The Axial Skeleton - Woodland Hills School Axial Skeleton... · The Axial Skeleton The Axial Skeleton…

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<ul><li><p>Name ____________________________________________________________ Period_____ </p><p>The Axial Skeleton </p><p>The Axial Skeleton </p><p> Forms the __________________________________ of the body </p><p> Divided into _______________________ </p><p> _________________________________ </p><p> _________________________________ </p><p> _________________________________ </p><p> The Skull </p><p> Two sets of bones </p><p>o __________________ encloses &amp; protects brain </p><p>o ______________________________ holds eyes in anterior position &amp; allows </p><p>the facial muscles to show emotions. All but 1 of the bones are joined by __________________________________________ </p><p> Only the ___________________ is attached by a freely movable joint </p></li><li><p>The Cranium </p><p> ________________ forms ____________________, brow bone, superior eye orbit </p><p> ____________________(___) form most of the ______________________________ </p><p>of the cranium </p><p>o Meet in midline = _______________________________________ </p><p>o Meet frontal = _______________________________________ </p><p> ____________________(___) inferior to parietals &amp; join to them at the _____________ </p><p>_________________________ </p><p>o Important bone markings found here </p><p> ___________________________________________________ </p><p>______________ leading to eardrum </p><p> _________________________________ sharp needle-like projection </p><p>inferior to external auditory meatus (______________________________ </p><p>for many __________________________________________________) </p><p> _________________________________ thin ____________________ </p><p>that joins w/ the zygomatic (_____________) bone </p><p> _________________________________ rough projection posterior &amp; </p><p>inferior to the external auditory meatus </p><p> ____________________________________________________ </p><p> ____________________________________________________ </p><p> Close to middle ear &amp; __________________________________ </p><p> ________________________________ junction of occipital &amp; temporal </p><p> Allows for ____________________________________________ </p><p> Largest vein of the head _______________________________ </p><p> ___________________________________ anterior to jugular foramen </p><p> Transmits ______________________________ (facial &amp; </p><p>vestibulocochlear) </p><p> _________________________________ - anterior to jugular foramen </p><p> ____________________________________________________ </p><p> ________________________ most posterior bone of cranium forming _____________ </p><p>__________________________________________ </p><p>o Joins parietals anteriorly at _________________________________ </p><p>o ___________________________________ = large opening in base of the </p><p>occipitals (_______________________________________________________) </p><p> Lateral to the foramen magnum are rockerlike _____________________ </p><p>_____________________ which rest on the 1st vertebra </p></li><li><p> ___________________________ butterfly-shaped spans the width of the skull and </p><p>forms part of ________________________________________________ </p><p>o __________________________________ Turks saddle = small depression on </p><p>the midline of the sphenoid, holds the ________________________________ </p><p>o _________________________________ = large oval opening in line w/ the </p><p>posterior end of the sella turcica (allows _______________________ (trigeminal) </p><p>to pass to _______________________ muscles of mandible </p><p>o Parts of the ________________________ form part of the eye orbits </p><p> 2 important openings: </p><p>1. ___________________________ (optic nerve) </p><p>2. __________________________________________ (cranial </p><p>nerves 3, 4 &amp; 6 eye movements) </p><p>o Central part of the sphenoid riddled w/ air cavities = _______________________ </p><p> _____________________ irregularly shaped, anterior to sphenoid forms _________ </p><p>_______________________ and ___________________________________________. </p><p>o ______________________________ cocks comb = superior ethmoid surface </p><p>projection ______________________________________________________ </p><p>o _____________________________________ holey areas on sides of crista </p><p>galli= ________________________________________ pass through from nose </p><p>o ________________________________________________ extensions of the </p><p>ethmoid form part of _________________________________________ &amp; </p><p>____________________________________________ of air flowing </p><p>Facial Bones </p><p>*________________________ </p><p>*________________________, only the _______________ and ____________are _________ </p><p> ________________________(___) / maxillary bones fused to form _______________ </p><p>o Upper teeth carried in the ________________________________________ </p><p>o ___________________________________ extensions that form the ________ </p><p>part of the _____________________________ </p><p>o ___________________________________ ___________________________ </p><p>_________________, lighten the skull bones, ___________________________ </p><p>as we speak </p><p> Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity </p><p> _____________________ (infection of sinuses) can result in ________ </p><p>________________________________ pain </p></li><li><p> ______________________ (___) posterior to palatine processes of maxillae form </p><p>____________________ part of __________________________________ </p><p>o ________________________________ = failure of these to fuse </p><p> ___________________________(___) cheek bones form portion of _____________ </p><p>_____________________________________ </p><p> ___________________________(___) fingernail sized bones forming part of _______ </p><p>_____________________________________ </p><p>o Groove serves as ________________________________________________ </p><p> _______________(___) small rectangular bones form ________________________ </p><p> lower part of nose made of cartilage </p><p> _______________ _____________ (1) median line of nasal cavity forms _______ </p><p>__________________________________________ </p><p> _________________________________________ (___) thin, ___________________ </p><p>________________________ from lateral walls of the nasal cavity </p><p> ________________________ (lower jaw) largest, _____________________________ </p><p> ________________________________________ on each side of face, forming the </p><p>_____________________________________________________________ (find them!) </p><p>o Horizontal part (body) forms the ________________ </p><p>o 2 upright bars of bone (rami) extend from the body to connect the mandible with </p><p>the temporal bone. </p><p>o __________________________ lie in ________________________________ </p><p>The Hyoid Bone </p><p> ______________________________________ </p><p> _______________________________ w/ a </p><p>body and 2 pair of horns (cornua) </p><p> Closely related to mandible and temporal bones </p><p> ______________________________________ </p><p>______________________________________ </p><p> Suspended in midneck region 2 cm above the </p><p>larynx, ________________________________ </p><p>______________________________________ </p><p> Serves as a movable ____________________ </p><p>____________ &amp; attachment point for neck </p><p>muscles (lower and raise larynx when we </p><p>swallow &amp; speak) </p></li><li><p>The Fetal Skull </p><p> Face small compared to size of cranium (skull </p><p>is large compared to body length) </p><p> ____________________________________ </p><p>_______________; newborn is _________ </p><p> ______________________ fibrous </p><p>membranes connecting the cranial bones </p><p>o Babys pulse can be ______________ </p><p>_______________ spots (explains </p><p>their name little fountain) </p><p>o Allow fetal skull to be _____________ </p><p>______________________________ </p><p>o Allow infants ____________________ </p><p>o Largest fontanels are diamond shaped </p><p>anterior shaped fontanel and smaller </p><p>triangular shaped posterior </p><p>o ________________________________ </p><p>_____________________ after birth </p><p>The Vertebral Column </p><p> Serves as ____________________ of the body </p><p> Extends ______________________, which it </p><p>supports, _______________________, where </p><p>it transmits the weight of the body to the legs. </p><p> ____________________________________ </p><p>connected &amp; __________________________ </p><p>creating a flexible, curved structure. </p><p> _________________________ runs through </p><p>central cavity, protected by vertebrae </p><p> ___________________ = ________________ </p><p>___________________ but _______________ </p><p>________________________________ the </p><p>____________ (5 fused) &amp; the ___________ (4 </p><p>fused). </p><p> Each vertebrae is given a _________________ </p><p>______________________________________ </p><p>. </p></li><li><p> 24 single vertebrae </p><p>o __________________________ vertebrae </p><p>o __________________________vertebrae </p><p>o __________________________vertebrae </p><p> Vertebrae separated by pads of __________________________________ </p><p>____________________ discs ____________________________________ while </p><p>________________________________________. </p><p>o _________ person discs = _________________________ ______________ </p><p>_________________________________. </p><p>o As you _________ ________________________________ _____________ </p><p>_______________________________________ </p><p> Can ______________________________________________________. </p><p> Can __________________ from ________________________________ </p><p> ____________________________ on ___________________________ </p><p>_____________= ____________________ &amp; excruciating ___________ </p><p> _____________ &amp; _________________________________ of spine _______________ </p><p>________________ to head when we walk or run. </p><p>o _________________________ curvatures </p><p> __________________________________ regions </p><p> __________________________________ </p><p>o __________________________ curvatures </p><p> ________________ curvature appears ___________________________ </p><p>_____________________________________ </p><p> ________________ curvature when baby _________________________ </p><p> _______________________ spinal curvatures </p><p>o __________________ - abnormal __________________________ of the spine. </p><p>o __________________ - Abnormal __________________________ of the spine, </p><p>resulting in ______________________. </p><p>o ___________________ - Abnormal _________________________ of the spine </p><p>in the _______________ region. </p><p>Vertebrae </p><p> All vertebrae have a similar structural pattern. </p><p>o _______________: disclike, _________________________ part facing </p><p>anteriorly. </p></li><li><p>o ____________________________: </p><p>formed from the joining of all </p><p>posterior extensions, the laminae &amp; </p><p>pedicles. </p><p>o ____________________________: </p><p>_____________ through which the </p><p>spinal cord passes. </p><p>o ____________________________: </p><p>2 lateral projections from the </p><p>vertebral arch. </p><p>o _____________________________: single projection arising from the posterior </p><p>aspect of the vertebral arch (fused laminae). </p><p>o ________________________________________ </p><p>__________________: ______________ projections </p><p>lateral to the vertebral foramen allowing a __________ </p><p>___________________________________________ </p><p>___________________________________________. </p><p>Cervical Vertebrae </p><p> 7 (___________) form the ___________ region. </p><p> First 2 __________________________ are different </p><p>because they perform functions not shared by any other cervical vertebrae. </p><p> ____________ (C1) has _________________; the </p><p>superior surfaces of its transverse processes </p><p>contain large depressions that ________________ </p><p>___________________________________; allows </p><p>you to nod _________. </p><p> _____________ (C2) has a _________________ </p><p>__________________ (_________ or </p><p>_____________________________), which acts </p><p>as a _________________________________; </p><p>allows you to indicate _______. </p><p> C3 through C7 are the smallest, lightest vertebrae </p><p> All transverse processes ___________________ </p><p>_______________________________________________through which ___________ </p><p>_______________ pass to the brain. </p></li><li><p>Thoracic Vertebrae </p><p> ____ with body somewhat __________________ </p><p>______________ w/ ______________________ </p><p>__________, which receive the heads of the ribs. </p><p> _____________________________ is long &amp; </p><p>______________________________________ </p><p>(from the side looks like a __________________ </p><p>head). </p><p>Lumbar Vertebrae </p><p> ___ w/ massive __________________________ &amp; </p><p>________________________________________ </p><p>____________ (looks like ______________ head </p><p>from side). </p><p> ________________ vertebrae ______________ </p><p>________________. </p><p>Sacrum </p><p> Formed by the ____________________________________________. </p><p> Winglike ________________________________ laterally ________________________ </p><p>forming the ___________________________________. </p><p> Forms the __________________________________________________________. </p><p> ________________________________________ roughens the posterior midline &amp; are </p><p>flanked by ____________________________________. </p><p> Vertebral canal continues inside the sacrum as the _______________________ </p><p>terminates in large inferior opening called the ______________________________. </p><p>Coccyx </p><p> Formed by ____________________________________, irregularly shaped vertebrae </p><p> This is the human ____________________ a remnant of the tail other vertebrate </p><p>animals have. </p><p>Bony Thorax </p><p> Made-up of three parts </p><p>o ______________________ </p><p>o ______________________ </p><p>o ____________________________________ </p><p> Often called the _______________________________ b/c it forms a ______________ </p><p>______________________ of slender bones to protect the major organs of the thoracic </p><p>cavity. </p></li><li><p> ____________________ breastbone </p><p>o Flat bone that is a result of the ________________________________ the </p><p>________________________________________________________________ </p><p>o __________________ to the __________________________________ </p><p>o Three important bony landmarks: </p><p>1. _____________________________ (concave ______________ border of </p><p>the ____________________) can be felt easily generally at __________ </p><p>2. ____________________________ - where manubrium &amp; body meet - </p><p>formed at level of ______________ (reference to locate ________________ </p><p>_______________ for ___________________________________________) </p><p>3. ____________________________ body and xiphoid process fuse (level of </p><p>_______) </p><p>o ________________________________ used to get bone marrow tissue to </p><p>__________________________________________________________ </p><p> Ribs _______________ form walls of bony thorax </p><p>o Articulate w/ vertebral column posteriorly &amp; curve downward toward anterior body </p><p>surface. </p><p>o ___________________ = __________________ _______________________ </p><p>to sternum by _______________________________________ </p><p>o ___________________ = __________________ _______________________ </p><p>___________________________________ (______________________ are </p><p>called _____________________ </p><p>b/c they are the ones not attached </p><p>at all) </p><p>o Contrary to popular myth men &amp; </p><p>women have the same number of </p><p>ribs!! </p></li></ul>