skin & skin infections

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  • 1.STRUCTURE & FUNCTIONS OF SKIN

2. INTRODUCTION

  • The skin covers the whole of the external surface of the body.It forms the largest and heaviest organ in the body. The skin consists of three main layers.
  • Epidermis (an upper protective layer)
  • Dermis (a lower supporting layer)
  • Hypodermis

3. Epidermis

  • The epidermis is thick, hard and horny in regions, such as on the palms of the hand and soles of the feet.
  • Properties
  • Primary barrier to microbial invasion
  • Impermeability to water and chemicals
  • High capacity of regeneration after damage

4. Dermis

  • The dermis is soft and elastic in all parts but may be very thick.
  • Properties
  • The dermis gives strength to the skin
  • Act as reservoir of elements capable of fighting infections and repairing deep wounds

5. Hypodermis

  • The skin is supported by a layer of fatty subcutaneous tissue sometimes known as the hypodermis.

6. FUNCTION OF SKIN

  • The most obvious function of the skin is to provide the body with physical protection.
  • It forms an outer covering, which defends the body against injury from mechanical, thermal, chemical sources and microorganisms
  • The skin also acts as an organ of sensation to make the body aware of its environment.

7. FUNCTION OF SKIN (Contd)

  • Another important function of the skin is regulation of body temperature (37-38C).
  • It plays a minor role in excretion of the bodys waste products

8. Bacterial Structure

  • CELL ENVELOPE:
    • Protects cells internal structures from its external environment.
    • It comprises cell wall, cell membrane
  • CYTOPLASM:
    • Watery gelatinous substance
    • Contains ribosomes, nucleoids & plasmids
    • Keeps the cell alive

9. Bacterial Structure (Contd)

  • RIBOSOMES:
    • Produces enzymes and proteins
    • Helps the cell to live and grow
  • NUCLEOIDS:
    • Contains cells genetic material.
    • Also called bacterial chromosome
    • Single circular molecule of double stranded DNA
  • PLASMIDS:
    • DNA fragments carrying genetic information

10. MYCOLOGY

  • The study of fungi is called Mycology.
  • There are several widespread human and animal diseases that are due to fungi.
  • There are many beneficial fungi, some used to make antibiotics, bread and foods or used as insecticides.

11. CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI

  • The fungi (sing., fungus) are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms, with over 80,000 identifiable species.
  • Fungi were classified as plants, but laboratory studies have revealed a set of four properties that distinguish fungi from plants.

12. Differentiation from Plants

  • Fungi lack chlorophyll, while plants have this pigment.
  • The cell walls of fungal cells contain a carbohydrate called chitin not found in plant cell walls.
  • Fungi are not truly multi-cellular like plants.
  • Fungi are heterotrophic eukaryotes, while plants are autotrophic eukaryotes.

13. GROWTH OF THE FUNGI

  • Fungi are aerobic organism, with the notable exception of the yeasts that multiply in the presence or absence of oxygen.
  • High concentration of sugar is favorable for thegrowth
  • Most fungi grow best at approximately 25 C
  • fungi grow under acidic conditions at a pH from 5 to 6

14. FUNGAL INFECTIONS OF THE SKIN

  • Superficial Skin Infection
  • Deep Fungal Infection

15. Superficial Skin Infection

  • The superficial fungi live on the dead horny layer of the skin
  • Secrete an enzyme that enables them to digest keratin causing the superficial skin to scale and disintegrate the nails, and the hairs to break off.
  • Fungi are also capable of causing an allergic reaction.

16. CLINICAL CLASSIFICATIONS

  • Tinea of the feet (tinea pedis) - T.mentagrophytes
  • Tinea of the hands (tinea manus) -T. mentagrophytes
  • Tinea of the nails (onychomycosis)T.rubrum, T. mentagrophytes
  • Tinea of the groin (tinea cruris) - E.Floccosum
  • Tinea of the smooth skin (tinea corporis) -T. mentagrophytes
  • Tinea of the scalp (tinea capitis) -T.tonurans, T.verucosum
  • Tinea of the beard (tinea barbae)
  • Dermatophytid (Acute Eruption of Fungal Infection) Pityrosporum
  • Tinea of Chest and Back (Tinea versicolor) Pityrosporum

17. DEEP FUNGAL INFECTION

  • Fungi that invade the skin deeply and go into living tissue
  • Also capable of involving other organs.

18. Types of Deep Fungal Infection

  • Candidiasis
  • Sporotrichosis

19. Deep Fungal Infection

  • Candidiasis :
  • Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida albicans that produces lesions in the mouth, the vagina, the nails, the lungs, or the gastrointestinal tract or occasionally a septicemia.

20. Deep Fungal Infection

  • Sporotrichosis :
  • Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissues that forms a chain of tumors that develop into ulcers

21. Dermatomycosis

  • Fungal infection of the skin ,especially of moist parts covered by clothing.

22. Eczema

  • Eczema is pruritic condition associated with erythema and edema in acute phase
  • It is dominated by thickening and scaling when it becomes chronic
  • The termeczemais broadly applied to a range of skin conditions.
  • Eczema is defined as allergic, pruritic dermatitis

23. Inflammation

  • Aprotective reaction of tissue to irritation, injury, or infection.
  • Two types of Inflammation:
  • Localized Inflammation
  • Systemic Inflammation
  • Symptoms includes pain, redness, swelling and heat.

24. Localized Inflammation

  • Inflammation is a process in which the body's white blood cells and chemicals can protect us from infection and foreign substances (bacteria and viruses)
  • Symptoms includes pain, redness, swelling and heat.

25. Systemic Inflammation

  • Inflammation may also be associated with general "flu"-like symptoms including:
    • Fever
    • Chills
    • Fatigue/loss of energy
    • Headaches
    • Muscle stiffness &myalgia
    • A norexia(Loss of appetite)

26. ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

  • CLOTRIMAZOLE
  • Clotrimazole is an imidazole antifungal agent.
  • Clotrimazole is applied topically two or three times daily for 2 to 4 weeks as a 1% cream.
  • Local reactions including irritation and burning may occur in patients treated topically; contact allergic dermatitis has been reported.

27.

  • KETOCONAZOLE
  • Ketoconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent, which interferes with ergosterol synthesis and therefore alters the permeability of the cell membrane of sensitive fungi. It is reported to be fungistatic.
  • After topical administration of Ketoconazole, irritation, dermatitis or a burning sensation has occurred

28.

  • MICONAZOLE
  • Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent with similar antimicrobial activity to Ketoconazole.
  • Local irritation and sensitivity reaction may occur with Miconazole nitrate

29. Corticosteroids

  • Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex.
  • Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range of physiologic systems such as stress response, immune response and regulation of inflammation

30. Effects of Corticosteroids

  • Corticosteroids exerts their effects by suppressing:
  • The inflammatory response
  • The immune response

31. Mechanism of Corticosteroids

  • Corticosteroids suppress inflammation by a number of mechanisms:
  • Inhibition of production of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and other inflammatory mediators
  • Inhibition of migration of neutrophils to areas of inflammation
  • Inhibition of accumulation of macrophages in areas of inflammation

32.

  • Hydrocortisone
  • Hydrocortisoneis a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland.
  • It is usually referred to as the "stress hormone" as it is involved in response to stress.