SURVIVAL LANGUAGE GUIDE - ALPHABET The Turkish alphabet is an alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet…

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<ul><li><p>This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the </p><p>author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. </p><p>SURVIVAL LANGUAGE GUIDE </p></li><li><p>BULGARIAN ALPHABET</p><p>In 886 AD, the Bulgarian Empire introduced the Glagolitic alphabet which was devised by the Saints Cyril and Methodius in the 850s. The Glagolitic alphabet was gradually superseded in later centuries by the Cyrillic script, developed around the Preslav Literary School, Bulgaria in the beginning of the 10th century.</p><p>Because the script was conceived and popularised by the followers of Cyril and Methodius, rather than by Cyril and Methodius themselves, its name denotes homage rather than authorship. The name "Cyrillic" often confuses people who are not familiar with the script's history, because it does not identify a country of origin (in contrast to the "Greek alphabet"). Some call it the "Russian alphabet" because Russian is the most popular and influential alphabet based on the script. Some Bulgarian intellectuals, have expressed concern over this, and have suggested that the Cyrillic script be called the "Bulgarian alphabet" instead, for the sake of historical accuracy.</p><p> In Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, and Serbian, the Cyrillic script is also known as azbuka, derived from the old names of the first two letters of most Cyrillic alphabets (just as the term alphabet came from the first two Greek letters alpha and beta).</p></li><li><p>Sample Text in Bulgarian</p><p> . T .</p></li><li><p>ITALIAN ALPHABET AND LANGUAGE </p><p>Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.</p><p>The base Italian alphabet consists of 21 letters: five vowels (A, E, I, O U) and 16 consonants. The letters J, K, W, X and Y are not part of the proper alphabet, and are used only for loanwords and foreign names (with very few exceptions, such as in the native names Jesolo and Bettino Craxi). In addition, acute, grave and circumflex accents may be used to modify vowel letters.</p><p>According to the Bologna statistics of the European Union, Italian is spoken as a native language by 59 million people in the EU (13% of the EU population), mainly in Italy, and as a second language by 14 million (3%). Including the Italian speakers in non-EU European countries (such as Switzerland and Albania) and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million.</p><p>Italian is descended from Latin. Unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. Among the Romance languages, Italian is the closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary</p></li><li><p>ROMANIAN ALPHABET</p><p>The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language. It is a modification of the classical Latin alphabet and consists of 31 letters.</p><p>Romanian is a Romance language spoken by about 24 million people in Romania, Moldova and Ukraine. Romanian retains a number of features of Latin, such as noun cases, which other Romance languages dispensed with a long time ago. Romanian contains many words taken from the surrounding Slavic languages, and also from French, Old Church Slavonic, German, Greek and Turkish. </p><p>Romanian first appeared in writing during the 16th century mainly in religious texts and other documents. The earliest known text in Romanian dates from 1521 and is a letter from Neacu of Cmpulung to the mayor of Braov.</p><p>From the late 16th century a version of the Latin alphabet using Hungarian spelling conventions was used to write Romanian in Translyvania. Then in the late 18th century a spelling system based on Italian was adopted.</p><p>A version of the Cyrillic alphabet was used in the Soviet Republic of Moldova until 1989, when they switched to the Romanian version of the Latin alphabet.</p></li><li><p>Sample text in Romanian</p><p>Toate fiin ele umane se nasc libere i egale n demnitate i n drepturi. Ele sunt nzestrate cu ra iune i con tiin i trebuie s se comporte unele fa de altele n spiritul fraternit ii</p></li><li><p>TURKISH ALPHABET </p><p>The Turkish alphabet is an alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (, , I, , , , and ) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language. This alphabet represents modern Turkish pronunciation with a high degree of accuracy and specificity. It is the current official alphabet and the latest in a series of distinct alphabets used in different eras.</p><p>Turkish was written using a Turkish form of the Arabic script for over a thousand years. It was well suited to write Ottoman Turkish which incorporated a great deal of Arabic and Persian vocabulary. However, it was poorly suited to the Turkish part of the vocabulary. Whereas Arabic is rich in consonants but poor in vowels, Turkish is exactly the opposite.</p><p>The current 29-letter Turkish alphabet was established as a personal initiative of the founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatrk.</p></li><li><p>Sample text in Turkish </p><p>Btn insanlar hr, haysiyet ve haklar bakmndan eit doarlar. Akl ve vicdana sahiptirler ve birbirlerine kar kardelik zihniyeti ile hareket etmelidirler.</p></li><li><p>GERMAN ALPHABET AND LANGUAGE</p><p>German is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Belgium, Luxembourg and Italy.Standard German (Hoch Deutsch) has around 90 million native speakers, and other varieties of German have some 30 million. There are about 80 million people who speak German as a second language, and many others study it as a foreign language.</p><p>Sample text in German</p><p>Alle Menschen sind frei und gleich an Wrde und Rechten geboren. Sie sind mit Vernunft und Gewissen begabt und sollen einander im Geist der Brderlichkeit begegnen.</p></li><li><p>StterlinStterlin was created by the Berlin graphic artist L. Stterlin (1865-1917), who modelled it on the style of handwriting used in the old German Chancery. It was taught in German schools from 1915 to 1941 and is still used by the older generation.</p><p>Written German script styles</p><p>FrakturFraktur was used for printed and written German from the 16th century until 1940. The name Fraktur comes from Latin and means "broken script". It is so called because its ornamental twiddly bits (curlicues) break the continuous line of a word. In German it is usually called the deutsche Schrift (German script).</p></li><li><p>PORTUGESE ALPHABET AND LANGUAGE</p><p>Portuguese is a Romance language spoken by about 220 million people mainly in Portugal and Brazil (Brasil), and also in Angola, Mozambique (Moambique), Cape Verde (Cabo Verde), Guinea-Bissau (Guin-Bissau), So Tom e Principe, East Timor (Timor-Leste), Equatorial Guinea and Macau.</p><p>Portuguese is a descendent of Latin, which was brought to the Iberian Peninsula by Roman soldiers, settlers and merchants from 218 BC. The earliest records of a distinctly Portuguese language appear in administrative documents dating from the 9th century AD. In 1290 King Denis decreed that Portuguese, then simply called the "Vulgar language" should be known as the Portuguese language and should be officially used.</p><p>A reformed Portuguese orthography (nova ortografia), in which words were spelled more in accordance with their pronunciation, was adopted is Portugal in 1916. A slightly modified form was adopted in Brazil in 1943 and revised in 1970. A new orthography which aims to unify the written Portuguese of all the lusophone countries was adopted in Brazil in 2009. Dates have yet to be set for its adoption in the other Portuguese-speaking countries </p></li><li><p>A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i</p><p> b c d efe g ag i</p><p>J j K k L l M m N n O o P p Q q R r</p><p>jota c/capa</p><p>ele eme ene p qu erre</p><p>S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z </p><p>esse t u v dbliu,dblio,duplo-v</p><p>xis psilonipsilo,i grego</p><p>z</p><p>Sample text in Portuguese</p><p>Todos os seres humanos nascem livres e iguais em dignidade e em direitos. Dotados de razo e de conscincia, devem agir uns para com os outros em esprito de fraternidade.</p></li><li><p>SWITZERLAND</p><p>The four national languages of Switzerland are German, French, Italian and Romansh. All but Romansh maintain equal status as official languages at the national level within the Federal Administration of the Swiss Confederation.</p><p>Native speakers of German (chiefly Swiss German, though Standard German is also understood) number about 4.6 million (64%); for French (mostly Swiss French, but including some Arpitan dialects) they number 1.5 million (20%); for Italian (mostly Swiss Italian, but including Lombard dialects), 500,000 (6.5%); and for Romansch, 35,000 (0.5%).</p><p>The German region (Deutschschweiz) is roughly in the east, north and center; the French part (la Romandie) in the west and the Italian area (Svizzera italiana) in the south. There remains a small Romansh-speaking native population in Graubnden in the east. The cantons of Fribourg, Bern and Valais are officially bilingual; Graubnden is officially trilingual.</p></li><li><p>"Map Languages CH" by Marco Zanoli (sidonius 13:20, 18 June 2006 (UTC)) - Swiss Federal Statistical Office; census of 2000. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_Languages_CH.png#/media/File:Map_Languages_CH.png</p></li><li><p>ENGLISH BULGARIAN GERMAN ITALIAN PORTUGESE ROMANIAN TURKISH </p><p>Hello! ! Hallo! Ciao! Ol! Buna! Salut! Merhaba! Good </p><p>morning! ! Guten </p><p>Morgen! Buongiorno! Bom dia! Bun </p><p>dimineaa! Gnaydn! Good </p><p>afternoon! ! Guten Tag! </p><p>Buon pomeriggio! Boa tarde! Bun ziua! </p><p>Iyi akamlar! </p><p>Good evening! ! </p><p>Guten Abend! Buonasera! Boa noite! Bun seara! </p><p>Iyi akamlar! </p><p>Bye! ! Tschss! Bye! Tchau! Pa! Gle gle! </p><p>Have a nice day! </p><p> ! </p><p>Hab einen schnen </p><p>Tag! Buona </p><p>giornata! Tenha um bom dia! O zi plcut! Iyi gnler! </p><p>What is your </p><p>name? My name </p><p>is </p><p> ? </p><p> ... </p><p>Wie ist dein </p><p>Name? Mein Name ist </p><p>Come ti chiami? </p><p>Il mio nome e </p><p>Qual o seu nome? </p><p>Meu nome ... </p><p>Cum te numeti? Numele </p><p>meu este ... </p><p>Adn ne? Benim adm ... </p></li><li><p>ENGLISH BULGARIAN GERMAN ITALIAN PORTUGESE ROMANIAN TURKISH </p><p>Where are you from? I am </p><p>from ... </p><p> ? </p><p> ... </p><p>Woher kommst du? Ich komme </p><p>aus ... </p><p>Di dove sei? </p><p>Io vengo da ... </p><p>De onde voc ? </p><p>Eu sou de ... </p><p>De unde esti? </p><p> Sunt din ... </p><p>Nerelisin? Lym ... </p><p>How are you? I am fine, </p><p>thank you! </p><p>So - so! </p><p> ? , ! -! </p><p>Wie geht es Dir? </p><p>Mir geht es gut, danke! </p><p>So - so! </p><p>Come stai? Io sto bene, </p><p>grazie! Cos cos! </p><p>Como voc est? </p><p>Eu estou bem, </p><p>obrigado! Mais ou menos! </p><p>Ce mai faci? Sunt bine, </p><p>multumesc! Asa si asa! </p><p>Naslsn? Iyiyim! Eh ite! </p><p>Nice to meet you! </p><p>! </p><p>Schn, Dich kennenzulern</p><p>en! </p><p>Piacere di conoscerti! </p><p>Prazer em conhec-lo! </p><p>ncntat de cunotin! </p><p>Tantmza memnun </p><p>oldum! </p></li><li><p>ENGLISH BULGARIAN GERMAN ITALIAN PORTUGESE ROMANIAN TURKISH </p><p>Thank you! ! Danke! Grazie! Obrigado! Mulumesc! Teekkrler! I do not </p><p>understand! </p><p>! Ich </p><p>verstehe nicht! </p><p>Non capisco! </p><p>Eu no entendo! </p><p>Nu neleg! Anlamadm! </p><p>Yes Ja Si Sim Da Evet No Nein No No Nu Hayr </p><p>How much does it cost? </p><p> ... ? </p><p>Wie viel kostet das? </p><p>Quanto costa? </p><p>Quanto custa isso? </p><p>Cat costa? Ne kadar? </p><p>One, two, three, four, </p><p>five, six, seven, </p><p>eight, nine, ten. </p><p>, , , </p><p>, , , , , , </p><p>. </p><p>Eins, zwei , </p><p>drei, vier, fnf, </p><p>sechs, sieben, acht, </p><p>neun , zehn. </p><p>Uno, due, tre, quattro, cinque, </p><p>sei, sette, otto, nove, dieci. </p><p>Um, dois, trs, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, oito, nove, dez. </p><p>Unu, doi, trei ,patru, cinci, sase, sapte, opt, noua, zece. </p><p>Bir, iki, , drt, be, alt, yedi, </p><p>sekiz , dokuz, on. </p></li><li><p>ENGLISH BULGARIAN GERMAN ITALIAN PORTUGESE ROMANIAN TURKISH </p><p>Who is this? </p><p>This is my </p><p>friend ... </p><p> ? .../ </p><p> ... </p><p>Wer ist das? </p><p>Das ist mein </p><p>Freund .../ Das ist mein </p><p>Freundin ... </p><p>Chi questo? Questo il mio amico </p><p>.../ Questa la mia amica </p><p>... </p><p>Quem ? Este meu amigo .../ </p><p>Esta minha </p><p>namorada ... </p><p>Cine este aceasta? Acesta </p><p>este prietenul meu .../ Aceasta </p><p>este prietena mea ... </p><p>Bu kim? Bu benim arkadam </p><p>.../ Bu benim kz arkadam </p><p>... </p><p>When is your </p><p>birthday? </p><p> ? </p><p>Wann hast du </p><p>Geburtstag? </p><p>Quando il tuo </p><p>compleanno? </p><p>Quando seu </p><p>aniversrio? </p><p>Cnd este ziua </p><p>ta de natere? </p><p>Doum gnn ne zaman? </p><p>Why? ? Warum? Perch? Por qu? De ce? Neden? What do </p><p>you call it in </p><p>English? </p><p>? </p><p>Was heit das in </p><p>Englisch? </p><p>Come si chiama in inglese? </p><p>O que voc cham-lo </p><p>em Ingls? </p><p>Cum se spune in englez? </p><p>Eer ngilizce olarak ne diyorsun? </p></li><li><p>ENGLISH BULGARIAN GERMAN ITALIAN PORTUGES</p><p>E ROMANIA</p><p>N TURKISH </p><p>Can you speak more </p><p>slowly, please? </p><p> -, </p><p>? </p><p>Kannst Du langsamer sprechen, </p><p>bitte? </p><p>Puoi parlare pi lentamente</p><p>, per favore? </p><p>Voc pode </p><p>falar mais devagar, </p><p>por favor? </p><p>Poi vorbi mai </p><p>ncet, te rog? </p><p>Sen daha yava bir </p><p>konuabilir miyim ltfen? </p><p>Can you spell your </p><p>name, please? </p><p> ? </p><p>Kannst Du Deinen </p><p>Namen bitte buchstabieren</p><p>? </p><p>Puoi precisare il tuo nome, per favore? </p><p>Voc pode </p><p>soletrar o seu </p><p>nome, por </p><p>favor? </p><p>Poi scrii numele tu te rog? </p><p>Sen adnz, ltfen yazm </p><p>olabilir? </p><p>Where is the </p><p>restroom? </p><p>? </p><p>Wo ist die Toilette? </p><p>Dov' il bagno? </p><p>Onde o banheiro</p><p>? </p><p>Unde este </p><p>toaleta? </p><p>Tuvalet nerede? </p></li></ul>