the Seleucid empireReview the degeneration of Jewish religious freedom under Antiochus IV Epiphanies Discover the seeds of a Jewish revolt in the actions of Antiochus IV EpiphaniesReview the key events occurring during the Seleucid rule of Jerusalem
Last weeks lessonReviewed last weeks lessonReviewed the transition of power between Alexander and the Diadochoi Reviewed key Biblical scriptures Learned about the political, social, economic, cultural, and religious issues during the Ptolemaic rule over IsraelLearned about what effect the Ptolemaic rule had on the JewsLearned about the growing influence of the Roman empire
Reference MaterialKJV (w/ Apocrypha)1st and 2nd MaccabbeesJosephus The Complete WorksHerodotus The HistoryIntertestamental History Mark MooreAncient Rome Simon BakerHarding University BNEW 112 Course Notes Dr. Thompson
War with the PtolemiesFighting initially started in 311 BC as Seleucus I split from Ptolemy IPredicted in Daniel 11King of the North represents SeleucidsKing of the South represents PtolemiesSeleucids finally garnered enough power to pull the Palestinian region from the PtolemiesCreated a new capital of the Seleucid empire, called Antioch
Seleucid Rule198-164 BCSeries of rulers become increasingly harsh towards JewsBuilding of AntiochHigh priest becomes politicizedRoman influence grows across the regionRise of the Jewish dissidents
AntiochEstablished by Seleucus I as the capital of the Seleucid EmpireHonored his father AntiochusSometimes called called Antioch-Syria as opposed to Antioch-PisidiaLocated 15 miles from the Orontes RiverMain trade routeGreat city of the Roman EmpireCenter of Pauls missionary travels Acts 11:19-26, first called Christians
Antiochus III, the Great223-187 BCAdded the territory of Palestine to his ruleGeneral of Ptolemy IV defected to Antiochus III, battle ensued Dan 11:11, 3 Macc 1:9-11, 24Ptolemy IV dies, succeeded by his young son and Antiochus III takes advantageAntiochus III defeats Ptolemy V in 198 BCBegins Seleucid/Syrian rule over Palestine
Antiochus III Coin
Hannibal and AntiochusRomans defeat Carthaginians in Second Punic War (202 BC)Hannibal too refuge under Antiochus IIIHannibal convinces Antiochus III to attack GreeceRome declares war against Antiochus IIIRome defeats and captures Antiochus III in 190 BCRome strips Antiochus III of Asia Minor and force him to surrender his Navy
Compensation to RomeRome demands large payments, equal to tons of SilverRome takes Antiochus IIIs son Antiochus IV hostage as insuranceAntiochus III was forced to levy heavy taxes and plunder temples in order to meet paymentsEventually led to Antiochus IIIs death
Antiochus IV, Ephiphanes175-164 BCRemembered as a very cruel persecutor of faithful Jews in JerusalemHe is what Nero is to the ChristiansLived 12 years in RomeSeleucus IV succeeded him as Seleucus IV tries to confiscate items from the temple in Jerusalem, Onias III defendedSeleucus IV is eventualy assissinated and Antiochus IV becomes king
Antiochus IV Epiphanies Coin
JasonBribes Seleucus IV and is declared the high priestHe institutes a policy of pro-HellenismPractices pagan Greek games in JerusalemMany priests corrupted by his leadershipMany Jews began to openly ridicule Jewish customs and ordinancesWanted to make the new AntiochRemained high priest for three years
HasidimSoon many priests and Jews broke away from Jason stayed loyal to the lawSupported Onias IIIThis religious party was called the Hasidim from the Hebrew word chesedh or piousModern Hasidic Jews use the same name
MenelausReplaced Jason as high priestEven more wicked than JasonNot of the Levi tribe, but a BenjamiteHas Onias III murderedJason returns in 169 BC and retakes rule when Antiochus IV departs for war in EgyptKills many Jews in the processAntiochus IV returns and restores MenelausSyrian soldiers dominated Jerusalem for 25 more years
Great PersecutionAntiochus IV attempts to take Egypt but efforts are thwarted by RomeRome did not want Syria to get too strongAntiochus IV is forced to return empty-handed and humiliatedTwo years of Jewish persecution ensuesHe attacks Jerusalem on the SabbathKills thousands of Jews, destroys the walls, strips the temple, carries away 10,000 Jewish slaves
Removal of Jewish ReligionAntiochus IV forces Jews to unit their religion with pagan Greek worshipIntroduces pagan Greek worship to the templeDrunken orgies to Bacchus in the templeErected a statue of Zeus in the templeKnown as Baal ShamemOffers a pig on the altarMenelaus and his priest actively participateJews call these events the abomination of desolation (see Dan 11:30-31, 1 Macc 1:54)
Further DegenerationAntiochus IV forbids the practice of the Jewish religionDestroys all copies of Scriptures (Ant 12.5.4)Forbids observance of Jewish festivalsForbids circumcisionRequires Jews to sacrifice on pagan alters and eat pig flesh (2 Macc 7)Samaritans, meanwhile, assure Antiochus of their allegiance to himNot Jews but Sidonians
Seleucid Empire CollapseMaccabean Uprising (next week)100 BC: Empire encompassed little more than Antioch and some Syrian citiesExisted solely because no other nation wished to absorb them Saw as a useful buffer between their other adjacent nationsKing of Armenia invades in 83 BC and established himself as ruler of Syria, virtual end to the Seleucid Empire Roman general 69 BC restores the kingdomEventually Roman distrust led to the fall of the Seleucid empire and it became a Roman province in 63 BC
Rome Influence Continues198-168 BC Macedonian Wars195 BC Hannibal incites Antiochus III to war with Rome in Macedonia186 BC - Bacchanalia cult prohibited through Italy 168 BC Rome wins the third Macedonian War and gains control of Macedonia, Egypt, and Syria
ReviewReviewed last weeks lessonLearned about Antiochus III and Antiochus IV Epiphanies ruled over PalestineLearned about Roman influence over the Seleucid empireReviewed the degeneration of Jewish religious freedom under Antiochus IV Epiphanies Discovered the seeds of a Jewish revolt in the actions of Antiochus IV EpiphaniesReviewed the key events occurring during the Seleucid rule of Jerusalem
Seleucid pronounced like cell-loo-sid**Week 1 - Overview Week2 - Babylonian Period (605-539 BC) Week3 - Persian Period (539-332 BC) Week4 - Greek Period (332-323 BC) Alexander 332 - 323 Week 5 -Ptolemaic (323-198 BC) Ptolemy and Egypt 320 198Week 6 - Syrian (198-168) Seleucid and Syria 198 - 168 Week7 - Maccabean Period Part 2 (167-143) Mattathias 167 - 166 Judas the Maccabee 166 - 160 Jonathan 160 - 143 Week8 - Independence (142 - 63)Simon 143 - 134 John Hyrcannaus 134 105 Aristobulus 104 - 103 Alexander Jannaus 103 - 76 Alexander Salome 76 - 67 Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II 67-63 Week 10 Rome Intervenes (63 37 BC)Week11 Herod (37-4 BC) Week 12 Intertestamental period and Christianity (4 BC 70 AD) Week 13 - Review ***Notes.
Antioch became a major city in the Roman empire and was the place where Christianity made its first gains in the Gentile regions and where believers where first called Christians. Paul based his missionary journeys from Antioch.
Antioch-Pisidia, a city Paul visited in the book of Acts.
Acts 11:19-26 - 19Now those who had been scattered by the persecution in connection with Stephen traveled as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus and Antioch, telling the message only to Jews. 20Some of them, however, men from Cyprus and Cyrene, went to Antioch and began to speak to Greeks also, telling them the good news about the Lord Jesus. 21The Lord's hand was with them, and a great number of people believed and turned to the Lord. 22News of this reached the ears of the church at Jerusalem, and they sent Barnabas to Antioch. 23When he arrived and saw the evidence of the grace of God, he was glad and encouraged them all to remain true to the Lord with all their hearts. 24He was a good man, full of the Holy Spirit and faith, and a great number of people were brought to the Lord.
25Then Barnabas went to Tarsus to look for Saul, 26and when he found him, he brought him to Antioch. So for a whole year Barnabas and Saul met with the church and taught great numbers of people. The disciples were called Christians first at Antioch.
Ptolemy Vs army defeated at Panium, also called Caesarea Philippi.2 Maccabees Chapter 71 It also happened that seven brothers with their mother were arrested and tortured with whips and scourges by the king, to force them to eat pork in violation of God's law. 2 One of the brothers, speaking for the others, said: "What do you expect to achieve by questioning us? We are ready to die rather than transgress the laws of our ancestors." 3 At that the king, in a fury, gave orders to have pans and caldrons heated. 4 While they were being quickly heated, he commanded his executioners to cut out the tongue of the one who had spoken for the others, to scalp him