Sample of Literature Review

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<p>LITERATURE REVIEWISO standard 15489: 2001 defines Records Management as the field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use and disposition of records, including the processes for capturing and maintaining evidence of and information about business activities and transactions in the form of records. Electronic record is a digital record that can be manipulated transmitted or processed by a computer. (IRMT, 1999).Electronic records had implemented in many organization. The Electronic Record operations need the cooperation between Information System staffs and record staffs. Obvious cooperation activities lead to superior efficiency and high customer satisfaction (Heikkila, 2002). Therefore, the more efficient the Electronic Record Management is, the more satisfied the users feel (Fang-Ming Hsu et.al, 2009).Gary P. Johnston (2005) said that Electronic Record can be viewed by many people at the same time. This has benefits in terms of access: users in different places can discuss the same record, or different users can use the same record for different purposes.To ensure the effectiveness of Electronic Record, various guidelines have been developed by national archives and universities to assist organizations effectively manage their electronic records. For example, the National Archives and Records Service of South Africa (2006) developed guidelines for managing electronic records in government bodies. The guidelines cover areas such as statutory and regulatory framework for electronic records, what electronic records are including, why electronic records should be managed and electronic records management principles. Other areas covered include managing electronic records residing in different types of systems and the responsibilities of governmental bodies regarding the management of electronic records. (Henry N. Kemoni, 2009).Gary P. Johnston and David V. Bowen, (2005) identified the basic benefits of Electronic Record, there are that a process (work) is done more easily (less effort required); it is done more quickly; it is done with better quality; it is easier to find out about it afterwards. Expanding on this, measurable benefits could be summarized as being for the individual users when the information is available whenever the user required. Electronic Record also gives a greater quality of the information. Apart of that, the electronic record also increase the efficiency and effectiveness at work, the processes are better, easier and quicker. It will also gives advantages by less blame and dissention when looking for lost information and Electronic Record ensure that the evidence is available for what they were asked to do and what they did. Meanwhile, there are some benefits for the organization. The electronic record will make the work is done more quickly than using the manual paper. The staff also will complete a task that requires less effort, and then it will indirectly improve the quality of processes and their outcomes. It will also affect the compliance with laws and regulations is achieved and demonstrated. Electronic record also give an impact to the society, the organizational processes are open and can be understood and monitored. Besides that, the organization also will comply with laws and regulations. For the society, the electronic record also improved their quality of life. The society also can access the historical record and they can rely the historical record.Besides that, the research done by Johanna Gunnlaugsdottir, (2008) founds that all of the records managers found ERMS user-friendly. Most of their fellow employees agreed with them. There were also mainly three elements that determined the success of the implementation. These were support by their top management; demonstrate by their interest in the project; with the electronic record, the staff will more excited to do their task. The Electronic Record also user friendly proven by the staff use the system by their own use. Lastly, the electronic record is user friendly looking at the motivation of the employees.While, the research done by Shadrack Katuu, 2000 concluded that digitization is often seen as the more glamorous of the two mainly because of its various benefits. Among of them is digitization will reduced time of retrieval. With using retrieval tools such as databases and indices, it is possible to have a faster access to the information than the traditional eye-on-paper scrolling through a hard-copy finding aid.Secondly is, multiple access points. Retrieval tools also increase the number of ways one can approach a record. For example, using a database one could search for a record using a creators name, file name or date of creation. Digitization also will provide the preservation of fragile hard-copy records. A digitized electronic copy could be made available to users as many times as necessary, allowing fragile paper copies of records to remain safely in the institutions custody under ideal environmental conditions.Another benefit is the ability to have enhanced digitized copies of hard copy records. An example of this is what has been done at the United States National Archives and Records Administration, where the nations most important document, the Declaration of Independence has, in its digitized form, been significantly enhanced allowing a much clearer image of an otherwise deteriorating document from the 18th century. Chosky, Carol E B. (2008) also makes a research that electronic document management systems are being reworked to include records management, but this has also meant working through business process. By doing this rework, employees have an easier time registering documents into system and rewarded by finding their documents more easily. Umi Asma Mokhtar and Zawiyah Mohammad Yusof (2009) said that the development of electronic records management in Malaysia is promising. If in 2005, many government departments were unaware of the importance of electronic records management policy, today, NAM has produced six guidelines and policies for electronic records management:(1) Electronic records management policy.(2) General guidelines of electronic records management.(3) Guidelines of electronic records management structured environment.(4) Guidelines of electronic records management unstructured environment.(5) Guidelines of electronic records management web environment.(6) Electronic records management specification.Rob Docters et.al (2011) said that one source of under-realized value is digital piracy, an interesting challenge. Some entertainment, business information, and educational publishers face an 80 percent or more loss of volume to illegal copying and distribution in certain markets and geographies. Such losses are often avoidable. To begin with: give users what they want. Several business-to-business information providers (e.g. energy, construction, legal) have found that simply allowing all customers use of information through enterprise pricing immediately eliminated cheating and provided the information provider with an immediate uplift in revenue.Research done by Kate Cumming and Cassie Findlay (2010) that the strategies which are drawn for the managing electronic records guidelines provide some simple but in effective means which are know your information. Other than that, design your systems so that they can support your business systems are not designed to maintain long-term. And also talk to people. Then, limit the number of file formats you use and use file formats. It also disposed of digital authorized retention and disposal requirements and knows where all your information is.According to Andy Moore, (2004) few of us think about recordkeeping as a corporate responsibility. We assume that someone else is taking care of that. There is only the vaguest awareness that systems exist to properly retain and dispose of business documents and communications. But we are extremely familiar with how we file and recall the things we need to do each of our jobs. I would be lost without Outlook folders, but I couldnt care less about records management.All the creator of the record needed to know was where to drop off the record and the rest was taken care of by the records clerk. With the advent of electronic documents and records, all of that has changed and the burden of classifying and declaring records has moved, by necessity, from a dedicated records clerk to the knowledge worker who may think that records management activities are important but may place it at the bottom of the daily activities list by Bud Porter-Roth, (2006). Justus Wamukoya and Stephen M. Mutula (2005) stated that this situation is complicated further by the fact that at policy level, senior officials and legislators are often unaware of the requirement to manage electronic records over time so that the evidence base of government will be secure and accessible when needed by authorized users. Government authorities often have little knowledge about the management of e-records. Officials are unsure as to whether the electronic information they create and receive constitutes official records and if so how they should deal with them. Similarly, IT experts tend to promote the use of technology to create and share electronic information but pay little or no regard to the preservation of this information as unchangeable evidence over time (IRMT, 2003).The management of electronic records poses special challenges that include the lack of awareness about the importance of e-records and the dangers associated with their loss (e.g the loss of evidence, risks to entitlements) by Andy Lipchak and John McDonald, (2003). In the research by SUNY, (1999) reported that with the shift from paper to digital information, many organizations find that their current electronic records are not sufficient to support the evidentiary needs of their business functions. According to GAO, (2003) most electronic records including databases of major federal information systems remained unscheduled that is, their value had not been assessed, and their disposition to destruction or archives had not been determined.Adequate employee awareness and training activities are keys to ensuring that employees correctly carry out new policies and procedures and understand how to use any new technologies associated with improved e-records management. This may include in-person or online training courses as well as ongoing follow-up and training to ensure that employees understand their part in ongoing records retention compliance by Doug Robinson, (2008). In the research of electronic records management systems implementation in the Pakistani local government (2008) reported the employees need training to because staff were not familiar with more advanced office computing. The workforce had to be trained in the usage of such an automated system, and they had to be self sustainable so they could continue the re-training process for new employees Johnston and Bowen (2005) and OShea (1997) also reached the conclusion that training is necessary in order to achieve implementation success. They based their observations on studies in the UK and Australia. This suggests that there is no difference whether ERMS implementation takes place in developing or developed countries. Users do need training in order to adopt the new system to their daily routines. As stated by Gregory (2005), Training should rather be related to a change in the mindset of the employees suitable user training and operational adaptability to digital processes hence had to be provided.The failure to create and maintain effective records systems was motivated by staff had limited training or experience on record keeping work, and hence record management (IRMT,2004). Today the culture of keeping and management of physical records is being taken over by recordsIn electronic formats and as Wamukoya &amp; Mutula (2005) noted sound recordkeeping practices and training are increasingly being emphasized on and demanded to enhance performance, transparency and accountability in government.Akotia (2000) in the Ugandan Ministry of Finance on the management of financial records, the staff should be trained because skills needed to manage the basic elements of electronic records programmed and understood the functional requirements for record keeping. Studies by Kemoni &amp; Wamukoya 2000; Iwhiwhu 2005, and Egwunyenga 2009 confirmed that the staff lack of basic skill to handle ERMS and they should be trained by their employer.Asogwa (2012) in his recent study on the electronic records management readiness of federal universities in Nigeria discovered that all the staff in the Registry Departments has never had any training specifically on records and archives management. Worthy (1984) and Mazikana (1998) also affirmed that the two major challenges facing archives and records institutions in Africa were inadequate personnel who are mostly not trained in archives and records management. This lack of proper training and low level of education made these personnel to suffer from declining monetary remuneration and low morale profile. </p> <p>Electronic Records Management (ERM) has become mandatory for government agencies in applying electronic records in administration in line with government policy to encourage E- government. Umi &amp; Zawiyah (2009) reported that not all government departments possess electronic records management policy in which some electronic records are far from complete, clear or easy to access. Many organizations are carrying out electronic records management without any policy in place. Rick (2006) found that records and information are not managed as agency business assets. According to Raja Abdullah Yaacob (2007), policies, standard and procedures are vital to ensure records management program can be implemented efficiently and effectively in organizations.Raman, Maniam, and Cheng (2007) confirm the accountable records are required in any legal matter, which process finding, preserving, and producing information in response to a dispute or lawsuit. However, Ahmad and Othman (2006) describe that confusion over what exactly should be in the law is also a problem. Thus, a good law should be emplaced for good governance of the government records. According to previous research by Uma and Zawiyah (2009), not all government departments have a policy on electronic records management. However, the relationship between the existence of and adherence to policy does not guarantee that the staff will comply with the policy.Griffin (2003) has observed that in many governments, policies and guidance for managing the records of government are often non-existent and the legislative and regulatory framework is often weak or out-dated. He also says, in some countries the responsibility for managing the information on which government and citizens depen...</p>