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Travel behaviour change experiments

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Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsEric Adjeieric.adjei@uct.ac.za22nd April 2013

1What are travel behaviour change experiments?Travel (n) the action of travelling (Oxford)Travel (v) make a journey, typically of some length (Oxford)Behaviour (n) the way in which an animal or person behaves in response to a particular situation or stimulus (Oxford)Change (n) the act or process through which something becomes different (Oxford)Experiment (n) a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact

Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsTravel behaviour change is an act or process of modifying how people move from one place to the other

Travel behaviour change experiments are procedures undertaken to test and/or demonstrate the effectiveness of different TDM measures

What are travel behaviour change experiments?Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsTo test the effectiveness of different TDM measuresKnow and predict response to TDM measuresDetermine sectors of population most susceptible to TDM measuresTDM measures are context sensitive

Why the need for TBC experiments?Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsSeveral categorisations of TDM measures

So what are some of the categories of TDM measures?Litman 2003May et al 2003Vlek and Michon 1992Improvements in transport optionsLand-use policiesPhysical changesProvisions of incentivesInfrastructure provisionLaw regulationsLand use managementManagement and regulationEconomic incentives and disincentivesPolicy and planning reformsInformation provisionInformationSupport programmesAttitudinal and behavioural measuresEducation and promptsPricingManagement of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsSteg 2003Structural strategies aimed at changing contextPhysical changesFinancial-economic stimulationLegal regulationPsychological strategies aimed at changing perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, values and normsInformation and education

General categorise of TDM measuresManagement of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsJones 2003, Schuiteman 2003, Steg and Vlek 1997, Stradling et al 2000, Thorpe et al 2000

Pull encourage the use of alternative modes of transport to cars without affecting car use

Push discourage car use by making it less attractive

General categorise of TDM measuresManagement of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsTaylor and Ampt 2003Voluntary empower people to change their behaviour without any form of external stimuli (coercive or otherwise)Non-voluntary people are forced to make behavioural changes

General categorise of TDM measures

Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsSteg 2003Jones 2000, .. etcExamplesStructural Physical changesPullBus, walking, cycling lanes; park and ridePushRoad blocks, bollards, reduction in road lanesLegal regulationsPullBus, cycle prioritizationPushLaws preventing cars in CBDFinancial-economicPullBus far subsidiesPushTaxes on cars, road pricing, tollsPsychologicalInformation and educationPullBenefits of bus, cycle usagePushNegativities in the use of carsManagement of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsHow are behavioural changes measured?

Jones et al 2009Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsRoad ClosuresFujii et al 20018-day highway closure caused significant increase in public transport use even one year after the closureRoad PricingJakobsson et al 2000Found lower income car users reduced car use with road pricing

Non-Voluntary TBC experimentsManagement of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and Results

http://maxkatz2.livejournal.com/2212.html?thread=6820Examples of Non-Voluntary TBC programsCopenhagen, DenmarkMain street, Stroget pedestrianized in 1962Amidst scepticism, it proved popularOver 96 000m2 car-free space by 1996 (33% street and 67% city squares)Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsCopenhagen city centre

Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsExamples of Non-Voluntary TBC programs - contdBurrard bridge, VancouverCity wanted to decrease the 8000 9000 cars per dayClosed off a lane for cyclists in 1996 for one weekAngry motorist forced it to close39% increase in cyclist and 9% decrease in drivers20 min delays on first day decreased to a few minutes at the end of the weekMade permanent in 2010 with more preparations

http://www.renthomas.ca/transportation/the-trials-of-the-burrard-bridgeManagement of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsWolverhampton, EnglandMajor congestions in the 1980sBlocked the north-south and east-west routes through the cityRemoved about 8000 through-traffic cars per day from city centrePredicted congestion did not occur as traffic disappeared

Examples of Non-Voluntary TBC programs - contd

European Commission, Reclaiming city streets for people: Chaos or quality of life? Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsInformation mass or personalised Beale and Bonsall 2007To correct misconceived perceptions about bus use; contained some anti-car messagesIncrease bus use among regular bus users and car usersRegular car uses however had a bad attitude towards the informationMutrie et al 2002Information about walking routes and safetyIncreased in walking to work Rose and Marfurt 2007Information; poster and postcards about Ride to work day event in Victoria, Australia containing maps of bicycle lanesObserved increase in bicycle ridership

Voluntary TBC experimentsManagement of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsIncentives free or subsidised tickets Hunecke et al 2001Free subway ticket given participants after being provided with information about the consequences of continual car useIncreased in PT use among participants with free ticketsMatthies 2006Participants made to commit to bus use, others giving free bus ticket in additionHigher bus use among participants with free bus ticketsFujii and Kitamura 2003One-month ticket given to student car users along with bus route mapsOverall increase in bus use even though higher ridership were recorded during the validity of ticket

Voluntary TBC experiments

Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsFeedbackFujii and Taniguichi 2005Individualised information on reducing car use; one group asked to make plans in additionHigher reductions in planning group compared to advise group

Voluntary TBC experiments

Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsTravel Blending in AustraliaIndividual travel behaviour change programParticipants are sent four kits information booklets, travel diaries over a nine week periodFeedback giving on their travel patterns (vehicle emissions) by analysing the travel diariesPilot tested in Sydney and AdelaideTailored feedback was the major cause of behaviour change

Examples of VTBC programshttp://www.travelsmart.gov.au/training/packaging_comm_blend.html#8

Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsIndividualised Marketing (IndiMark)Concept from Socialdata Germany Potential PT users contacted directly, motivated and given information on PTSelected candidates were also given a one-month PT ticketFirst tested in Kassel, Germany resulting in nearly double use of PT in test group with results remaining the same for almost four yearsImplemented in a lot of cities thereafter;South Perth in AustraliaPortland in USAGloucester, Frome in UKetc

Examples of VTBC programs

Management of Transport Supply and Demand (END5035Z) Travel Behaviour Change Experiments: Methods and ResultsTBC experiments are used to test the efficiencies of different TDM measuresImportant because TDM measures are not necessarily transferable but context sensitiveBefore and after survey usually used to estimate changeThere are several categories of TDM measures; but they can be grouped either as pull or push, and voluntary or non-voluntaryPush or non-voluntary measures are seen to be much effective compared to pull or voluntary measures but generally not acceptedThree main types of voluntary measures information, incentives, feedback

SummaryManagement of Trans