the fruits and fruit-trees of america; by andrew jackson downing (1881)

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  1. 1. UMASS/AMHERST
  2. 2. This book may be kept out TWO WEEKS only, and is subject to a fine of TWO CENTS a day thereafter. It will be due on the day m- dicated below.CVl3 -67
  3. 3. ^fx- .
  4. 4. : ; f THE FRUITS AND FRUIT-TREES AMERICATHE CULTURE, PROPAGATION, AND MANAGEMENT, IN THEGARDEN AND ORCHARD, OF FRUIT-TREES GENERALLYDESCRIPTIONS OF ALL THE FINEST VARIETIES OF FRUIT, NATIVEAND FOREIGN, CULTIVATED IN THIS COUNTRY.By a.J.downi:ni^.COERESPONDIKQ MEMBER OP THE ROTAL BOTANIC SOCIETY OF LONDON; AND OK TUB HOKTKUl. TUBAL SOCIETIES OF BERLIN, THE LOW COUNTRIES, MASSACnUSETTS, PENNSYLVANIA, INDIANA, CINCINNATI, ETC.Second Revision and Comction^ icitJi large Additions, including the Ap2)eudices ( 1872 to 1881, and containing many New Varieties.ByCHARLES DOWNING. With nearly 400 Outline Illustrations of Fruit. NEW YOEKlOHN ^VILEY & SONS,15 ASTOK PLACE, 1881.
  5. 5. 0^75-Entered accordingto Act of Congress, in the year 1872, by JOHN WILEY & SON,^f^"- "T !Ill inT-^-rY-rr.p,o^ at Washington.[fl i^fLIBRARYUNIVERSJV OF.;iAMHERST, MASS. ^Trows Printing and Bookbinding Company, 201-213 ^asi i2iAStreet, NEWYORK.
  6. 6. TOMARSHALL P. WILDER, Esq.j PRESIDENT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, THIS VOLUMEIS DEDICATEB,BY HIS FRIEND, THE AUTHOR.3-4
  7. 7. J^NOTEFRUITS OF CALIFOPvNIA Since the publication of the recent edition of this book,the author has visited California, andhis observations in thafnewly developed region have elicited the facts that fruit treesgrow muchfaster there,and come into bearing muchearlierthan Math us,andit may be fairlyinferred,therefore,thatthey will not be as long-lived. The same varieties of Apples, Pears, Peaches,Plums, Apri-cots, Cherries, &c., are grownas with us ; but all kinds of fruit,especiallysome kinds of Apples, do not succeed equally wellas in the Eastern States.The following sorts were consideredmost profitable: WilliamsFavorite, EarlyStrawberry, RedAstrachan, Early Harvest, Winesap, Rawles Janet, NewtownPippin, White Winter Pearmain, Smiths Cider, Yellow Belflower.Newtown Pippin bestand mostprofitable. The Northern Spyand Baldwin hadfailed. Thefruit is rather larger, fairer, and handsomer, and thequality equally good,exceptStrawberriesand Blackberries,which were not quite as high flavored. Grapes are grown exten-sfvely in many localities, and succeed admirably. Theyarechiefly of the foreign varieties, and are grown in the open air,without protection, requiring butlittle labor, compared with oursystem of cultivation.
  8. 8. Theyare grown in tlietree form on stems or stumps fromwo to three feet hiajh,and those from tento fifteen years oldire fromfive to six inches in diameter.The vines are plantedFrom seven to eight feet apart, each way. They are pruned^annually, hack to thestems, and when the new shoots havegrown fiveor six inches, allare thinned out, except ten ortwelve of the strongest, and in most vineyards they have nofurther care till gathering time, except to keep the groundclean.In some orchards that had been neglected, the trees werefailing,and I was told thatif the ground was not cultivatedand the trees cared for, they soon died.Wefound Figs abundant and offinequahty in nearlyevery localitywevisited. English Walnuts, or Madeira iJ^uts,Almonds, and Olives are grown successfully in most places.Theclimate andsoilare favorable for fruit-growing. Intlie latter, clay predominates. The characteristics of fruit areabout the same as with us.
  9. 9. CONTENTS. PASBPrefaceixPreface to the Second Revision xiiiAbbreviations and Books Quoted xviiCHAPTERI.The Production op New Varieties op Fruit 1 The Van Mons Theory 5 Cross-Breeding. 7CHAPTER11.Remarks on the Duration of the Varieties of Fruit-Trees 10CHAPTER III.Propagation op Varieties, Grafting, Budding, Cuttings, Layers, and SUCKERa16CHAPTER IV.Pruning 33CHAPTERV.Training38CHAPTER VI.Transplanting 45 CHAPTERVII.The Position of Fruit-TreesSorL and Aspect 51 CHAPTERVin.GeneralREM.i.RKs on Insects ,64
  10. 10. .VUl CONTENTS. CHAPTERIX.PAGRThe Apple . 58Uses59Propagation 60Soil and Situation61Preparing, Planting, and Cultivation of Orchards62Pruning 63Insects 63Gathering and Keeping the Fruit 67Cider 69Varieties, Classification, and Terms used in Describing Apples70Descriptive List of Varieties 72Siberian Crabs and Improved Siberian Apples, with Descriptive List 421Select List of Varieties for Table Use, Cooking, and Keeping,&c427Alphabetical Index to Descriptive Lists437 CHAPTERX.The Almond 430Uses and Cultivation 430Descriptive List of Varieties431Ornamental Varieties 432Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List 437CHAPTERXI.TnE Apricot, . ,432Uses, Cultivation, Diseases 433Descriptive List of Varieties 433Curious or Ornamental Varieties442Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List1013 CHAPTER XII.The Berberry 442Culture443The Blackberry 413Descriptive List of Varieties443Ornamental Varieties 446Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List1015 CHAPTER Xin.The Cherry 447Uses 447Soil and Situation 448Propagation and Cultivation449Training and Gathering the Fruit 450Descriptive List of Varieties:Class I. Bigarreau and Heart Cherries450Class II. Duke and Morello Cherries 476Ornamental Varieties 486Selections of Choice Cherries for Family Use 487Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List1015
  11. 11. . : CONTENTS, IX CHAPTERXIV.PAORThe Currant 487 Uses, Propagation and Culture, Insects and Diseases488 Descriptive List of VarietiesClass I. Red and White Currants489Class II. Black Cimants492 Ornamental Varieties 493 Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List 1 00CHAPTER XY.The CRvVNberry493 Alphabetical Index 1019 CHAPTERXVI.The Fig 494 Propagation, Soil, and Culture 495 Descriptive List of Varieties:Class I. Red, Brown, or Purple496Class II.White, Green, or Yellow 498 Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List 1020 CHAPTER XVII.The Gooseberry499 Uses, Propagation, and Cultivation 500Descriptive List of Varieties 501American Varieties503Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List1031CIIA1>TER XVIII.Toe Gr.pe 504Uses, Soil505Propagation 50(5 1 Culture of the Foreign Grape 506Renewal Training507Culture under Glass without Artificial Heat 508Culture vander Glass with Fire Heat 510Construction of the Vinery511Insects and Diseases513Descrptive List of Foreign Grapes 5132. American Grajjes525Vineyard Culture 520Diseases and Insects, Grafting, Keeping 527Descriptive List of American Grapes 528Selection of Varieties558Alphabetical Index to Descriptive Lists of Foreign and AmericanGrapes1022
  12. 12. XCONTENTS. CHAPTERXIX. TA-GHThe Melon559 Culture 559 Descriptive List of Varieties 560 Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List1026 CHAPTER XX.The AYater-Melon 561 Descriptive List of Varieties562 Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List1027 CHAPTERXXI.The Mulberry564 Descriirtion of Varieties 564 Alphabetical Index102? CHAPTERXXII.The Nectarine 565 Culture565 Descriptive List of Varieties566 Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List1027 CHAPTERXXIII.Nuts572 Descriptive List of Varieties573 Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List1028 CHAPTER XXIV.The Olive 575 Uses and Value 575 Propagation and Culture575 Varieties576 Index to Varieties1029 CHAPTER XXV.The Orange Family 576 Soil and Culture 577 Varieties . .578 Lemons 579 The Lime 579 The Citron 579 The Shaddock 579 Index to Varieties1029
  13. 13. CONTENTS.XI CHAPTER XXVI. PA OHTuE Peach 580 Uses 581 Propagation, Soil, and Situation 582 Priming58:3 Insects and Diseases 586 The Yellows587 Remedy for the Yellows 591 Raising Peaches in Pots594 Descriptive List of Varieties596 Curious or Ornamental Varieties638 Selection of Varieties 639 Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List1029CHAPTER XXVII.TaE Prar639 General Description639 Gathering and Keeping the Fruit641 Propagation643 Soil, Situation, and Culture 643 Diseases and Insects 644 The Insect Blight645 The Frozen-sap Blight646Varieties:650 Descriptive List of Varieties651 Select List for Table Use, Marketing, and Cooking887 Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List1033CHAPTER XXVin.The Plum889Uses889Propagation and Culture 890Soil ;Insects and Diseases891Varieties , 895Descriptive List of Varieties 895Ornamental Varieties955Selection of Varieties for Table, Marketing, and Cooking955Alphabetical Index to Descriptive List 1056CHAPTER XXIX.The Pomegranate 956Propagation and Culture 957Varieties 957 Alphabetical Index to Varieties 1063 CHAPTER XXX.The Quince 957Uses, Propagation, Soil, and Culture 958Varieties958Ornamental Varieties 960Alphabetical Index to Varieties1063
  14. 14. XUCONTENTS.CHAPTER XXXI.PAGEThe Raspberry960 Uses, Propagation, Soil, and Culture963 Varieties 962 Alphabetical Index to Varieties1063CHAPTER XXXII.The Strawberry 974 Propagation, Soil, and Culture975 Varieties 977 Alpine and WoodStrawberries1005 Hautbois Strawberries1007 Chili Strawberries 1007 Green Strawberries 1008 Selection of Varieties 1008 Alphabr^ical Index to Varieties1064Index to the Different Fruits 1013General Index 1069 APPENDIXES.
  15. 15. PREFACE.A MAN born on the banks of one of the noblest and most fruitfulrivors inAmerica, and whose best days have been spent in gardens andorchards, may perhaps be pardoned for talking about fruit-trees.Indeed the subject deserves not a few, but many words. " Finefruit is the flower ofcommodities." It is the most perfect union of theusefuland the beautiful that the earth knows. Trees full of softfoliage ;blossoms fresh with spring beauty and,;filially, fruit, rich,bloom-dusfced, melting, and luscious, such are the treasuies of theorchard and the garden, temptinglj^ ofiered to every landholder in thisbright and sunny, though temperate climate." If a man," says an acute essayist, " should send forme to come ahundred miles tovisithim, and should set before me a basket of finesummerfruit, I should think there was some proportion between thelabor and the reward,"I must add a counterpart to this. He who ownsa rood of properland in this coun