Smart Energy Meter Project Report

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Smart Energy Meter Project Report

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    SMART ENERGY METER

    1

    KEYWORDS

    ACC : Accumulator

    B : B Register

    PSW : Program Status Word

    SP : Stack Pointer

    DPTR : Data Pointer

    DPL : Low byte

    DPH : High byte

    P0 : Port 0

    P1 : Port 1

    P2 : Port 2

    P3 : Port 3

    IE : Interrupt Enable control

    IP : Interrupt Priority control

    TMOD : Timer/counter Mode control

    TCON : Timer/counter control

    T2CON : Timer/counter 2 control

    T2MOD : Timer/counter mode2 control

    TH0 : Timer/counter 0high byte

    TL0 : Timer /counter 0low byte

    TH1 : Timer/counter 1high byte

    TL1 : Timer/counter 1low byte

    TH2 : Timer/counter 2 high byte

    TL2 : Timer/counter 2 low byte

    SCON : Serial control

    SBUF : Serial data buffer

    PCON : Power control

    IR : Infra Red

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    SMART ENERGY METER

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    INDEX

    ACKNOWLEDGE ------------------------------------ 6ABSTRACT ------------------------------------ 7

    I.INTRODUCTION 9

    II. LITERATURE SURVEY2.1 Motivation 11

    2.2 Background 11

    2.3 Aim 11

    2.4 Requirement Analysis 12

    2.4.1 Hardware Requirements 12

    2.4.2 Software Requirements 12

    2.5 Scope 12

    2.6 Advantages 12

    III.DESIGN METHODOLOGY3.1 Hardware system design 14

    3.1.1 Block level design of Smart Energy Meter 14

    3.1.2 Selection of Hardware 15

    3.1.3 Design consideration of Microcontroller 15

    3.1.3.1 8051 15

    3.1.3.2 Internal architecture of P89C51RD2FN 16

    3.1.3.2.1 I/O ports 173.1.3.2.2 Interrupt controls 18

    3.1.3.2.3 Bus controllers 19

    3.1.3.2.4 Memory organization 19

    3.1.3.2.5 Registers in 8051 20

    3.1.3.2.6 Oscillator 22

    3.1.3.3 Features 23

    3.1.4 Serial communication 24

    3.1.4.1 Introduction 24

    3.1.4.2 Baud rate 25

    3.1.5 Hardware design of LCD 25

    3.1.5.1 LCD screen 263.1.5.2 Features 29

    3.1.5.3 Pin configuration 29

    3.1.5.4 Specifications 30

    3.1.5.5 Functionality of LCD in project 32

    3.1.6 MAX232 32

    3.1.6.1 Pin configuration 33

    3.1.7 RS232 (Female port) 33

    3.1.7.1 Voltage levels 33

    3.1.7.2 Pin configuration 34

    3.1.7.3 DB9 interfacing microcontroller using MAX232 34

    3.1.8 Serial port connector 353.1.9 Design of KEYPAD 35

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    SMART ENERGY METER

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    3.1.10 IR sensors and IC NE555 Timer 37

    3.1.10.1 Photo transmitter 37

    3.1.10.2 Principle of operation 38

    3.1.10.3 Application 39

    3.1.10.4 Features 39

    3.1.10.5 IR receivers 393.1.10.6 Photo transistor 39

    3.1.10.7 Principle of operation 39

    3.1.11 IC NE555 timer 40

    3.1.12 Resistors 41

    3.1.13 Capacitors 41

    3.1.14 Crystal oscillators 42

    3.2 Software design 43

    3.2.1 Liquid Crystal Display 43

    3.2.1.1 Initialization of LCD 43

    3.2.1.2 Checking busy state of LCD 43

    3.2.2 KEYPAD 473.2.2.1 Flow chart of keyboard scanning algorithm 47

    IV. IMPLEMENTATION4.1 Hardware implementation 49

    4.1.1 Complete Schematic of Smart Energy Meter 50

    4.1.2 Connections of P89C51RD2FN 51

    4.1.3 Pin connections of LCD 52

    4.1.4 Keypad connections 53

    4.1.5 MAX232 and DB9 connections 53

    4.1.6 IC555 timer and IR transmitter connections 54

    V. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION5.1 JHD162A LCD interfacing 56

    5.1.1 Initialization of LCD 56

    5.1.2 Initialization sequence code 56

    5.1.3 Checking the busy state of LCD 56

    5.1.4 Writing the command to display 57

    5.1.5 Writing data to display 57

    5.1.6 Displaying the data into LCD 57

    5.1.7 4*4 matrix Keypad interfacing 58

    5.1.8 Sensors 58

    VI. DEBUGGING TECHNIQUES6.1 KEIL micro vision debugger 61

    6.1.1 Introduction to KEIL IDE 61

    6.1.2 Features 61

    6.1.3 Steps to follow while writing program in KEIL 62

    6.2 Flash Magic 63

    6.2.1 Features 63

    6.3 Null MODEM checking (HYPER TERMINAL) 64

    6.4 Hardware debugging techniques 65CONCLUSION 65

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    SMART ENERGY METER

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    RESULT 66

    VII. BIBILOGRAPHY 67VIII. APPENDIX

    KEIL MICROVISION IDE 68

    FLASH MAGIC 77

    SET UP OF HYPER TERMINAL 80

    COMPLETE CODE 83

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    SMART ENERGY METER

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    ABSTRACT

    Saving energy is high on the agenda for consumers and businesses, but with most of

    the electrical devices today, its difficult to know how much energy we are actually

    using at any given point in time. Smart Energy Meter is a meter which helps the

    consumers to know their day to day power consumption to better control their usage

    and producers to manage production. This meter records consumption of electric

    energy in intervals of hour or less. Smart meters enable two-way communication

    between the meter and the central system. The proposed project comprises of

    hardware design using a low-cost 8-bit P89C51RD2xx microcontroller and the

    complete hardware design will be proposed .The Communication is through

    SMS.They are two one is admin password and second is user. By this admin passwordthe cost per unit can be changed by the concerned officerThe system software driver

    is also developed using embedded-C programming language in Keil Vision 4 IDE. .

    Smart meters are also believed to be a less costly alternative to traditional interval or

    time-of-use meters and are intended to be used on a wide scale with all customer

    classes, including residential customers. The project also addresses about the various

    debugging tools such as Keil Vision 4 C51 debugger and Flash magic tool 9.25

    version used to test the implemented prototype.

    Keywords: Embedded System , Micro controller , Cross-compiler and Debugging.

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    SMART ENERGY METER

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    CHAPTER-1

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    CHAPTER - I

    INTRODUCTION

    Now-a-days electricity has become a basic need to humans. The consumptionof electricity has increased a lot compared to the past years. The theft of electricity

    has also become a problem these days and there is no control over the loss due to theft

    of electricity. In this project we present you the smart energy meter device used to

    measure the consumption of the electricity by the individual and provide security

    against theft of electricity.

    A smart meter is usually an electrical meter that records consumption of

    electric energy in intervals of an hour or less and communicates that information at

    least daily back to the utility for monitoring and billing purposes. Smart meters enable

    two-way communication between the meter and the central system. Unlike home

    energy monitors, smart meters can gather data for remote reporting.

    The term Smart meter often refers to an electricity meter, but it canincreasingly also mean a device measuring natural gas or water consumption. Smart

    energy meter is software based, power efficient device that accurately tracks energy

    consumption and performs computation. Meter readings can be transmitted to

    distributors/utilities over wireless media; thus, eliminating the need of manual meter

    reading collection process. The smart energy meter offers major benefits to both

    customers and companies in terms of efficiency, reliability, and cost saving.

    Imagine if you knew how much energy you were consuming at home at any

    time of the day, and knew how much energy each device was using, will you stop

    using those energy hog appliances? or use them at the time of the day when the

    energy is cheapest? in the economy turmoil we are currently in, I believe all of us are

    willing to make those small sacrifices to lower down the bill numbers at the end of themonth.

    Smart energy meters are devices that will sit on your home, monitor energy

    data from your electricity meter, and let you know how much energy you are using

    this put more control on your hands on how you spend your energy at home.

    Conventional electricity meters are normally hidden somewhere on a wall on the

    basement, and the only time you realize how much energy youve been spending is

    when the bill hit the door.

    The new smart meters will provide Indian consumers with information

    regarding energy consumption that was not previously available with a traditional

    meter. This system will allow the easy disconnection of defaulted customers and

    power connections from a remote site. The new smart system is also able to instantly

    detect tampering with the power lines and sends signals to security personnel if

    necessary. Utility employees will also have the ability to change a customers billing

    method from pre paid to post paid in a matter of seconds, without having to physically

    visit the meter.

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    SMART ENERGY METER

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    CHAPTER-2

    CHAPTER- II

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    SMART ENERGY METER

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    LITERATURE SURVEY

    2.1 MOTIVATIONIn the present scenario, the use of advanced technologies such as

    digital metering has become extremely necessary to achieve greater efficiency, theft

    reduction to reduce AT & C losses and to improve revenue collection. The utilities

    and pl

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