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  • Slide 1
  • Superficial anatomy breaks the body into anatomical landmarks and regions Superficial anatomy breaks the body into anatomical landmarks and regions Sectional anatomy provides directional references Sectional anatomy provides directional references Anatomical position standing upright with palms facing forward
  • Slide 2
  • Figure 1.7 Anatomical Landmarks Figure 1.7a
  • Slide 3
  • Figure 1.7b
  • Slide 4
  • Figure 1.8 Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Figure 1.8a
  • Slide 5
  • Figure 1.8b, c
  • Slide 6
  • Figure 1.9 Directional References Figure 1.9
  • Slide 7
  • Transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior Transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into anterior and posterior Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into anterior and posterior Sagittal plane divides the body into left and right Sagittal plane divides the body into left and right Midsagittal divides the body exactly down the middle Midsagittal divides the body exactly down the middle Planes and Sections are important in visualizing structures
  • Slide 8
  • Figure 1.10 Planes of Section Figure 1.10
  • Slide 9
  • Body cavities are internal chambers holding vital organs Body cavities are internal chambers holding vital organs Cavities protect vital organs Cavities protect vital organs Cavities allow organs to change in shape and size Cavities allow organs to change in shape and size Two body cavities Two body cavities Dorsal body cavity includes the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity Dorsal body cavity includes the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity Ventral body cavity includes the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity Ventral body cavity includes the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity Body Cavities
  • Slide 10
  • Figure 1.12a Body Cavities Figure 1.12a, b
  • Slide 11
  • The thoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs. The thoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs. It is subdivided into the left and right pleural cavities and the mediastinum It is subdivided into the left and right pleural cavities and the mediastinum Each pleural cavity contains one lung lined by the visceral and parietal pleura Each pleural cavity contains one lung lined by the visceral and parietal pleura The mediastinum contains the pericardium, another serous membrane that surrounds the heart The mediastinum contains the pericardium, another serous membrane that surrounds the heart Thoracic Cavities Animation: Heart Dissection PLAY
  • Slide 12
  • The abdominopelvic cavity is lined by the peritoneum The abdominopelvic cavity is lined by the peritoneum The abdominal cavity extends from the diaphragm to the superior margins of the pelvis The abdominal cavity extends from the diaphragm to the superior margins of the pelvis liver, stomach, spleen and most of the large intestine liver, stomach, spleen and most of the large intestine Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • Slide 13
  • The pelvic cavity is bordered by the pelvis, with a floor of muscle The pelvic cavity is bordered by the pelvis, with a floor of muscle reproductive organs, urinary bladder and the final portion of the large intestine reproductive organs, urinary bladder and the final portion of the large intestine Abdominopelvic Cavity Animation: Digestive System Dissection PLAY
  • Slide 14
  • X-rays X-rays Computerized tomography (CT) scans Computerized tomography (CT) scans Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans Ultrasound images Ultrasound images Spiral CT scans Spiral CT scans Digital subtraction angiography images (DSA) Digital subtraction angiography images (DSA) Positron emission tomography (PET) scans Positron emission tomography (PET) scans Clinical technology allows many different views of the body
  • Slide 15
  • Figure 1.13 X-rays Figure 1.13
  • Slide 16
  • Figure 1.14 Common scanning techniques Figure 1.14
  • Slide 17
  • Figure 1.15 Special Scanning Methods Figure 1.15c
  • Slide 18
  • The characteristics of life. The characteristics of life. The sciences of anatomy and physiology and their various subdivisions. The sciences of anatomy and physiology and their various subdivisions. The levels of organization in the human body. The levels of organization in the human body. The definition and importance of homeostasis. The definition and importance of homeostasis. The terminology associated with superficial and sectional anatomy and the body cavities. The terminology associated with superficial and sectional anatomy and the body cavities. You should now be familiar with:
  • Slide 19
  • Tissues are: Tissues are: Collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited number of functions Collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited number of functions Histology = study of tissues Histology = study of tissues The four tissue types are: The four tissue types are: Epithelial Epithelial Connective Connective Muscular Muscular Nervous Nervous Tissues and tissue types
  • Slide 20
  • Includes glands and epithelium Includes glands and epithelium Glands are secretory Glands are secretory Is avascular Is avascular Forms a protective barrier that regulates permeability Forms a protective barrier that regulates permeability Cells may show polarity Cells may show polarity Epithelial tissue
  • Slide 21
  • Physical protection Physical protection Control permeability Control permeability Provide sensation Provide sensation Produce specialized secretions Produce specialized secretions Functions of epithelium
  • Slide 22
  • Perform secretory functions Perform secretory functions Perform transport functions Perform transport functions Maintain physical integrity Maintain physical integrity Ciliated epithelia move materials across their surface Ciliated epithelia move materials across their surface Specializations of epithelium
  • Slide 23
  • The Polarity of Epithelial Cells
  • Slide 24
  • Cells attach via cell adhesion molecules (CAM) Cells attach via cell adhesion molecules (CAM) Cells attach at specialized cell junctions Cells attach at specialized cell junctions Tight junctions Tight junctions Desmosomes Desmosomes Gap junctions Gap junctions Maintaining the integrity of epithelium
  • Slide 25
  • Intercellular connections
  • Slide 26
  • Basal lamina attaches to underlying surface Basal lamina attaches to underlying surface Lamina lucida Lamina lucida Lamina densa Lamina densa Germinative cells replace short-lived epithelial cells Germinative cells replace short-lived epithelial cells Structure of typical epithelium
  • Slide 27
  • Number of cell layers Number of cell layers Simple Simple Stratified Stratified Shape of apical surface cells Shape of apical surface cells Squamous Squamous Cuboidal Cuboidal Columnar Columnar Classification of epithelia
  • Slide 28
  • Squamous Epithelia
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  • Cuboidal Epithelia
  • Slide 30
  • Slide 31
  • Columnar Epithelia
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  • Slide 33
  • Slide 34
  • Transitional Epithelium
  • Slide 35
  • Exocrine glands Exocrine glands Secrete through ducts onto the surface of the gland Secrete through ducts onto the surface of the gland Endocrine glands Endocrine glands Release hormones into surrounding fluid Release hormones into surrounding fluid Glandular epithelia
  • Slide 36
  • Merocrine (product released through exocytosis) Merocrine (product released through exocytosis) Apocrine (involves the loss of both product and cytoplasm) Apocrine (involves the loss of both product and cytoplasm) Holocrine (destroys the cell) Holocrine (destroys the cell) Glandular secretions can be:
  • Slide 37
  • Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion
  • Slide 38
  • Unicellular Unicellular Individual secretory cells Individual secretory cells Multicellular Multicellular Organs containing glandular epithelium Organs containing glandular epithelium Classified according to structure Classified according to structure Glands
  • Slide 39
  • A Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands
  • Slide 40
  • Establishing a structural framework Establishing a structural framework Transporting fluids and dissolved materials Transporting fluids and dissolved materials Protecting delicate organs Protecting delicate organs Supporting, surrounding and interconnecting tissues Supporting, surrounding and interconnecting tissues Storing energy reserves Storing energy reserves Defending the body from microorganisms Defending the body from microorganisms Connective tissue functions:
  • Slide 41
  • A Classification of Connective Tissues
  • Slide 42
  • Specialized cells Specialized cells Matrix Matrix Composed of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance Composed of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance Connective tissues contain
  • Slide

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