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  • 8/13/2019 The Disappearing Rainforests


    The Disappearing Rainforests We are losing Earth's greatest biological treasures just

    as we are beginning to appreciate their true value.Rainforests once covered 14% of the earth's landsurface; now they cover a ere !% and e"pertsestiate that the last reaining rainforests could beconsued in less than 4# years.

    $ne and onehalf acres of rainforest are lost every

    second with tragic conse&uences for both developingand industrial countries.

    Rainforests are being destroyed because the value ofrainforest land is perceived as only the value of itstiber by shortsighted governents ultinationallogging copanies and land owners.

    (early half of the world's species of plants anialsand icroorganiss will be destroyed or severelythreatened over the ne"t &uarter century due torainforest deforestation.

    E"perts estiates that we are losing 1)* plant anialand insect species every single day due to rainforestdeforestation. +hat e&uates to ,#### species a year.

    -s the rainforest species disappear so do anypossible cures for lifethreatening diseases. urrently1/1 prescription drugs sold worldwide coe froplantderived sources. While /,% of Westernpharaceuticals are derived fro rainforestingredients less that 1% of these tropical trees andplants have been tested by scientists.

    0ost rainforests are cleared by chainsaws bulldoersand fires for its tiber value and then are followed byfaring and ranching operations even by world giantsli2e 0itsubishi orporation 3eorgia acific +e"acoand 5nocal.

    +here were an estiated ten illion 6ndians living inthe -aonian Rainforest five centuries ago. +oday

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    there are less than /#####.

    6n 7rail alone European colonists have destroyedore than 8# indigenous tribes since the 18##'s. Withthe have gone centuries of accuulated 2nowledgeof the edicinal value of rainforest species. -s theirhoelands continue to be destroyed by deforestationrainforest peoples are also disappearing.

    0ost edicine en and shaans reaining in theRainforests today are *# years old or ore. Each tiea rainforest edicine an dies it is as if a library hasburned down.

    When a edicine an dies without passing his arts onto the ne"t generation the tribe and the world losesthousands of years of irreplaceable 2nowledge about

    edicinal plants.

    The Wealth of the Rainforests

    +he -aon Rainforest covers over a billion acresencopassing areas in 7rail 9eneuela olobiaand the Eastern -ndean region of Ecuador and eru. 6f

    -aonia were a country it would be the ninth largestin the world.

    +he -aon Rainforest has been described as the:ungs of our lanet: because it provides the essentialenvironental world service of continuously recyclingcarbon dio"ide into o"ygen. 0ore than /# percent ofthe world o"ygen is produced in the -aonRainforest.

    0ore than half of the world's estiated 1# illionspecies of plants anials and insects live in thetropical rainforests. $nefifth of the world's fresh wateris in the -aon 7asin.

    $ne hectare #% of the developed world's diet originated inthe tropical rainforest. 6ts bountiful gifts to the worldinclude fruits li2e avocados coconuts figs orangesleons grapefruit bananas guavas pineapplesangos and toatoes; vegetables including cornpotatoes rice winter s&uash and yas; spices li2e

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  • 8/13/2019 The Disappearing Rainforests


    econoic value than if they were cut down to a2egraing land for cattle or for tiber.

    +he latest statistics show that rainforest land convertedto cattle operations yields the land owner A!# per acreand if tiber is harvested the land is worth A4## per

    acre. Bowever if these renewable and sustainableresources are harvested the land will yield the landowner A/4## per acre.

    6f anaged properly the rainforest can provide theworld's need for these natural resources on a perpetualbasis.

    rooting the use of these sustainable and renewablesources could stop the destruction of the rainforests.7y creating a new source of incoe harvesting theedicinal plants fruits nuts oil and other sustainable

    resources the rainforests is be ore valuable alivethan cut and burned.

    ?ufficient deand of sustainable and ecologicallyharvested rainforest products is necessary forpreservation efforts to succeed. urchasingsustainable rainforest products can effect positivechange by creating a ar2et for these products whilesupporting the native people's econoy and providesthe econoic solution and alternative to cutting theforest just for the value of its tiber.

    Deforestation and net forest area change

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    +he rate of deforestation shows signs of decreasing C but is still alaringly high.

    @eforestation C ainly the conversion of tropical forests to agricultural land C shows

    signs of decreasing in several countries but continues at a high rate in others.

    -round 1) illion hectares of forest were converted to other uses or lost through

    natural causes each year in the last decade copared to 1! illion hectares per year in

    the 188#s.

    7oth 7rail and 6ndonesia which had the highest net loss of forest in the 188#s have

    significantly reduced their rate of loss while in -ustralia severe drought and forest fires

    have e"acerbated the loss of forest since /###.

    argescale planting of trees is significantly reducing the net loss of forest area globally

    -fforestation and natural e"pansion of forests in soe countries and regions have

    reduced the net loss of forest area significantly at the global level.

    +he net change in forest area in the period /###C/#1# is estiated at C,./ illion

    hectares per year .) illion hectares

    per year in the period 188#C/###.

    Facts and figures

    Do you know...

    Which countries have the highest forest coverD

    Which countries are the ajor consuers and producers of forest productsD

    Bow any people depend on drugs derived fro forest plantsD

    Bow uch deforestation contributes to global greenhouse gas eissionsD

    Bow any countries have less than 1# percent forest coverD

    +he annual deforestation rate in the worldD

    Bow any people are eployed in the foral forestry sector worldwideD

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    +he total nuber of ountain people worldwideD

    What percentage does bioenergy account for energy consued worldwideD

    Forest cover

    orests cover )1% of total land area

    +he world's total forest area is just over 4 billion hectares which corresponds to an

    average of #.! ha per capita.

    +he five ost forestrich countries

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    ?oe ),# illion people who live within or adjacent to dense forests depend on the

    to a high degree for subsistence and incoe.

    6n developing countries about 1./ billion people rely on agroforestry faring systes

    that help to sustain agricultural productivity and generate incoe.

    0angrove forests which cover about 1, illion hectares worldwide are essential to

    the life cycles of the ajority of the world's coercial fish species.

    Forests and the economy

    3lobal eployent in the foral forestry sector 14 illion people billion

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    As food supplements, forest foods provide certain proteins, fat, vitamins and

    minerals that are not found in many staple crops, and may even stave off hunger and

    famine when drought, floods or pests and diseases cause crops to fail.

    Half a million pre-school children go blind every year because of vitamin A

    deficiency. Vitamin A is abundant in many tree foods, such as mango.

    Bushmeat or edible wild mammals, reptiles, birds and insects which live in forests

    or trees can account for up to 85 percent of the protein intae of people living in ornear forests.

    !ome 8" percent of the people living in developing countries depend on non-wood

    forest products, such as fruits and herbs, for their primary health and nutritionalneeds. !ource

    #atural products are the only source of medicine for $5 to %" percent of people

    living in developing countries.

    Source& 'A( )%%*

    Forests and the environment
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    orests ensure environental functions such as biodiversity water and soil

    conservation water supply and cliate regulation.

    0isanageent of woodlands in huid and subhuid tropical countries significantly

    contributes to soil losses e&uivalent to a 1# percent loss of agricultural gross doestic


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    &a'or consumers of forest products

    Percentage of glo(al consumption )#$*$+

    ndustrial roundwood!5?-

    percent=; oland percent=; 6ndia

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    percent=; Russian ederation 6ndia's forests contain />## illion etric tons of carbon in living forest bioass. 7iodiversity and rotected -reasaals and reptiles according to figures fro the World onservation 0onitoring entre. $f these 1>.4% are eare threatened. 6ndia is hoe to at least 1>!!4 species of vascular plants of which /!.>% are endeic. 4.8% of 6n

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    #$** pdate

    In May 2011, Sassan Saatchi of Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab and colleagues published a paper in P!S "ithne"

    Forest definition (canopy cover %) 10% tree cover 25% tree cover 30% tree cover

    Forest Area (M ha) *+ + +*

    Aboveground forest carbon (Mt C) ,+5* +,* +,)5)

    e!o"ground forest carbon (Mt C) ),+8 %*8 8$+

    #ota! forest carbon (Mt C) 5,5%+ ,+) ,"

    Average Carbon $ensity (t Cha) 8% )" ))

    M%$illion, t%$etric tons& all figures are $ean carbon stoc# alues

    ndia! Forest /over, #$*$

    #ota! &and Area (1000 s'uare i!oeters) %$+)%

    #ota! Forest Area (1000 ha) *8+

    *ercent Forest Cover +

    *riary Forest Cover (1000 ha) )5$")

    *riary Forest+ % tota! forest +

    ,ther "ooded !and (1000 ha) +*$

    *ercent other "ooded !and )

    ndia! "reakdown of forest types, #$*$

    *riary forest (1000 ha - % of forest area) )5$") +

    ,ther natura!!y regenerated forest (1000 ha - % of forest area) 5 *

    *!anted Forest (1000 ha - % of forest area) )")) )5

    ndia! Trends in Total )0et+ Forest /over, *11$-#$*$

    #,#A& F,./# C,/. (1000 ha)

    10 2000 2005 2010

    *+%+% *5+%" *$$"% *8+

    A4A& CA6/ .A#/ (1000 ha)

    Negative number represents deforestation

    1072000 200072005 200572010

    )5 * )5
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    A4A& CA6/ .A#/ (percent)

    Negative number represents deforestation

    1072000 200072005 200572010

    ". ".$" ".)

    ndia! Trends in 0atural Forest /over )Deforestation+, *11$-#$*$

    F,./# C,/. (e8c!uding p!anted forests) (1000 ha)

    10 2000 2005 2010

    58+ 58+ 58+ 58+

    A4A& CA6/ .A#/ (1000 ha)

    Negative number represents deforestation

    1072000 200072005 200572010

    " " "

    A4A& CA6/ .A#/ (percent)

    Negative number represents deforestation

    1072000 200072005 200572010

    "." " "

    ndia! Trends in Primary or 2ld 3rowth Forest /over, *11$-#$*$

    *.9MA.: F,./# C,/. (1000 ha)

    10 2000 2005 2010

    )5$") )5$") )5$") )5$")

    A4A& CA6/ .A#/ (1000 ha)

    Negative number represents deforestation

    1072000 200072005 200572010

    " " "

    A4A& CA6/ .A#/ (percent)

    Negative number represents deforestation

    1072000 200072005 200572010

    " " "

    ndia! Trends in Planted Forest /over, *11$-#$*$

    *&A#/$ F,./# C,/. (1000 ha)

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    10 2000 2005 2010

    5$)* $)*$ %8* )"))

    A4A& CA6/ .A#/ (1000 ha)

    Negative number represents deforestation

    1072000 200072005 200572010

    )5 * )5

    A4A& CA6/ .A#/ (percent)

    Negative number represents deforestation

    1072000 200072005 200572010

    .% 5.$$ ).8

    @eforestation is a ain environental concern in the world. @eforestation includesthe cutting down burning and destructing of forests. (uerous researches suggeststhat deforestation ay be the first lin2 in a chain of environent degradation thatincludes erosion cliatic changes loss of biodiversity and genetic endowent airpollution decline in watershed functions and the apparent loss of hardwood fuelwood and aesthetic stoc2s.

    opulation e"plosion is ajor basis for decline of the rain forests. +hese forests arebeing cut down at a petrifying rate to supply an with luber pasture land and farland. +he outcoe of such huan activities is deforestation; the world's ostvaluable environent is being ruined. lants and anials life is gradually diinishingas the natural habitats are bested. @eforestation occurs because people need landfor agricultural. arge copanies clear vast aounts of land often for cattle pastures

    to fill the beef ar2et. +hey also use the land for large plantations and use pesticidesand irrigation systes that are very harful to the land. +he cheicals which areused to destroy pests also 2ill other anials and cause a lot of daage tosurrounding areas. +he rain washes the cheicals into the water syste 2illing thea&uatic life. +he use of and in such a way affects negatively the surrounding areas.6t also can ta2e centuries to regrow.

    +here is solid cause of deforestation which is ainly related to a copetitive globaleconoy. 6t forces countries to utilie their only resource for funds. +his processta2es place at local and national level. ocally people use land for faring togenerate incoe because of poverty and population growth. (ationally governentssell logging concessions to cover debts and develop industries. eople are usingtheir rainforests only for a shortter solution and could not assess the long tereffects of their distractive activities. 6t is predicted that half the rain in tropicalcountries coes fro evaporation of oisture fro the covering of the trees. -s treesand plants are destroyed the oist awning of the tropical rain forest rapidly reduces.Evaporation and Evapotranspiration processes fro the trees and plants return large&uantities of water to the local atosphere prooting the foration of clouds andprecipitation. @ue to less evaporation ore of the ?un's energy is able to war thesurface and the air above which leads to increase in teperatures and the drying of

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    land. +oday it is novel policies and progra of developent; rapid industrialiationurbaniation and growing consueris that have resulted in the large scaledestruction of the forests. @ue to the difficulty of deforestation a ajor environentalissue any clashes have arisen between environental activist groups and thoseconcerned in deforestation activities. +he solutions to crisis of deforestation lie in

    dealing with the root cause. +o resolve the issue e"perts have to consider theeconoic probles that lie at the heart of the situation. 0any proposals have beenoffered such as sustainable wood sources. 6f deforestation continues at its currentrate then in just 1## years there will be no ore rainforests left at all and people willbe the ost sufferers.

    3overnents and environentalists are facing ajor challenge what steps ust beta2en to stop deforestation so that current environental conditions would not getpoorer. ?carcity and over population are ain causes which alars to governents.olicies ust be ade to overcoe such probles so that we can save our forestand anials. Environentalists and forestry supporters have been telling people andgovernents to instantly act on the proble regarding continued deforestation

    practices all around the world. @eforestation could be gradually stopped if peoplewould be ore environentally indful. +hat eans to speed up efforts in stoppingdeforestation. We ust start participating in recycling progras. 3overnents shouldalso ipleent legislations that would successfully prevent the deforestationprocess. 3overnent ust encourage reforestation which is the soughtafter healingprocess

    Everyone ust understand that rainforest are splendid e"ceptional gift of nature onour valuable Earth. 6f preventive easures are not ta2en iediately to stop theeffects of deforestation huans will be under grip of severe crisis. +hey ay loseanials plants and there are great possibilities for dreaded diseases that are 2illing

    off our own race. -ll people ust join their hands to wor2 out a plan that isappropriate for businesses governents and ost iportantly the environent.-nother iportant threat to huan is that deforestation leads not only to speciesannihilation but also to loss of the genetic diversity that could help certain speciesadjust to a changing world. eople are well failiar with the environental crisiswhich can happen due to deforestation. ?till they are destroying speedily.

    +he effects of deforestation can be devastating. 6t can lose the land of its naturalaesthetic. 6n coing years dangerous conse&uences will be visible. @eforestationcan daage to the environent usually steing fro its ability to cause landerosion. When an area is cleared the soil under the surface is essentially stripped ofthe roots that provided it structural integrity and support. Without this support the

    force of water gravity or both can cause the land to ove either as one piece orore coonly steadily and increentally. ?oil erosion due to deforestation is theain cause of osta Rica's environental calaity such as flooding desertificationand sedientation in rivers longter hydroelectric shortages loss of wildlifediversity and the obvious depletion of the wood resources. ?uch a severe cliatechange can be arrested through reducing tropical deforestation. @eforestation bansand oratoria can effectively wor2 if ipleented properly.

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    @eforestation of is a severe environental destruction which can not be revived ifdaaged at current rate. eople cut down trees to eet out their own need withoutconsidering future outcoe. +hey do not recognie about the daage they are doing.+he deforestation affects the plant life. eople have general ipression that if treesare cuts down it will grow bac2 in a few years. lants will ultiately grow bac2 but

    the forest will be changed into a secondary forest and ay never be the sae.

    0ew [email protected] in soe states has reained a serious concern according to

    the the Environent 0inistry's 6ndia forest report. +he report says 6ndia's forest cover is

    down by )!* s&uare 2iloetre as copared to the last survey in /##8.

    +his cae despite the fact that 1, states have increased their forest cover in this period.

    +he forest cover in 1/ states has decreased considerably.

    +he a"iu loss of forest cover has happened in -ndhra radesh.+he report says 6ndia's forest cover is down by )!* s&uare 2iloetre as copared to the last survey

    in /##8.

    (agaland and 0anipur have also lost large tracts of forests.

    Bowever the report is silent on how uch deforestation has occurred due to large

    developent projects.

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    outh ndia I osted on 0ay #8 /#1/ at 11F44a 6?+

    Call to revamp farm sector+B6R59-(-(+B-5R-0F 6n a state where a large area is prone to soil erosion the

    relevance ofsustained watershed anageent needs no elaboration.6n this

    connection a statelevel wor2shop for sensitisation of coon guidelines for 6ntegrated

    Watershed 0anageent rograe

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    the committee *enie* permission to five organisations that ha* approache* it

    -ith reuests to ae as man+ as 11,03 trees in an* aroun* the cit+.

    The list inclu*es( 4uter &ing &oa* authorities 5for 11,000 trees, !outh Central

    &ail-a+ 5127 trees, 8reater "+*era)a* Municipal Corporation 591 trees,:ational Aca*em+ of Agricultural &esearch Management 5;This

    -a+ -e can ensure that people *o not take compensator+ plantation or the

    committee lightl+. !o far, applicants ust signe* an un*ertaking stating that the+-ill take up plantation -ork once the proect is over an* most often forgot a)out

    it later. That -ill not )e the case an+ longer.> Apart from issuing such a *irective,

    mem)ers of the committee also plan to inspect the afforestation programmes

    here on, )efore giving a go/ahea* to an+ felling activit+.

    >%arlier this -eek some mem)ers visite* the :AA&M premises to ensure that the

    aca*em+'s reuest -as ustifie* 5it -ants to construction a ne- campus an* it

    ha* space to take up compensator+ plantation. :o-, -e -ill take a final

    *ecision,> sai* $ :aga)hushanam, *istrict forest officer 5$=4/"+*era)a*. ut-hile the $=4, -ho claims that !C& too is in the process of planting 7,000 trees,

    is confi*ent a)out the success of the ne- strateg+, several environmentalists in

    the cit+ are not. The+ argue that the proposal is unsustaina)le consi*ering the

    limite* po-ers that the tree protection committee has. Another concern, the+

    point out, is the *isinterest among government )o*ies to acuire lan* for


    >?hen an+ proect is planne*, there has to )e a certain amount of lan*

    earmarke* for plantation purposes. @nless that is *one, trees that are felle*

    cannot make -a+ for ne- ones,> sai* retire* forester !arvottam &ao a**ing,

    >Also, it is onl+ a committee -ith no authorit+. @ntil it is given po-ers to take

    *isciplinar+ action the )o*+ -ill continue to remain toothless.>

    Another hin*rance, accor*ing to &ao, is the lack of eperts on the tree protection

    committee panel. ointing out ho- the eight/mem)er panel largel+ comprise*

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    people not familiar -ith the nuances of afforestation he sai*, >"o- can +ou even

    epect it to save our environment. The mem)ers neither kno- ho- to gro- trees

    an* nor are the+ a-are of -a+s to protect them.>

    ?hile =ari*a Tampal, state *irector of?orl* ?il*life =oun*ation5??=/"+*era)a* agrees -ith the claim, she sa+s it is the staff crunch -hich is more

    -orrisome. >?e are ust a)out four/five people -ho are epecte* to *o all the

    inspections at present. Consi*ering the large num)er of cases the committee

    receives, that is a ver+ small num)er. f -e get a**itional manpo-er, the )o*+

    can *efinitel+ -ork more effectivel+,> she sai*.

    4ochi I osted on (ov )# /#11 at #>F,*a 6?+

    n support of Junglisthan7-(3-$REF ?her Hhan and 7aloo eerged out of the baboo trees in ubbon ar2on +uesday uch to the shoc2 of the visitors. +hese popular fictional characters fro

    Rudyard HiplingJs KGungle 7oo2J then proceeded to see2 the support of visitors to save

    their natural habitat L forests L fro coal ining.

    +o garner ore attention to deforestation a virtual country L Republic of Gunglisthan L

    was launched by 3reenpeace 6ndia and the ascots handed out virtual citienships and

    passports to people who pledged their support for the fast depleting forests and


    0ascots for the 3reenpeace capaign ?her Hhan and 7aloo along with the volunteersof 3reenpeace 6ndia e"plained to the people about the e"ploitation of forests in the

    nae of e"traction of coal and as2ed for their support to save forests.

    ?tudents fro - @ 6anuel ?chool and Wisdo ublic ?chool actively participated

    in the capaign by painting drawing and enacting s2its in support of save the forest


    Moal 6ndia iited already has /##### hectares of land of which ,,### hectares is

    forest. Bence their contention that forest clearances are hapering power generation is

    isleading. +he inistryJs insistence on ore land for ining is nothing short of land

    grab which is also endangering our forests tigers elephants and bears biodiversityand the fabric of life of forest counities. We are inviting people to join Gunglistan as a

    show of support to forestsN said ?hiva ?hara public engageent capaigner

    3reenpeace 6ndia.

    M+here are alternate sources of energy that are cleaner and sustainable than coal li2e

    solar and wind energy. or instance we can save ore energy if we can switch over to
  • 8/13/2019 The Disappearing Rainforests


    s instead of energyguling light bulbs. $ur country will have to a2e that choice if

    it wants a safe environentN said a student fro fro Wisdo ublic ?chool.+he

    capaign will be on until @eceber 4 on ubbon ar2 preises.

    n*ia goes to Copenhagen -ith hope/openhagen!oitting itself to reducing its eissions intensity li2e hina 6ndia

    coes to openhagen as an international player that is ready to be :part of the solution:

    to global waring. rie 0inister 0anohan ?ingh will attend the @eceber * to

    @eceber 1> cliate suit with 5? resident 7arac2 $baa and over ># world

    leaders with the li2elihood increasing of a consensus on a new global deal.

    :We're going to openhagen in a positive frae of ind prepared to be fle"ible. We

    want a coprehensive and e&uitable agreeent. We are realistic enough to 2now such

    an agreeent ay not aterialise but we will wor2 with li2e inded countries with

    hina and with others to ensure there is a coprehensive and e&uitable arrangeent:

    said Environent 0inister Gaira Raesh.

    6ndia ran2ed fourth in the list of the world's 1, top polluters has announced it will

    reduce its eission intensity by /# per cent to /, per cent by /#/# fro the /##, level.

    (ew @elhi had been under pressure fro the industrialised world to do soething about

    its rising eissions especially due to oves on eissions by hina 7rail and

    6ndonesia. hina in fact has announced a 4# per cent to 4, per cent eissions intensity


    :+he prie inister's instructions to e was 6ndia has not caused the proble of global

    waring but try and a2e sure india is part of the solution; be constructive be

    proactive: Raesh said.

    :Baving global aspirations and assuing global responsibilities are two sides of the

    sae coin: the inister held.

    -nalysts fro the lanning oission who cae up with the /# per cent to /, per

    cent eission intensity reduction told 6-(? it would basically re&uire ipleentation of

    6ndia's solar energy plan a2ing vehicle eission caps andatory and giving

    incentives to energyefficient buildings.

    ?o 6ndia is going to the 5( raewor2 onvention on liate hange

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    who have got together to table an alternate draft that envisages industrialised

    countries reducing their 3B3 eissions by at least 4# per cent by /#/#.

    :6ndia will not accept a legally binding eission reduction cut and it will not accept a

    pea2ing date on its eissions: Raesh said.

    +he ain stic2ing points in the international negotiations reain according to diploatsfro developed and developing countries who have already arrived here. Will the

    industrialised countries coit significant eissions cutsD Will they coit significant

    funds to developing countries to deal with cliate changeD Will a way be found to

    transfer green technologies cheaply to developing countriesD

    +here is soe agreeent on associated points such as how to provide financial

    incentives to arrest deforestation so that trees can continue to absorb carbon.

    7ut no one is seriously e"pecting what the suit was originally andated to do

    coe up with a list of eission reduction targets by industrialised countries after /#1/

    and get fir coitents on the aount of oney these countries would pay to dealwith a proble alost totally of their creation diploats said.

    0eanwhile cliate change continue to plague the world affecting far output a2ing

    droughts floods and stors ore fre&uent and ore severe and raising the sea level.

    6ndia is aong the countries worst affected while Raesh said it is the :ost


    liate change is being caused by an increase in the concentration of 3B3s ainly

    carbon dio"ide in the atosphere due to unchec2ed industrial activities and an ever

    increasing population of vehicles.

    outh ndia I osted on Gan 1/ /#1/ at 1/F)!a 6?+

    4f !orro-s an* "opeH$B6F :+he sights and incidents which 6 had coe across ta2e e"pressions on y

    canvas. 0y paintings gab about the sorrows and grievances of woen and children

    difficulties of the downtrodden and other episodes that have touched y heart: says

    0ona ? 0ohan.

    ive students of R9 ollege of 0usic and -rts have displayed differed facets of life at

    7indhi -rt 3allery. +itled 'Root' the e"po is an eye candy for the art lovers. +he talent ofthe five final year 7- students

    -nagha - R -shil -nthony Ebby Eddasery Raesh and 0ona ? coes alive in the


    +he collection centres around thoughtful and realistic ideas. 0ona's untitled acrylic

    painting picturises a woan garbage pic2er throwing a baby wrapped in a cloth along

    with its doll into the garbage. 0ona says :6t issad that babies tend to be a burden for
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    couples who enter an early arriageand becoe parents. -s they get too little tie

    to spend with each otherthe interference of a child irritates the at soe point. +he

    painting conveys to the art lovers a situation where children are no longer wanted by

    their parents the sae way as toys are no longer the preferences of children. +he

    painting is priced at O)####.-nagha - R's oil painting of a pin2 flowery cactus plant has to do with thesooth and

    pric2ly sides of life. ?he tries to portray the inner eaning of thorns and flowers. +horns

    are the probles and sorrows of today and the flowers at the tip of the plant auger the

    good things e"pected to happen toorrow.

    ?he says :$ne should not ta2e their probles with a heavy heart. 7eoptiistic and

    live each day with the thought that there is a better toorrow.: 7oth 0ona's and

    -nagha's paintings are priced at O)####.

    -shil's painting which portray an inverted cylinder with a wooden piece across denotes

    the threats being faced by our forest.:5prooting one plant would be soething sall but ore of it will result in a dangerous

    situation. @eforestation for constructions will have a negative ipact on our

    environent. ?o let us put an end to deforestation and go in for afforestation: says

    -shil. Bis painting costs O1,###.

    $ut of the two paintings on a i"ed ediu of charcoal and acrylic r Ebey Edassery's

    painting of a 7odhi tree at first glance sees to be incoplete. +he lac2 of copletion

    has its own reasons. Be says :+he painting shows the incoplete e"pansion of the tree

    fro the top and fro the ground level. 6 copare this to the indefiniteness of huan

    life. +he two diensional aspect of the tree's growth is copared to the outer and inner

    growth of a huan life. an anyone predict the e"tent to which a person can growD:

    Ebey's wor2has a price tag of O /####.+he e"hibition will be on till ?aturday.

    "0 /hennaiI osted on 0ar #! /#1/ at #8F,/a 6?+

    e rea*+ for searing heat -ave7-(3-$REF With the teperature shooting up in the city followed by ounting heat

    wave conditions any hapless citiens have been coplaining of dehydration and

    water borne diseases. +he city doctors are advising citiens to stay indoors especially

    during pea2 hours and 2eep theselves well hydrated with ore fluids li2e fruit juices

    tender coconut butteril2 and plenty of water.

    7 uttanna @irector 0eteorological @epartent has warned of further rise in

    teperatures during the ne"t onth and in fact as2ed the residents to ar theselves

    with ubrellas and head scarves while travelling during the noon hours

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    ) p=. +he @irector however has ruled out any incidents of sunstro2es but has alerted

    the possibility of brea2 out of water borne diseases.

    +he @irector shared weather statistics of previous years when the city teperatures

    touched the scary proportions of teperatures as high as ), degrees or ore. M6n /##4

    the teperature in the onth of 0arch was )!.4 degrees elsius in 7angalore city while3ulbarga recorded a high of )>.>.3ulbarga recorded 4!.1 in 0ay /#1#. and this tie

    it is li2ely to shoot upN said 7 uttanna. +he people of (orth Harnata2a region are

    accliatised to heat but any thing between )4 to ), degree elsius the people of

    7angalore are unable to tolerate .

    M6n these conditions the day will be as long as 1/.,4 hours thereby turning very hot

    and huid. 6n 7angalore the teperature touched an all tie record of )*.) degrees in

    188! and this was due to rapid deforestation in and around 7angalore and now again

    the teperature ay touch scary heightsN he said.Be asserted that higher the

    population densityhigher the teperature. 7angalore is a good e"aple wherecontinuous deforestation has resulted in ecological ibalance. Be said M7angalore and

    0adi2eri will see fluctuation in teperatures due to the high altitude of these two

    regions. -t the sae tie (orth Harnata2a will be e"periencing high teperatures as

    witnessed every year.N Bowever he also claied MWhen the teperature is high during

    the suers we can e"pect ore rainfall during the onsoons. Bence this is the right

    tie for the 770 to ta2e up preonsoon wor2 to ensure that the low lying areas are

    not flooded during heavy rains.N

    onsultant physician with 9ictoria Bospital @r Raveendra H R saidF M6t is advisable to

    wear loosefitting lightcolored clothing during this periods of intense heat.N Be also

    aintained that it is always advisable to avoid eating out in restaurants or sall food


    $igha !hankarpur $evelopment Authorit+

    hol*s )oar* meeting to take *ecisions to

    *evelop the coastal areas4BATA( The $igha !hankarpur $evelopment Authorit+5$!$A hel* a )oar*

    meeting last -eek an* have taken several *ecisions to *evelop the coastal )elt.

    Among the *ecisions that have )een taken, lan*scaping -ill )e *one in t-o others

    places apart from the stretch along -ith the $igha gate. "otels -ill )e reueste*
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    to take up roa*si*e )eautification in the area. A plot near @*aipur )each a little

    ffar from :e- $igha -ill )e set up for auction for a three/star hotel. The auction

    -ill )e hel* soon. esi*es, a )u*get hotel -ill )e set up on a half/complete

    structure in $igha -here the top floor -ill )e given to $!$A.

    Among the other *ecisions taken, the authorities -ill appoint ':ulias' to ensure

    the safet+ of the tourists in the sea as it has )een notice* )+ the authorities that

    uite a fe- fatal inci*ents of *ro-ning has occurre* recentl+. Also, an electric

    crematorium -ill )e set up on -a+ to the $igha mohana.

    The authorities -ill soon float epression of interests to invite private pla+ers for

    setting up a rope/-a+ in Amravati ark. The plan is to attract more tourists. The

    authorities -ill also take up *rainage -orks in critical areas -here -ater logging

    occurs an* the forest *epartment -ill also spee* up afforestation -ork in thearea.

    &esi*ents a*opte* trees3aurav 7hatia+(( I-ug > /#1/ #1.//0 6?+

    C"A:$8A&"( n a uniue in its -a+ a >Tree A*option $rive> -as starte* in

    sector 17. !aura)h Joshi, Councilor of ?ar* :o. 2, has taken initiative to keep the

    cit+ green -ith a completel+ innovativeTree a*option $rive. The Councillor

    along -ith his team reueste* the resi*ents of !ector 17$ to a*opt a sapling

    each an* nourish it as their o-n. =or this special *rive the "orticulture -ing of

    Municipal Corporation of Chan*igarh provi*e* aroun* 170 saplings, an* out of

    170 saplings 3< saplings -ere a*opte* )+ enthusiastic families. t -ere mostl+ the

    age* -ho came for-ar* -ith great pleasure an* ple*ge* to care an* nourish the

    sapling as their chil*ren. %ven the chil*ren an* +outh steppe* for-ar* to carr+

    the responsi)ilit+ of a sapling each. n this *rive the A$C Mahavir aushik,

    Mukesh Anan*, !% Municipal Corporation, Jang !her, !$%, 8urmukh !ingh,

    !"4 an* other officials of Municipal Corporation -ere present.

    !aura)h Joshi, Councillor plea*e* the families to care an* groom the saplings as

    their o-n famil+ an* make this environmental *rive a success. "e eplaine* as to

    -h+ this ne- thought -as reuire* )ecause onl+ planting a sapling -oul* never

    ensure a tree in future. Just like chil*ren it nee*s complete an* proper care an*

    protection. eing environment frien*l+ himself he )elieves in the phrase >&eap

    ?hat #ou !o->, -hich is nee* of the hour.
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    !h Mahavir aushik, A$C greatl+ appreciate* this ne- concept as taking

    complete care of the plante* sapling -oul* make sure a health+ plant in the

    future -ith a cent percent a**ition to the afforestation campaign. "e hope* for

    such an effort to )e carrie* ever+-here an* aroun* the cit+ -hich -oul* ensurethe cit+ green an* )eautiful in the future as -ell. Mukesh Anan*, !% "orticulture,

    applau*e* this meaningful concept. "e assure* to carr+ this effort aroun* the

    cit+ as it -oul* involve* the societ+ an* make them a-are ant responsi)le

    to-ar*s their environment.

    The Cure Is The DenseForestation

    PT Bureau:

    India is likely to launch a satellite, as informed by the Environment andForest Minister Jairam Ramesh, to inspect environmental conditions

    !"# $reenhouse emissions, encroachments on forest tracts,recedin$ and meltin$ of $laciers etc% !"# till &'(&% )o*everthe satellite surveillance on environment, thou$h a hi$h+tech

    dia$nosis, is not a cure% he real timely -uestion is for .sia and.frica to follo* Europe in $oin$ in for dense forestation

    Except Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal and Bhutan perhaps no other Asian countryincluding China and India can claim to have even 33.33 per cent land, the minimumreuired as per !orest policy, under dense !orest cover. "he data o! A!rican !orest covertoo, almost resem#les that o! Asia. Both the continents, though highly #ehind in time,

    $ould #e advantaged i! they learnt ho$ Europeans maintain their !orests.

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    Addressing apress con!erence on climate change on May %%, &'%' Indian Environment and (orestMinister Jairam )amesh declared that India $ould launch a satellite #y &'%&, !orsurveillance o! environmental conditions namely, greenhouse emissions, encroachmentson !orest tracts and receding and melting o! glaciers. *! course, satellite surveillance o!the environment might reveal some ne$ !acts in the context o! climate change,diagnose the environmental ailments more e!!iciently and analytically and suggest#etter control measures. But it is neither a cure !or environmental im#alance nor asu#stitute o! political $ill+po$er essential !or dense !orestation o! minimum 33.33 percent area o! country.

    Japan is a country o! distinction in Asia. It had a population density eual to that o!India in the %-'s. But it adopted a minimum land+use policy, leading to construction o!vertically expanded dense housing colonies in such a manner that more that / percent o! its total area could #e made availa#le to dense !orests and pasturages. "he$hole o! Europe, though having much lesser population density than Japan, developedin a similar manner leaving around 0' per cent land under dense !orest cover. 1incemid &'thcentury, trained civil engineers and architects !rom Asian countries li2e Indiaand China have #een migrating to the countries $here they $ere really reuired. Ahoriontally expanded housing has #een the only li!estyle pattern !ollo$ed #y most

    Asian countries. )ecently, the environment icon ).4. 5achauri has #lamed haphaardur#an expansion !or the environmental im#alance.

    "he Asian and A!rican continents possess #elo$ %6 per cent the land under scattered!orest cover. "he !orest cover !igures o! countries li2e Bangladesh and 5a2istan are only

    seven and t$o per cent respectively. India and China, the t$o populous and large Asiancountries, have !orest cover #elo$ %/ per cent. In these circumstances, a strong

    political $ill+po$er to modi!y li!estyle pattern so as to maintain minimum 33.33 percent land under dense !orest cover is more urgently reuired !or Asian or A!rican

    countries, rather than a high+tech environmental diagnostic aid li2e satellitesurveillance.
  • 8/13/2019 The Disappearing Rainforests


    /atellite surveillance of the environment mi$ht reveal ne* facts in the conte0tof climate chan$e, but it is neither a cure for environmental imbalance nor a

    substitute of political *ill+po*er essential for dense forestation

    Tren* reverse*, forest cover up in ihar0adhuri Huar +(( I-ug / /#1/ #4.//-0 6?+

    According to India State of Forest Report, 2011, based on the analysis of satellite data prepared by

    Forest Survey of India, Dehradun, the total forest cover in Bihar has increased fro !,"0#s$% in 200& to

    !,"#'s$% in 2011(

    AT:A( The alluring trees of gulmohar, amaltas, kachnar etc, -hich once *otte*

    the state capital's lan*scape, -ere felle* for -i*ening of roa*s an* other

    *evelopment proects. ?hile felling these trees, ple*ges -ere taken to plant more

    trees, )ut precious little has )een *one so far. The situation is no *ifferent in the

    rest of ihar an* the countr+.

    n this )ack*rop of vanishing trees, there is some goo* ne-s in ihar. 4f late, the

    forest cover in our state has increase* marginall+. An increase of 91skm of forest

    cover )et-een 200 an* 2011 might )e terme* as >marginal> )ut its significance

    lies in the fact that the countr+ lost ;63skm of forest cover in the same perio*.

    Accor*ing to n*ia !tate of =orest &eport, 2011, )ase* on the anal+sis of satellite

    *ata prepare* )+ =orest !urve+ of n*ia 5=!, $ehra*un, the total forest cover in

    ihar has increase* from 6, of 0.;D in ihar's forest cover is the result of an increase

    of ;2skm in mo*eratel+ *ense forests an* skm in open forests. :o change -as

    o)serve* in the categor+ of ver+ *ense forests since 2003, -hich stoo* at

    2;1skm. The state capital has 1;skm of mo*eratel+ *ense forests an* ;skm of

    open forests. The present forest cover accounts for 3.23D of the total geographical

    area of the state, as per =! report.
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    This turnaroun* in forest cover has )een )rought a)out thanks to the state

    government's emphasis on afforestation. CM :itish umar is chanting the eco

    mantra like sel*om )efore )+ an+ chief minister. >There is a competition among

    J$ [email protected] -orkers no- to plant more an* more trees, The *a+ is not far off -hen the

    state capital -ill turn into a gar*en cit+,> sai* state J$ [email protected] presi*ent Eashisth:ara+an !ingh. To make its '8reen ihar' mission a success, the state

    government is also *istri)uting 20 lakh free saplings from August 1 to August .

    >The increase in green cover in the state is *ue mainl+ to enhance* plantation

    activities in an* outsi*e the forests. The state government is no- targeting to

    increase the forest cover to 17D, un*er the recentl+/ launche* '"ari+ali' mission

    )+ the environment an* forests *epartment in June 2012,> sai* principal chief

    conservator of forests A han. f half of the saplings plante* *uring the entire

    mission survive, ihar -ill have several lakhs of ne- trees, he a**e*.

    4nl+ recentl+, *eput+ chief minister !ushil umar Mo*i ha* announce* that

    school stu*ents an* poor families -oul* also )e involve* in the massive tree

    plantation *rive un*er M:&%8A, an* the eisting Chhatra Eriksharopan #oana

    -oul* )e given a ne- shape to make the afforestation plan a great success. This

    +ear alone, the government is planning to plant 10 crore trees in *ifferent parts of

    the state.

    Mo*i ha* also state* that onl+ fruit/)earing an* -oo*/oriente* trees -oul* )eplante* on school campus, roa* or high-a+s si*e an* religious places. The

    schools -hich ecelle* in this *rive -oul* )e re-ar*e* at state level. %ach

    pancha+at -oul* )e *irecte* to plant at least 6,000 trees, a**e* Mo*i.

    CBI probe sought in allotment of sea area for afforestation?aeed Hhan+(( I -ug 4 /#1/ #1./40 6?+

    A"M%$AA$( $i* the state government allotte* sea portion to the forest *epartment in lieu of the lan* grante* for

    in*ustrial *evelopment in the A*ani ort !pecial %conomic Fone 5A!%F in utchG

    ABhas come to )e file* accusing the same an* *eman*ing a pro)e )+ the Central ureau of nvestigationfor the

    allege* scan*al involving officials of the revenue an* forest *epartments. The high court on =ri*a+ grante* t-o -eeks'

    time to the state government to eplain the issue an* kept further hearing on August 16.

    The B file* )+ 8uarat ra*esh Congress Committee's office )earer A*am Chaki through a*vocate " !+e*

    conten*e* that the state government -as reuire* to give compensator+ lan* of 73.37 hectare in utch to the forest

    *epartment, since eual chunk of lan* -as given to theA*ani groupin Mun*ra )lock in southern utch for the
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    purpose of in*ustrial *evelopment. ut the lan* given to the forest *epartment for afforestation in the +ear 2000 in

    Bakhpat )lock -as actuall+ a sea area, as it falls 700 metre north of Bakhpat.

    The B further allege* that in 2003, the state government allotte* 2000 hectare lan* to the forest *epartment in

    similar fashion. An* -hen an epert committee visite* the spot upon the "C or*ers for inspection, the government

    officials frau*ulentl+ sho-e* them another chunk of lan*. The committee also *i* not make an+ remark a)out it,

    though the location of the lan* an* measurement -ere at variance from the *ata sho-n on paper.

    The petitioner allege* that the state government -as given :4C )+or*er !ecurit+ =orcefor plantation of

    mangroves, )ut the state government misun*erstoo* the :4C an* veste* the plots in the name of the forest

    *epartment as if the lan* -as transferre* )+ the securit+ force to the government.

    t -as conten*e* )+ a*vocate !+e* that the government officials collu*e* -ith the compan+ to pass off -rong piece of

    lan* as the one allotte* to the forest *epartment for the greening the area. "e *eman*e* a pro)e )+ the central

    agenc+ claiming that since the state government is allege*l+ involve* in the *ealH local police coul* not *o ustice to

    the issue.

    $evelopment fun*s for green cover loss elu*e eonhar *istricts

    (aresh handra attanaya2+(( I Gul /! /#1/ 1/.410 6?+

    eonhar( $espite collecting more than &s 1,;00 crore from various mines an* in*ustries of eonhar *istrict, the

    Compensator+ Afforestation =un* Management an* lanning Authorit+ 5CAMA has *one little for the *evelopment

    of the people an* environment of the mineral/rich eonhar *istrict.

    CAMA -as constitute* )+ the @nion ministr+ of environment an* forests for collecting mone+ from mining

    companies accor*ing to the loss of environment an* forest cover cause* *ue to mining an* in*ustrial activities. The

    collecte* fun* is suppose* to )e investe* in the *evelopment of the affecte* areas.

    The amount of the compensation is to )e *eci*e* accor*ing to the net premium value 5:E of forest *amage, cost of

    compensator+ afforestaion, cost of maintenance of safet+ Iones an* cost of regional -il* life management plan. There

    are a)out 110 mines in the *istrict. Till *ate, the companies have *eposite* a total of &s 1,;22 crore to the CAMA

    fun* through the forest *epartment.

    >The fun* -as collecte* from *ifferent companies against the loss of green cover cause* )+ them. "ence [email protected]

    governmentshoul* spen* most part of the amount for the *evelopment of the *istrict an* for compensating the

    *amage cause* )+ in*ustries. n stea* of that, the government is *iverting the fun*s to other *istricts. eonhar

    suffers from intense air an* -ater pollution an* health haIar*s o-ing to the presence of so man+ mines an*

    in*ustries here. ro)lems like *amage* roa*s, rise in acci*ents, *ecline in -ater ta)le, rise in infant mortalit+ rate are

    also cause* )+ these in*ustries. Tri)al/*ominate* Jo*a, Champua, Jhumpura, anspal an* "ata*ihi )locks are the

    -orst affecte* areas. The government shoul* take steps to *ivert more mone+ from the CAMA fun* to the *istrict's

    *evelopment,> sai* Amara)ara hatua, an e/Fila arisha* mem)er.
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    >This fun* can )e utiliIe* in plantations *rives, roa* construction, protection of forests an* -il* animals, irrigation or

    renovation of -ater )o*ies, upgra*e of *rinking -ater facilities in the affecte* areas,> he a**e*.

    eonhar $=4Aa+ umarJena sai*, >&ecentl+, -e receive* &s 10 lakh from the CAMA fun* for upgra*ing

    electricit+ infrastructure in the forests so that elephants *on't get electrocute* from coming in contact -ith lo-/

    hanging -ires. More mone+ shoul* )e spent from the over 1;00 crore fun* for the overall *evelopment of the *istrict

    an* the poor people living here.>

    @n*er CAMA, the rate of compensation for forest loss is calculate* accor*ing to the *ensit+ of forest. The compan+

    has to *eposit a)out &s 3 lakh per hectare forest loss. esi*es, the amount collecte* for regional -il* life management

    is &s 20,000 per hectare, an* the cost of maintenance of safet+ Iones is &s ;;,000 per hectare. This apart, the cost of

    compensator+ afforestion is &s ;6,000 per hectare an* the cost of afforestation is a)out 1.7 time of the cost of

    maintenance of safet+ Iones.

    Bocals sai* even people's representatives are not taking up the issue. The+ also sai* in*ustrial )o*ies -ere not

    fulfilling their corporate social responsi)ilities.

    !u)arna :aik, MBA eonhar !a*ar, sai*, >The central government shoul* *ivert more mone+ from CAMA fun* for

    the *evelopment of the *istrict. This *istrict is suffering from huge *amage to environment o-ing to mining activities.

    The companies are also not performing peripher+ *evelopment activities as per the rule.>

    eonhar collectorraakishore :a+ak sai*, >The government shoul* *ivert fun*s collecte* from this area for the

    *evelopment of this *istrict. This *istrict is suffering a lot *ue to mining activities. Tri)als an* the poor are suffering

    most. The companies also shoul* take up C!& activities properl+.>

    3lo(al deforestation slowed over lastdecade! 0Roe 0ar /,

  • 8/13/2019 The Disappearing Rainforests


    - report by the 5.(. ood and -griculture $rganisation

    .) illion a year in

    the 188#s than2s largely to abitious tree planting prograes in -sia.

    Efforts by ajor offenders such as 6ndonesia and 7rail to reduce deforestation also helped

    reverse the trend.

    :or the first tie we are able to show that the rate of deforestation has decreased globally

    as a result of concerted efforts ta2en both at local and international level: said Eduardo

    Rojas assistant director of -$'s orestry @epartent.

    +he -$ said tougher legislation had helped curb destruction of woodland. ?eventysi"

    countries have issued or updated forest policies since /### any of the allocatingwoodland to local counities for sustainable developent.

    +he proportion of forests contained in national par2s and other legallyprotected areas has

    clibed to 1) percent having risen by 84 illion hectares since 188#.

    orests cover just over 4 billion hectares or )1 percent of the world's total land area. +hey

    store soe />8 gigatonnes of carbon ore than all the carbon in the atosphere but

    this decreased by #., gigatonnes a year during /###/#1#.

    :- lower deforestation rate and the establishent of new forests have helped bring down

    the high level of carbon eissions fro forests caused by deforestation: said 0ette oyche

    Wil2ie coordinator of -$'s 3lobal orest Resources -ssessent /#1#.

    7EP$(@ /#/#D

    Bowever Wil2ie warned tree planting prograes in hina 6ndia and 9ietna accounting

    for ost of the recent gains in forest area would end by /#/#. ?he urged governents to

    &uic2ly put in place easures to slow deforestation.

    :Without such interventions we ris2 a sudden return to high rates of net forest loss and of

    carbon eissions fro forests which we had in the 188#s: Wil2ie said.

  • 8/13/2019 The Disappearing Rainforests


    6ndonesia sharply reduced the speed of its deforestation to #., illion hectares a year

    between /### and /#1# versus 1.8 illion a year during the previous decade. 7rail

    lowered its own figure to /.! illion fro /.8 illion hectares.

    ?outh -erica nonetheless had the highest regional level of net deforestation at 4 illion

    hectares a year followed by -frica with ).4 illion hectares.

    -sia by contrast e"panded its forest area by a total of close to /./ illion hectares a year

    than2s to the reforestation in hina 6ndia and 9ietna which added 4 illion hectares a

    year of fresh woodland.

    6n (orth and entral -erica the forest area reained fairly stable while in Europe it

    continued to e"pand although at a slower rate than previously.

    3overnment (lames 0a6als fordeforestation(ew @elhi eb * /#1/ @B(?F

    n the last two years, half of ndia7s forest loss was caused (y 0a6als in the

    4hammam district of Andhra Pradesh. 4hammam is one of the hot(eds of 8eft wing


    Even though 6ndiaJs forest cover was reduced by )!* s& 2 between /##8 and /#11 the

    ost significant loss of 1>/ s& 2 happened in Hhaa which the officials attributed to

    (a"al activities.

    M+he loss happened due to rising eft wing e"treis in si" to eight onths between /##>

    and /##8. Either they cut ostly tea2 by theselves or as2 villagers to do it in patchesN

    5nion Environent ?ecretary + hatterjee said releasing the ?tate of orest Report /#11

    here. ?iilar trend was also observed in Warangal district.

    Hhaa shares its border with hhattishgarh and $disha. 6t acts as a buffer one for the

    eft wing e"treists who fre&uently ove bac2 and forth in these three states depending on

    pressure fro security agencies.

    +he otive for villagers according to hatterjee is to see2 district adinistrationJs attention

    so that they can provide aids for developent.

    +he officials however s2irted &uestions on how tiber fro 1>/ s& 2 of forests can

    vanish in thin air without any records. +hey also did not answer &uestions on if any probe is

    being carried out to find out what happened to the valuable forest resource.

    0a"iu forest and tree cover loss was reported fro -ndhra radesh where alost 88 s&

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    2 of eucalyptus plantation was cut and sent to paper ills. +wo decades ago the state

    received perission for growing eucalyptus which has now been cut and auctioned off for

    the industry.

    orest and tree cover in unjab grew by 1## s& 2 as the state planted eucalyptus and

    poplar under various agroforestry schees. orest cover in Harnata2a reains ore or

    less static with an overall increase of ere 4 s& 2 of forest area. orest rich (orth

    Eastern states li2e 0anipur (agaland 0iora and -runachal radesh too lost soe of

    their forest covers due to the reduced cycle of traditional shifting cultivation practice said -

    H Wahal @irector3eneral of orest ?urvey of 6ndia which brought out the biennial report.

    $verall 6ndiaJs forest and tree cover stand at /).>1 per cent of the country's geographical

    area that includes /.*! per cent tree cover. +here is an increase of ,,# s& 2 of dense

    forests where endangered species lived hatterjee said. +he reduction in forest and tree

    cover did not have any ipact on flora and fauna.

    $ A/, "), ".)8A0 1!2, A3A4#A #A14,2##

    Free saplings for government departments in0agpur(-35RF 6t is the state governent's drea project to plant a 1## crore trees in the state.

    3iving an ipetus to this drea the forest departent has decided to provide free

    saplingsto governent departents.

    - governent resolutionhas said that saplings fro the forest departent nurseries rununder the 0ahata 3andhi (ational Rural Eployent 3uarantee ?chee will be given

    to governent departentswithout any charges for planting under the 1## crore tree

    plantation project.

    (agpurforest departent has 4# la2h saplings in its ), nurseries which will be available to

    various governent offices free of charge. +he governent offices can contact the range

    forest officer

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    A multi-disciplinary e6pert committee that pro(ed into the reasons for the landslide

    in 4arwar which claimed *1 lives during the 2cto(er floods has found that

    deforestation and large scale e6cavation of soil from the hilllock lead to the tragedy.

    +he coittee lead by @r + 9 Raachandra fro the entre for Ecological ?ciences

    6ndian 6nstitute of ?cience along with officials fro the forest and ines departents found

    that a total of /1 landslides had occurred in Harwar including the 2iller landslide at Hadvad

    village due to antecedent rainfall. +he landslide had resulted due to reoval of deeprooted

    vegetation besides lateral pressure due to swelling of oversaturated clay rich soil horion.

    +he report was subitted to hief 0inister 7 ? Peddyurappa at a function organised by the

    @epartent of orest and Environent and Western 3hats +as2 orce.

    +he coittee has recoended planting of native vegetation on hilltops and slopes

    restoration of natural drainage networ2 banning of illegal soil ining. +he coittee hasalso suggested that authorities concerned reodel the protection wall around the (aval

    7ase in Harwar to pave way for natural drainage of rain water.

    0o to large scale pro'ects

    +he coittee has recoended that no large scale developent projects be ta2en up in

    5ttara Hannada district that are li2ely to har the ecology and biodiversity of the Western

    3hats. Monsidering the ipleentation of large nuber of ega projects in Harwar it

    appears that the region has e"ceeded the carrying capacity and further ipleentation of

    any ega project would prove detriental to the local populationN the coittee reportsubitted to the 0 said.

    7esides the coittee has pointed out the Hon2an Railway trac2 connecting Harwar town

    with 3oa and other places passes through the Qariwada paleoriver valley and also crosses

    the lineaents. +he vibrations generated by oveent of trains has developed crac2s on

    hill tops and also resulted in the loosening of the soil the report said

    Peddyurappa also approved the launch of a scientific study project on Mintegrated carrying

    capacity study and sustainable developent strategies in 5ttara Hannada districtN.

    +he entre for Ecological ?ciences 66?c will be conducting the study which will serve as aguide for policy a2ers to choose appropriate developent projects which are in tune with

    the ecology of the district.

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    Deforestation with missionary 5eal?rinivas ?irnoor2ar 3ulbarga 0ay 1) @B(?F

    The 0ational Forest Policy may have an am(itious plan of having at least 99.99 per

    cent of the total geographical area under forest, (ut 3ul(arga district appears to have

    (een e6cluded forever from the [email protected] the forest departent being e"clusively eant for increasing the forest cover

    having an elephantine establishent ever since the foration of the ?tate the forest cover

    in the district continues to reain a ridiculous three per cent.

    WhatJs ore the forest cover has been on the decline slowly but steadily. (evertheless the

    3ulbarga ircle and the 3ulbarga @ivision of the departent continue to have a huge

    establishent of forest babus including three 6? officers a conservator of forests and two

    deputy conservators of forest for territorial forestry and social forestry.

    +he departent has been relentlessly cutting trees both in rural and urban areas withoutfollowing any of the statutory guidelines and nors. +he +ree reservation -ct has been

    totally neglected resulting in alaring deforestation in the district which once upon a tie

    was part of a thic2 forest area.

    +o a Right +o 6nforation -ct &uery by @eccan Berald the departent refused to divulge

    the details of the nuber of trees a"ed in the district in the last five years. 6t has refused to

    provide the copies of the procedure followed in each case of tree cut.

    +he @eputy onservator of orests 4/ and where

    teperature can cross 4! degree elsius in 0ay.

    +he aladinistration in the forest departent is evident fro the constant decline in forest

    cover. -ccording to the @$ 3ulbarga district has a forest area of )/8*4 hectares which

    accounts for only three per cent of the total geographical area of 1#841.!! s& 2.

    5ndisputedly there has been a steady decline in the forest cover.

    6n 18!4!, the forest cover was )>,,) hectares which declined to )48>! hectares in

    188)84. 6t further reduced to )/>*4 hectares in /#1#11. +hat eans in the last 4, years

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    the forest cover of the district has reduced by !#*8 hectares. +he @ adits that there

    has been no increase in forest area. +he revenue fro nontiber forest produce

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    until the copletion of the (aa etro analyse its ipact and only then coe to a

    decision on the roadwidening project.

    +he residents are collectively concerned over the ajor deforestation that will ta2e place

    once the road widening gets going. 6ncidentally the residents around ?tella 0aris ?chool

    have been wa2ing up to find ageold trees around their place surreptitiously chopped down

    in the night.

    @r. 0eena2shi 7harath eber of the 0?6 says [email protected] the integral 7angalore is not

    the solution. - survey was done in 0arch and the pea2 traffic density was found to be below

    the a"ial for a road of that width.N

    ampige road widening issues

    (ot far away fro the ?an2ey road is the ?apige road. Widening of this road has becoeeven ore contentious with the 770Js recent deolition of the 0antri 0all rap and the

    copound of the residential 0antri 3reens property.

    Echoing the 0antri @evelopers view of KvestedJ interests being the reason behind the

    KunjustifiedJ deolition the spo2esperson for the 0antri 3reen residential apartent

    ownerJs association saysF M- lot of hue and cry over the widening of the ?apige Road

    appears to have started after the 770 elections.N

    rabha2ar Rao the president of the RW- feels the ali2e oissioner ay have been

    KforcedJ to give the order. +he four etre land ac&uisition by 770 will also bring abouthuge changes which ay include the deolition of the ?ri haundeshwari +eple

    located within the preises and reduction in the par2ing space of school buses ferrying

    children. +he 0antri residents clai this also poses potential danger since the children will

    have to use the widened ?apige road to board or alight fro the bus.

    M$ur suggestion as per the views of architects we have consulted is that a dedicated auto

    lane on the left side of the treeswith the trees acting as a edian will help reduce the traffic

    congestion on the roadN says 0eena2shi 7harat.

    Ashwath 0arayana, &8A, &alleswaram

    :+he situation will turn gri in the coing few years with a lot of highrises coing up in

    0alleswara. Widening ?an2ey Road is the only possible solution to ease the congestion

    of traffic oving fro Peshwanthpur towards the ity.:

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    A P irur, President, &alleswaram wa(himana nitiative

    :Restricting the traffic and prooting use of public vehicles is the proper solution. 6n the long

    run there will be no space for people to live if you 2eep widening the road.:

    =eena Raman, Resident, ankey Road

    :Road widening is really unnecessary. +he trees have been there for years this shouldnJt

    be the price we have to pay for developent. 6t is only going to aggravate the current


    Paying farmers to save the Ama5on forestsElisabeth Rosenthal

    The new argument is that cash payments are the only way to end destruction of

    tropical forests

    Gose 0arcolini a farer has a perit fro the 7railian

    governent to rae 1/,## acres of rain forest this year to

    create highly profitable new soy fields. 7ut he says he is

    struggling with his conscience. - 7railian environental

    group is offering hi a yearly cash payent to leave his forest

    standing to help cobat cliate change.

    0arcolini says he cares about the environent. 7ut he also has a faily to feed and he isdubious that the groupJs initial offer in the negotiation L A1/ per acre per year L is enough

    for hi to accept.

    Mor e to resist the pressure surrounded by soybeans 6Jll have to be paid L a lotN said

    0arcolini ,) noting that cleared farland in the state of 0ato 3rosso sells for up to A1)##

    an acre.

    0ato 3rosso eans thic2 forests and the nae was once apt. 7ut today this 7railian

    state is a global centre of deforestation. @riven by profits derived fro fertile soil the

    regionJs dense forests have been aggressively cleared over the past decade and 0ato3rasso is now 7railJs leading producer of soy corn and cattle e"ported across the globe

    by ultinational copanies.

    @eforestation a critical contributor to cliate change effectively accounts for /# per cent of

    the worldJs carbon dio"ide eissions and *# per cent of the eissions in 7rail. Balting new

    deforestation e"perts say is as powerful a way to cobat waring as closing the worldJs

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    coal plants.

    7ut until now there has been no financial reward for 2eeping forest standing. - growing

    nuber of scientists politicians and environentalists argue that cash payents are the

    only way to end tropical forest destruction and provide a gaechanging strategy in efforts

    to liit global waring.

    imple solution

    5nli2e hightech solutions li2e capturing and se&uestering carbon dio"ide or a2ing KgreenJ

    fuel fro algae preserving a forest yields a stri2ingly siple environental paybac2F a

    landowner reduces his propertyJs eissions to ero.

    Pvo de 7oer e"ecutive secretary 5( raewor2 on liate hange said that

    deforestation KabsolutelyJ needed to be addressed by a new international cliate agreeent

    being negotiated this year. M7ut people cut down trees because there is an econoicrationale for doing it and you need to provide the with a financial alternativeN he said.

    +he payent strategies ay include direct payents to landowners to 2eep forests

    standing as well as indirect subsidies li2e higher prices for beef and soy that are produced

    without resorting to clearcutting. @eforestation creates carbon eissions through fires and

    achinery that are used to fell trees and it also destroys the plant life that helps absorb

    carbon dio"ide eissions fro cars and factories around the globe.

    7ut getting the cash incentives right is a cople" and uncharted business. 6n uch of the

    developing world deforestation has been tied to econoic progress.

    edro -lves 3uiaraes *) a weathered an sitting at the edge of the regionJs River of the

    @ead cae to 0ato 3rosso in 18!4 in search of free land pushing into the jungle until he

    found a site and built a hut as a base for raising cattle. While he regrets the loss of the

    forest he has welcoed aenities li2e the school built a few years ago that his

    grandchildren attend or the electricity put in last year that allowed hi to buy his first


    -lso environental groups caution that designed poorly prograes to pay for forest

    preservation could erely serve as a cash cow for the very people who are destroyingthe. or e"aple one proposed version of the new 5( plan would allow plantations of

    trees li2e pals grown for pal oil to count as forest even though tree plantations do not

    have nearly the carbon absorption potential of genuine forest and are far less diverse in

    plant and anial life.

    3lobal as well as local econoic forces are driving deforestation L 7rail and 6ndonesia

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    lead the world in the e"tent of their rain forests lost each year. +he forests are felled to help

    feed the worldJs growing population and eet its growing appetite for eat. 0uch of 7railJs

    soy is bought by -ericanbased copanies li2e argill or -rcher @aniels 0idland and

    used to feed cows as far away as Europe and hina. 6n 6ndonesia rain forests are felled to

    plant pals for the pal oil which is a coponent of biofuels.

    7rail has tried to balance developent and conservation.

    8aws fail

    ast year with a grant fro (orway that could bring the country A1 billion it created an

    -aon und to help counities aintain their forest. (ational laws stipulate that >#

    percent of every tract in the upper -aon ust reain forested but it is a vast territory

    with little law enforceent. ?oy e"porters officially have a oratoriu on using product fro

    newly deforested land.

    6n 0ato 3rasso *## s&uare iles of rain forest was stripped in the last five onths of /##*

    alone according to 7railJs (ational 6nstitute for ?pace Research which trac2s vanishing


    MWith so uch oney to be ade there are no laws that will 2eep forest standingN said

    Gohn arter a rancher who settled here 1, years ago as he flew his essna over the

    denuded land one day earlier this suer.

    5ntil very recently developing the -aon was the priority and soe settlers feel betrayed

    by the new stiga surrounding deforestation. 0uch as in the 18thcentury -erican Westthe 7railian governent encouraged settleent through hoesteadersJ benefits li2e cheap

    land and housing subsidies any of which still e"ist today.

    learing away the trees is often the best way to declare and ensure ownership. and that

    arter has intentionally left forested for its environental benefit has been interittently

    overta2en by s&uatters. 6n parts of ?outheast -sia early e"perients in paying landowners

    for preserving forest have been hapered because it is often unclear who owns or

    controls property.

    +here are various ideas about how to rein in deforestation.

    +he 5( prograe called Reducing Eissions fro @eforestation and orest @egradation

    or [email protected]@ will reward countries that preserve forests with carbon credits that can be sold

    and turned into cash for forest owners through the global carbon ar2et.

    @aniel (epstad a scientist at the Woods Bole 6nstitute has recently apped out large

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    areas of the -aon Kpi"el by pi"elJ to deterine the land value if it was converted to raise

    cattle or grow soy to help deterine how uch landowners should be paid to conserve

    forest. 0ost e"perts feel that landowners will accept lower prices as they realise the benefits

    of saving forest li2e conserving water and burnishing their iage with buyers.

    (he e" )or# (i$es

    Forests now in the fight against climatechange7y 0arianne de (aareth

    Deforestation is the second largest cause of glo(al greenhouse gas emissions.

    0ost tropical forests are found in developing nations who have few developent optionsother than converting their trees into coodities to achieve poverty reduction and e2e out

    a living. +he international deand for products li2e beef coffee soy paloil and tiber

    drives deforestation worldwide.

    7ut scientists have clearly stated that we cannot avoid dangerous global waring without

    action on deforestation which causes around /# per cent of all carbon eissions L ore

    than the entire global transport sector put together. @espite this evidence 1) illion

    hectares of tropical forests continue to be destroyed each year. ro that figure ,., illion

    hectares are rain forests which is an area twice the sie of 7elgiu.

    +ropical rainforests cover 18 illion 2 of the planet and store a &uarter of the carbon on

    land. +ropical old forests store 1/#4## tonnes of carbon per hectare. ?o protecting old

    forests reduces $/ eissions cost effectively and &uic2ly. Bistorically developing

    countries cannot be held accountable for causing cliate change. 7ut the forests in the

    countries offer one of the cheapest ost efficient and iediate solutions to the worldJs

    rapidly rising carbon eissions which can be seen in the ?tern 0cHinsey and the

    6nternational anel on liate hange

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    process and the ris2 to the world is building up into a cliate crisis. @eforestation is the

    second largest cause of global greenhouse gas eissions. -round 1> per cent of global

    greenhouse gas eissions /#1/ are e"pected to e&ual 4# billion tonnes of $/

    which could raise atospheric levels of $/ by / parts per illion

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    (ative forests in 6ndia are disappearing at a rate of up to /.* percent per

    year. +he figures published in an analysis of the countryJs forest cover

    stand in star2 contrast to those of a /##8 survey by an 6ndian

    governental organisation which said that forests have e"panded by

    five percent over the past decade.

    6ndia is aong the ost densely forested countries in the world and in /##> the

    governent announced goals to increase forest cover by nearly 1# percent by /#1/. +he

    6ndia ?tate of orest Report /##8 by the orest ?urvey of 6ndia

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    total forest cover as easured by reotesensing iagery and found that coverage of

    native 6ndian forests actually declined by 1., /.* percent between 188, and /##, an

    MalaringN average of /.4 percent a year and a loss of ore than 1/4### s&uare 2iloetres

    over the decade.

    +he researchers chec2ed these figures against changes in forest biovolue