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  • A QIP Course on Smart Grid Technology: Smart Grid Protocols

    Ankush Sharma Assistant Professor

    Dept. of EE, IIT Kanpur E-mail: ansharma@iitk.ac.in

  • Contents

    Various Smart Grid Protocols

    IEC 61850 Protocol

    Tele-Control Protocols

    DLMS/COSEM Protocols

  • Smart Grid Protocols and Standards - IEEE C37.118:IEEE Standard for Synchrophasor Measurements for Power Systems - IEC 61970: Common Information Model (CIM) / Energy Management - IEC 60870-6: Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol - IEC 60870-5-104: Network access for IEC 60870- 5-101 using standard transport profiles

    - IEC 61850: Power Utility Automation - IEC 61968: Common Information Model (CIM) / Distribution Management - IEC 62056: Data exchange for meter reading, tariff and load control - DNP 3.0: Interoperability between substation computers, RTUs, IEDs and master stations

    - IEC 62325: Deregulated energy market communications standards - AS 4777: Grid connection of energy systems via inverters - AS 4577: Framework for the control of electrical devices for DRM

    - IEC 62351: Security - IEC 61508: Functional safety of electrical/electronic/ programmable electronic safety-related systems - IEEE 1588: Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems

    Major Smart Grid Protocols/

    Standards

  • Smart Grid Protocols and Standards Other Smart Grid Protocols/ Standards –

    Green Button - Initiative to provide utility customers with easy and secure access to their energy usage information in

    a consumer-friendly and computer-friendly format

    MultiSpeak -The specification is a standard for the exchange of data among enterprise application software commonly

    applied in utilities

    SunSpec - Open interoperability specifications and information models to achieve plug-and-play

    interoperability between Distributed Energy Resource (DER) components and smart grid applications

    SEP 2.0 - Standard for applications that enable home energy management via wired and wireless devices that support

    Internet Protocol

  • IEC 61850

  • IEC 61850 Before IEC 61850 -  Power substations were mostly managed by substation

    automation systems that -  Utilize simple, straightforward and highly specialized communication

    protocols  Less concerned about the semantics of the exchanged data

     Devices from different manufacturers used different substation automation protocols, disabling them to talk to each other

     Utilities were paying enormous money and time to configure the devices to work together in a substation

     Hence, device manufacturers recognized the need for a unified international standard to support seamless cooperation among products from different vendors

     The IEC 61850 international standard, drafted by substation automation domain experts from 22 countries

  • IEC 61850  Takes advantage of a comprehensive object-oriented

    data model and the Ethernet technology  Part 1 to Part 3 - general ideas about the standard  Part 4 – defining the project and management

    requirements in an IEC 61850 enabled substation  Part 5 - specifying the required parameters for physical

    implementation  Part 6 - defining an XML based language for IED

    configuration  Part 7 - elaborating on the logical concepts  Part 8 – mapping of the internal objects to the

    presentation layer and to the Ethernet link layer  Part 9 - mapping from sampled measurement value

    (SMV) to point-to-point Ethernet

  • IEC 61850 – Substation Architecture IEC 61850 based Substation Architecture

  • IEC 61850 – System Overview

    Source: ABB

  • IEC 61850 - Virtualization Logical Representation of Device in IEC 61850-

  • IEC 61850 – Object Naming

    Physical Device (network address)

    Logical Device (e.g. Relay1)

    MMXU1 MMXU2

    MXMX

    AV

    Logical Nodes

    Functional Constraint

    “MMXU2$MX$A” = Feeder #2 Current Measurements

    Anatomy of an IEC61850 Object Name

  • IEC 61850 – Object Naming

    L System LN P Protection R Protection related C Control G Generic I Interfacing and archiving A Automatic control (4)

    M Metering and measurement S Sensor and monitoring X Switchgear T Instrument transformers Y Power transformers Z Further power system

    equipment

    Examples:

    PDIF: Differential protection

    RBRF: Breaker failure

    XCBR: Circuit breaker

    CSWI: Switch controller

    MMXU: Measurement unit

    YPTR: Power transformer

    Logical node groups

  • IEC 61850 – Communication Profile C

    om m

    un ic

    at io

    n St

    ac k

    A pp

    lic at

    io n

    D om

    ai n

    IEC 61850 Communication Profile

  • IEC 61850 – Communication Profile

  • IEC 61850 Communication

    Source: ABB

  • IEC 61850 Interface Model

    Source: ABB

  • IEC 61850 - ACSI Abstract Communications Service Interface - ACSI

     Defines a set of Objects

     Defines a set of Services to manipulate and access those objects

     Defines a base set of data types for describing objects

     Example ACSI services – GetDataSetValue, CreateDataSet, DetDataDirectory

  • IEC 61850 - SMV Sampled Measured Values (SMV)

  • IEC 61850 - GOOSE IEC61850 Generic Object Oriented Substation Event - GOOSE

     Device to multi-device communication – Local or Wide Area

     Bridgeable but Non-routable  User-defined Dataset sent in an

    Ethernet Multicast message  Message sent on change of state as

    well periodically to enable detection of device failure

     Reliability effected through message repeat

    GOOSE Header: • Multicast Address • Name • Time Until Next GOOSE • Etc.

    User-Defined Dataset • Status Information • Analog Values • Data Quality • Time

  • IEC 61850 – GOOSE Messaging

  • IEC 61850 – GSSE/MMS Generic Substation State Events (GSSE)

     Only Status data can be exchanged through GSSE and it uses a status list (string of bits) rather than a dataset as is used in GOOSE

     GSSE messages are transmitted directly over IEC/ISO 8802-2 and 8802-3 (IEEE 802.3) using a similar mechanism to GOOSE messages

     As the GSSE format is simpler than GOOSE it is handled faster in some devices.

     GSSE is being progressively superseded by the use of GOOSE and support for it may eventually disappear

    Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS)

    It is a messaging system for transferring real time process data and supervisory control information between networked devices and/or computer applications. MMS Defines the following -

     A set of standard objects which must exist in every device, on which operations like read, write, event signaling etc. can be executed.

     A set of standard messages exchanged between a client and a server stations for the purpose of monitoring and/or controlling these objects.

     A set of encoding rules for mapping these messages to bits and bytes when transmitted.

  • IEC 61850 - SCL SCL – Substation Configuration Language

     Description language for communication in electrical substations related to the IEDs

     XML based language that allows a formal description of - – Substation automation system and the switchyard and the

    relation between them – IED configuration – IEC 61850 language used in the XML files is called SCL

    language

  • IEC 61850 - SCL SCL File Types

    SSD: System Specification Description.

     XML description of the entire system.

    SCD: Substation Configuration Description.

     XML description of a single substation.

    ICD: IED Capability Description.

     XML description of items supported by an IED.

    CID: Configured IED Description.

     XML configuration for a specific IED.

  • IEC 61850 - SCL SCL File Sample

    SSD: System Specification Description.

     XML description of the entire system.

    SCD: Substation Configuration Description.

     XML description of a single substation.

    ICD: IED Capability Description.

     XML description of items supported by an IED.

    CID: Configured IED Description.

     XML configuration for a specific IED.

  • IEC 61850: The SCL language (IED Modelling)

  • Bay Unit (IED)

    PTRC (Trip, Operate)

    SCL

    Bay A

    IEC 61850: The SCL language (IED modelling)

  • SCLSCL

    IEC 61850: The SCL language (IED modelling) It is possible to “structure” the Logical Nodes, and group them under different Logical Devices. The “rules” of this structure are described in the XML file.

  • The SCL file also describes what the IED can do (services). In this case it seems that the IED cannot offer upload of disturbance recorder file, as the “FileHandling Service” is not listed:

    IEC 61850: Services (IED modelling)

    While this IED allows to u

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