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Presented By: 1. Sunil 2. Suryakant 3. Tanuj 4. Umesh 5. Urjit 6. Vaishakh 7. Vineet 8. Vivek K 9. Vivek N

Introduction History Modernization of T&D Functions Features Information Systems Challenges Present & Future

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Existing Infrastructure

Grid inefficiency

Why we need it ? If we could make electric grid even 5% more efficient, we would save more than 42 GW of energy: the equivalent of production from 42 large coal fired plants.

Why we need it ?

What is smart grid ?

What is smart grid ?

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HISTORY

Grid is a term used for an electricity network which may support all or some of the following four distinct operations. 1. Electricity generation 2. Electric power transmission 3. Electricity distribution 4. Electricity control.

History of smart grid.

Technological improvements of the power system largely rose in the 50s and 60s. Nuclear power, computer controls helped fine tune the grids effectiveness and operability. With todays technology such as wireless protocol, network infrastructure the power grid becomes smart grid, capable of recording, analyzing and reacting to transmission data, allowing for efficient management of resources, and cost-effective appliances for consumers.

History of smart grid. 1980s, Automatic meter reading was used

1990s, Advanced Metering Infrastructure. Smart meters used to monitor in real time. 2000, Italy's Telegestore Project - to network (27 million) of homes using smart meters. Project cost of 2.1 bn euro annual savings of 500 mn euro

MODERNIZATION OF T&D

Smart Grid: Transmission and Distribution

Smart Meters: possible for energy suppliers to charge variable electric rates

Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing Platform for advanced services Provide reliability and power quality for the 21st century Effective routine operations Effective system planning capabilities

The Current T&D System

The Modern T&D System

Smart Grid Technology Areas1.

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)y y y y y y

3.

Advanced Transmission Operations (ATO)

Substation Automation Geographical Information System for Transmission

Smart Meters Two-way Communications Consumer Portal Home Area Network Meter Data Management Demand Response

Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Hi-speed information processing Advanced protection and control Modeling, simulation and visualization tools

2.

Advanced Distribution Operations (ADO)y

Distribution Management System with advanced sensors

4.

Advanced Asset Management (AAM)

Advanced sensors Integration of real time information with other processes

y

Advanced Outage Management (realtime)

y

Distribution Automation

AEF Study T&D FindingsPerformance R&D Technolog y

Renewabl e Resources

Deployme nt

Barriers

Cost

FUNCTIONS

Funtions of Smart GridSelf-healing Using real-time information from embedded sensors and automated controls to anticipate, detect, and respond to system problems, a smart grid can automatically avoid or mitigate power outages, power quality problems, and service disruptions

Consumer participation This takes shape in two forms electricity production and electricity consumption. One of the many benefits of the Smart Grid is its ability to integrate renewable energy sources into large scale electricity production. Another is the ability to communicate in real time on a broad scale to signal requests to modify electricity consumption. Both of these benefits have profound, positive impacts for consumers.

Resist attack / Electricity Theft. Smart grid technologies better identify and respond to man-made or natural disruptions. Real-time information enables grid operators to isolate affected areas and redirect power flows around damaged facilities

Accommodate generation options Integration of small-scale, localized, or on-site power generation allows residential, commercial, and industrial customers to self-generate and sell excess power to the grid with minimal technical or regulatory barriers. This also improves reliability and power quality, reduces electricity costs, and offers more customer choice.

Optimize assets and Enable high penetration of intermittent generation sources. Optimized power flows reduce waste and maximize use of lowest-cost generation resources. Smart Grid technologies will enable power systems to operate with larger amounts of renewable energy resources since they enable both the suppliers and consumers to compensate for such intermittency.

FEATURES

Load adjustment Demand response support Greater resilience to loading Decentralization of power generation Price signalling to consumers

Load adjustment

The total load connected to the power grid can vary significantly over time A smart grid may warn all individual to reduce the load temporarily or continuously It predicts how many standby generators need to be used, to reach a certain failure rate In the traditional grid, the failure rate can only be reduced at the cost of more standby generators

Demand response supportAllows generators and loads to interact in an automated fashion in real time, coordinating demand to flatten spikes Allows users to cut their energy bills by telling low priority devices to use energy only when it is cheapest

Decentralization of power generationDistributed generation allows individual consumers to generate power onsite Allows individual loads to tailor their generation directly to their load, making them independent from grid power failures If a local sub-network generates more power than it is consuming, the reverse flow can raise safety and reliability issues Greater resilience to loading

Driving Factors for SMART GRID

Reliability and Quality and Supply Aging infrastructure of Transmission and

Distribution Networks

The Environment Distributed resources Renewable sources Demand side Management

Operational Excellence Information Management Automation

Business Blocks of Smart GridSMART GRID Bringing together enabling technologies, changes in business processes, and a holistic view towards end-to-end requirements of the grid operations. Consumer-side capabilities and distributed generation technologies form the base.

Achieving Benefit of Smart Grid

A large scale implementation of Smart Grid will have an impact on many utility systems and process spanning over customer services, system operations, planning, engineering and field operations. Key requirements: y Systems Interoperability y Information Management y Data Integration

Systems Involved in Distribution Smart GridDistributed Resources Infrastructure Distribution Automation Advanced Metering

SMART GRID brings improvement in the SystemImproved System Reliability Fully Integrated Outage Management SystemTrouble Call, CIS, GIS, MDMS, DA etc.

Penetration of Distributed & Demand Side Resources Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy

Resources, Demand Side Management

Asset Management Equipment Condition Monitoring Equipment Maintenance Dynamic Adjustment of Operating Limits

Enterprise Level Integration DATA ASSETS

Currently Limited Stalled Capacity for Interoperability - Islands of Information Information Enterprise Asset Need of the hour Enterprise Level Integration of Information to providey Single, Consistent view of Information y Accurate Data y Timely Access

Enterprise Information Integration Making GRIDS SMARTER

ConceptuallyEnterprise Level Information Integration

Real-Time Notification, Control and Process Integration

Transaction Based Data Exchange

Hardware SupportsIntegrated Communications Sensing and Measurement Advanced Components

Sensing and MeasurementReal time Automated Meter Reading Advanced Metering Infra 2-way communicator Local mesh networked smart meter has a hub which interfaces 900MHz smart meters to the metering automation server via landline. y Adjusts supply with demandy y y y y

Advanced Componentsy Present Network of Distribution y High Speed Computers y Mobile communication Towers y Control System Tools

Echelon

NES-Networked Energy Services

Componentsy Smart meters y Data Concentrator y System Management NES Element Managery Installation, Monitoring, Performance Measurement,

Meter-to-data assignment, configuration etc.

y System Software Service Oriented Architecture

Features of NESy y y y y y y y y y y

ON demand reading Load profiling Power Quality Measurement Flexible Tariffs Eg. time of use, critical peak, real time, prepayment pricings RF Extensions into home T&D faults detection Real time outage and theft detection Reverse Metering for alternative energy Uses Distribution Line Carrier Reliability and Scalability 30 million Meters Saving 500million Euros/yearly

Partners of Echelony Oracle y Develco-RF y HCL y Lackman Metering-Meter Hardware y WiMet-Wireless Communication y Zirode-Implementing AMI y Onzo-Customer Intelligence

Security Challenges

A recent project from security consultancy IOActive determined that an attacker with $500 of equipment and materials and a background in electronics and software engineering could take command and control of the [advanced meter infrastructure] allowing for the en masse manipulation of service to homes and businesses. According to a report in the National Journal last year, hackers in China may have already used what little infotech intel

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