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Download The Axial Skeleton - Woodland Hills School Axial Skeleton... · The Axial Skeleton The Axial Skeleton

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  • Name ____________________________________________________________ Period_____

    The Axial Skeleton

    The Axial Skeleton

    Forms the __________________________________ of the body

    Divided into _______________________

    _________________________________

    _________________________________

    _________________________________

    The Skull

    Two sets of bones

    o __________________ encloses & protects brain

    o ______________________________ holds eyes in anterior position & allows

    the facial muscles to show emotions. All but 1 of the bones are joined by __________________________________________

    Only the ___________________ is attached by a freely movable joint

  • The Cranium

    ________________ forms ____________________, brow bone, superior eye orbit

    ____________________(___) form most of the ______________________________

    of the cranium

    o Meet in midline = _______________________________________

    o Meet frontal = _______________________________________

    ____________________(___) inferior to parietals & join to them at the _____________

    _________________________

    o Important bone markings found here

    ___________________________________________________

    ______________ leading to eardrum

    _________________________________ sharp needle-like projection

    inferior to external auditory meatus (______________________________

    for many __________________________________________________)

    _________________________________ thin ____________________

    that joins w/ the zygomatic (_____________) bone

    _________________________________ rough projection posterior &

    inferior to the external auditory meatus

    ____________________________________________________

    ____________________________________________________

    Close to middle ear & __________________________________

    ________________________________ junction of occipital & temporal

    Allows for ____________________________________________

    Largest vein of the head _______________________________

    ___________________________________ anterior to jugular foramen

    Transmits ______________________________ (facial &

    vestibulocochlear)

    _________________________________ - anterior to jugular foramen

    ____________________________________________________

    ________________________ most posterior bone of cranium forming _____________

    __________________________________________

    o Joins parietals anteriorly at _________________________________

    o ___________________________________ = large opening in base of the

    occipitals (_______________________________________________________)

    Lateral to the foramen magnum are rockerlike _____________________

    _____________________ which rest on the 1st vertebra

  • ___________________________ butterfly-shaped spans the width of the skull and

    forms part of ________________________________________________

    o __________________________________ Turks saddle = small depression on

    the midline of the sphenoid, holds the ________________________________

    o _________________________________ = large oval opening in line w/ the

    posterior end of the sella turcica (allows _______________________ (trigeminal)

    to pass to _______________________ muscles of mandible

    o Parts of the ________________________ form part of the eye orbits

    2 important openings:

    1. ___________________________ (optic nerve)

    2. __________________________________________ (cranial

    nerves 3, 4 & 6 eye movements)

    o Central part of the sphenoid riddled w/ air cavities = _______________________

    _____________________ irregularly shaped, anterior to sphenoid forms _________

    _______________________ and ___________________________________________.

    o ______________________________ cocks comb = superior ethmoid surface

    projection ______________________________________________________

    o _____________________________________ holey areas on sides of crista

    galli= ________________________________________ pass through from nose

    o ________________________________________________ extensions of the

    ethmoid form part of _________________________________________ &

    ____________________________________________ of air flowing

    Facial Bones

    *________________________

    *________________________, only the _______________ and ____________are _________

    ________________________(___) / maxillary bones fused to form _______________

    o Upper teeth carried in the ________________________________________

    o ___________________________________ extensions that form the ________

    part of the _____________________________

    o ___________________________________ ___________________________

    _________________, lighten the skull bones, ___________________________

    as we speak

    Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity

    _____________________ (infection of sinuses) can result in ________

    ________________________________ pain

  • ______________________ (___) posterior to palatine processes of maxillae form

    ____________________ part of __________________________________

    o ________________________________ = failure of these to fuse

    ___________________________(___) cheek bones form portion of _____________

    _____________________________________

    ___________________________(___) fingernail sized bones forming part of _______

    _____________________________________

    o Groove serves as ________________________________________________

    _______________(___) small rectangular bones form ________________________

    lower part of nose made of cartilage

    _______________ _____________ (1) median line of nasal cavity forms _______

    __________________________________________

    _________________________________________ (___) thin, ___________________

    ________________________ from lateral walls of the nasal cavity

    ________________________ (lower jaw) largest, _____________________________

    ________________________________________ on each side of face, forming the

    _____________________________________________________________ (find them!)

    o Horizontal part (body) forms the ________________

    o 2 upright bars of bone (rami) extend from the body to connect the mandible with

    the temporal bone.

    o __________________________ lie in ________________________________

    The Hyoid Bone

    ______________________________________

    _______________________________ w/ a

    body and 2 pair of horns (cornua)

    Closely related to mandible and temporal bones

    ______________________________________

    ______________________________________

    Suspended in midneck region 2 cm above the

    larynx, ________________________________

    ______________________________________

    Serves as a movable ____________________

    ____________ & attachment point for neck

    muscles (lower and raise larynx when we

    swallow & speak)

  • The Fetal Skull

    Face small compared to size of cranium (skull

    is large compared to body length)

    ____________________________________

    _______________; newborn is _________

    ______________________ fibrous

    membranes connecting the cranial bones

    o Babys pulse can be ______________

    _______________ spots (explains

    their name little fountain)

    o Allow fetal skull to be _____________

    ______________________________

    o Allow infants ____________________

    o Largest fontanels are diamond shaped

    anterior shaped fontanel and smaller

    triangular shaped posterior

    o ________________________________

    _____________________ after birth

    The Vertebral Column

    Serves as ____________________ of the body

    Extends ______________________, which it

    supports, _______________________, where

    it transmits the weight of the body to the legs.

    ____________________________________

    connected & __________________________

    creating a flexible, curved structure.

    _________________________ runs through

    central cavity, protected by vertebrae

    ___________________ = ________________

    ___________________ but _______________

    ________________________________ the

    ____________ (5 fused) & the ___________ (4

    fused).

    Each vertebrae is given a _________________

    ______________________________________

    .

  • 24 single vertebrae

    o __________________________ vertebrae

    o __________________________vertebrae

    o __________________________vertebrae

    Vertebrae separated by pads of __________________________________

    ____________________ discs ____________________________________ while

    ________________________________________.

    o _________ person discs = _________________________ ______________

    _________________________________.

    o As you _________ ________________________________ _____________

    _______________________________________

    Can ______________________________________________________.

    Can __________________ from ________________________________

    ____________________________ on ___________________________

    _____________= ______