smarter choices – changing travel behaviour through ‘soft’ policies

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ECOMM 2005: 27 th -28 th October 2005, Parma, Italy. Smarter Choices changing travel behaviour through soft policies. Dr Sally Cairns Senior Research Fellow TRL and UCL Email: scairns@trl.co.uk. Measures assessed. Information and marketing Personalised travel planning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Smarter Choices changing travel behaviour through soft policies

    Dr Sally Cairns Senior Research FellowTRL and UCL

    Email: scairns@trl.co.ukECOMM 2005: 27th-28th October 2005, Parma, Italy

  • Measures assessedTravel plansWorkplace travel plansSchool travel plansInformation and marketingPersonalised travel planningPublic transport information and marketingTravel awareness campaigns

    More efficient use of carsCar clubsCar sharing schemesTele optionsTeleworkingTeleconferencingHome shopping

  • Study detailsResearch for the UK Department for Transport, 2003-2004

    Study team:Sally CairnsLynn SlomanCarey NewsonJillian AnableAlistair KirkbridePhil Goodwin

    Main report published in conjunction with the 2004 UK White Paper on The Future of Transport

  • Background7 previous UK assessments of the potential impact of such measuresWide range of results, with both optimistic and pessimistic conclusionsRapidly developing evidence base

  • MethodologyWorldwide literature review 24 case studies of current local authority practiceLooked at effectiveness and cost of current schemes,and their potential scale in 10 years timeTwo scenarios: low intensity and high intensityHigh intensity scenario: assumed a step-change in activity and resources, but within the limits of what would be practically achievable

  • Results of high intensity scenario:Potential traffic reduction in 10 yearsFindings consistent with re-interpretation of previous studies

    Chart1

    urban peak7921

    urban off-peak8713

    non-urban peak8614

    non-urban off-peak937

    national8911

    % traffic

    11%

    7%

    14%

    13%

    21%

    Sheet1

    urban peak7921

    urban off-peak8713

    non-urban peak8614

    non-urban off-peak937

    national8911

    Sheet1

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    000

    % traffic

    21%

    13%

    14%

    7%

    11%

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Costs and benefitsFor every 1000 vehicle kilometres removed:

    Average cost = 15 Average benefit = 150 (for congestion relief alone)Benefit : cost ratio is at least 10:1Higher ratios (up to 30:1) in congested city streets

  • BUT. Benefits will only be realised if traffic reduction is locked in with restraint measures

  • Example: Workplace travel plans

    a package of measures that an organisation puts in place to encourage and enable staff to travel more sustainablySupport for:walkingcycling public transportcar sharinglocal recruitment / relocationteleworking

    Car park management

  • Reductions in car driver trips to work

    Typical reductions: 10-25%

    Chart1

    0

    0

    0

    0.023

    0.0454545455

    0.046

    0.048

    0.06

    0.0689655172

    0.073

    0.0845070423

    0.0888888889

    0.0933333333

    0.103

    0.1071428571

    0.111

    0.117

    0.1263157895

    0.1304347826

    0.1428571429

    0.144

    0.1451612903

    0.1558441558

    0.156

    0.1685393258

    0.171

    0.172

    0.201

    0.231

    0.258

    0.26

    0.262

    0.268

    0.3076923077

    0.33

    0.338

    0.432

    0.433

    0.55

    0.5507246377

    Sheet4

    beforeafterbefore-after

    Orange (Almondsbury)928012

    Orange (Temple Point)792752

    Sheet4

    00

    00

    after

    before

    cars per 100 staff

    Sheet5

    Birmingham Royal Orthopaedic hospital0.0%beforeafter

    Compass Group Birmingham0.0%Stockley Park4.5%8884

    HM Prison Birmingham0.0%Marks and Spencer12.6%9583

    Generics, Cambridgeshire2.3%AstraZeneca8.9%9082

    Stockley Park4.5%Orange (Almondsbury)13.0%9280

    Boots, Nottingham4.6%Vodafone10.7%8475

    Birmingham dental hospital4.8%Computer Associates16.9%8974

    Local Government Ombudsman, York6.0%BP14.3%8472

    Oxford Radcliffe Hospital6.9%Pfizer9.3%7568

    Arup, Bristol7.3%Wycombe District Council15.6%7765

    Agilent8.5%Agilent8.5%7165

    AstraZeneca8.9%Plymouth Hospital30.8%7854

    Pfizer9.3%Oxford Radcliffe Hospital6.9%5854

    Birmingham city council transportation department10.3%Egg14.5%6253

    Vodafone10.7%Bluewater55.1%6931

    University of Bristol11.1%Birmingham Priory Hospital26.8%

    Cambridgeshire County Council (county hall)11.7%Northfield Medical Centre, Birmingham20.1%

    Marks and Spencer12.6%WS Atkins, Birmingham43.3%

    Orange (Almondsbury)13.0%Birmingham city council economic development department26.2%

    BP14.3%Birmingham city council transportation department10.3%

    St Helen's College, Merseyside14.4%Birmingham dental hospital4.8%

    Egg14.5%Birmingham Royal Orthopaedic hospital0.0%

    Wycombe District Council15.6%Compass Group Birmingham0.0%

    Government Office for the East Midlands15.6%HM Prison Birmingham0.0%

    Computer Associates16.9%Orange, Temple Point Bristol55.0%

    Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust17.1%Norwich Union, Bristol43.2%

    Chamber of Commerce, Cambridge17.2%University of Bristol11.1%

    Northfield Medical Centre, Birmingham20.1%Arup, Bristol7.3%

    Cambridge University23.1%Buckinghamshire County Council25.8%

    Buckinghamshire County Council25.8%Addenbrookes NHS Trust, Cambridge33.8%

    Cambridge City Council26.0%Government Office for East of England33.0%

    Birmingham city council economic development department26.2%Cambridge City Council26.0%

    Birmingham Priory Hospital26.8%Chamber of Commerce, Cambridge17.2%

    Plymouth Hospital30.8%Cambridge University23.1%

    Government Office for East of England33.0%Cambridgeshire County Council (county hall)11.7%

    Addenbrookes NHS Trust, Cambridge33.8%Generics, Cambridgeshire2.3%

    Norwich Union, Bristol43.2%St Helen's College, Merseyside14.4%

    WS Atkins, Birmingham43.3%Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust17.1%

    Orange, Temple Point Bristol55.0%Government Office for the East Midlands15.6%

    Bluewater55.1%Boots, Nottingham4.6%

    Local Government Ombudsman, York6.0%

    Sheet5

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    Sheet1

    beforeafterbefore-after

    Stockley Park88844

    Marks and Spencer958312

    AstraZeneca90828

    Orange (Almondsbury)928012

    Vodafone84759

    Computer Associates897415

    BP847212

    Pfizer75687

    Wycombe District Council776512

    Agilent71656

    Boots65623

    Nottingham Hospital736112

    Addenbrookes NHS Trust746014

    Buckinghamshire Council715615

    Plymouth Hospital785424

    Oxford Radcliffe Hospital58544

    Egg62539

    GO East Midlands45387

    University of Bristol44359

    Bluewater693138

    Orange (Temple Point)792752

    Sheet1

    00

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    after

    before

    Sheet2

    WTP change over time

    Addenbrookes = car users

    Orange and BP = car drivers

    AddenbrookesOrangeBP

    1993174

    2

    3

    4

    19941

    2

    3

    4

    19951

    2

    3

    4

    1996166

    2

    392.2

    4

    1997168

    2

    3

    4

    199816584.4

    2

    3

    4

    1999160

    2

    377

    481.1

    20001

    2

    383

    4

    2001181.871.7

    2

    3

    480

    20021

    2

    3

    4

    Sheet2

    000

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    Addenbrookes

    Orange

    BP

    Sheet3

    proportion of employers who have or are developing a travel plan

    source DTLR 2001a

    per centnot doing it

    local authorities6931

    hospitals6238

    higher education5248

    businesses >300 staff2179

    businesses 50 - 300 staff496

    businesses

  • Local authority role in workplace travel plansHaving advisers who work with businessesUsing the planning processesOffering grants or other incentives Having a plan for their own staff

    Local authorities have promoted workplace travel plans by:

  • Scale of workplace travel planningFuture scale: two urban areas estimated 40-50%; one rural area estimated 15%.

    Chart5

    8

    11

    13

    12

    29

    28

    28

    29

    2003

    % employees affected by a travel plan

    Sheet1

    % schools involved

    200320062011

    England1528

    Merseyside19.525

    York5975100

    Buckinghamshire648095

    Number of new travel plans

    01-02527

    02-03808

    03-04885

    04-05856

    05-06853

    06-07488

    200320062011

    Merseytravel8

    Buckinghamshire111215

    Bristol13

    Cambs (all)12

    Cambs City & S29

    York2835

    Nottingham28

    Birmingham294046

    Sheet1

    000

    000

    000

    000

    2003

    2006

    2011

    % schools engaged in school travel work

    Sheet2

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    Number of new travel plans

    Number of new travel plans (according to APR analysis)

    Sheet3

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    2003

    % employees affected by a travel plan

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