Sample Literature Review of Drop out of Cambodian students

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Sample Literature Review of Drop out of Cambodian students.

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<p>Norton University College of Arts, Humanities, and Languages</p> <p>LETTER OF CONFIRMATION 20th December 2012</p> <p>Mrs. Hay Sopheap Lecturer of NU St. Keo Chenda, Sangkat Chroy Changva, Khan Russey Keo, Phnom Penh</p> <p>Dear Mrs. Hay Sopheap</p> <p>Here is the letter that my group would love to confirm you that this work is our original work. We are supposed to submit this assignment to you on 20th December 2012.</p> <p>My group tried the best to complete this work successfully, and we didnt copy it from other groups. We strongly certify that we all tried hard in order to prepare this particular work, and we strongly refuse if you think we copied this work from other group.</p> <p>Please inform us if you need more information or you wonder about our assignment. Were optimistic about what you want us to do.</p> <p>Sincerely,</p> <p>Peth Phannith Representor for Group 4 (M2a)Prepared by: Peth Phannith Page 1</p> <p>Norton University College of Arts, Humanities, and Languages</p> <p>PREFACEFor many decades now, the education in Cambodia has been developing dramatically. There have been many universities built from day to day. However, for some reason the rate of drop out university of Cambodian students has been increasing because of some factors involved such as family, individual, university, and society. Drop out university is the main issue to the country development especially lacking of human resources for nation. Most of those who do not attend school are students who have enrolled but who have crossed the threshold from regular attendance to regular absence. In most countries especially Cambodia, the number secluded this way are much greater than those who never attend school. Most students who start attending university tend fail to complete their degrees. This assignment topic is about drop out university in Cambodia, and its an interesting topic and a new knowledge for all university students to think and decide when they attend university. In this book, contains many data showing the reasons why Cambodian students drop out university, literature review and discussion questions to drop out university. Moreover, the ways to reduce the number of Cambodian students dropping out university are also included in this book. The topic in this book might be not so easy to work with because it related to the education in Cambodia and the drop out reasons of university students. Moreover, finding the information about drop out university is probably very difficult. We hope that all students and learners will use this particular book and get benefits warmly. This book will become a good means in order to improve our knowledge about drop out university. Were looking forwards to any constructive criticisms and comments from all students, readers, and lecturers with the best regards.</p> <p>Phnom Penh, December 20, 2012</p> <p>Group 4 (M2a)</p> <p>Prepared by: Peth Phannith</p> <p>Page 2</p> <p>Norton University College of Arts, Humanities, and Languages</p> <p>ACKNOWLEDGMENT</p> <p>To be honest, this research cannot be done without any help from many sources. Firstly, we would like to thank our government sincerely for giving the high quality of education which is the opportunity to do this research.</p> <p>Secondly, we would like to respect to Mrs. Hay Sopheap, who is the lecturer of Grammar and Reading at Norton University and point us to do this.</p> <p>Thirdly, we would like to ask for apologize from all lecturers that have read this assignment if it has any mistakes.</p> <p>Finally, this assignment contain of all our group members operating and discussing. Moreover, we would like to be freely with your comments.</p> <p>Prepared by: Peth Phannith</p> <p>Page 3</p> <p>Norton University College of Arts, Humanities, and Languages</p> <p>TABLE OF CONTENTS</p> <p>Lists</p> <p>Pages</p> <p>Letter of Confirmation ........................................................................................ 1 Preface ................................................................................................................... 2 Acknowledgement ................................................................................................ 3 Table of contents .................................................................................................. 4 CHAPTER I Introduction .......................................................................................................... 5 1.1. Background of the Study ............................................................................. 5 1.2. Statement of Problem ................................................................................... 5 1.3. Objectives of the study ................................................................................. 5 1.4. Significance of the Study ............................................................................. 6 1.5. Scope and Delimitation of the Study ........................................................... 7 1.6. Research Methodology ................................................................................. 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND DISCUSSIONS2.1. Review of Related Literature ..................................................................................8 2.2. Discussions ................................................................................................................13 CHAPTER III CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 3.1. Conclusions ...............................................................................................................22 3.2. Recommendation ......................................................................................................22 *Lists of References .........................................................................................................23 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................24 Lists of References ...........................................................................................................25</p> <p>Prepared by: Peth Phannith</p> <p>Page 4</p> <p>Norton University College of Arts, Humanities, and Languages</p> <p>CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the study: This study provides an in-depth review and analysis on drop outs of university. It looks at the issues involved in dropping out from university in different situational contexts, and develops shared understandings of dropping out across the contexts. The study asks questions about what we know about drop outs and identifies where there might be gaps in research knowledge. Dropping out from university occurs after students have previously achieved access to university. A major problem in many developing countries like Cambodia, dropping out is often obscured within statistical data and by the emphasis on initial access. This study is concerned with children who have not completed a cycle of university. The study locates the issue of drop outs at a macro level providing statistical data around drop outs, but the discussion mainly focuses on and around qualitative accounts of dropping out of university. This report brings together previous research done in this area, with a particular focus on case study, qualitative research where available. It looks at the push factors in schools, communities and households which factor into dropping out. 1.2 Statement of the Problem: This study attempts to address the issues of dropping out university of Cambodian students. Specially, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What are the factors that make Cambodian students drop out of university? 2. What are the effective strategies that should be used to reduce the number of dropping out of university of Cambodian students? 1.3. Objective of the Study: This study aimed to achieve the following objectives: 1. To describe the factors that make Cambodian students drop out of university.Prepared by: Peth Phannith Page 5</p> <p>Norton University College of Arts, Humanities, and Languages</p> <p>2. To describe the effective strategies that should be used to reduce the number of dropping out of university of Cambodian students. 1.4. Significance of the Study: The finding of this research will be very helpful and significant in the following ways: First, understanding why students drop out of school is a near impossible task because, as with other forms of educational achievement, it is influenced by an array of individual and institutional factors. Nonetheless, a review of the theoretical and empirical literature does yield some useful insights into the nature of this problem and what can be done about it. For one thing, dropping out is not simply a result of academic failure, but rather often results from both social and academic problems in school. These problems are influenced by a lack of support and resources in families, schools, and communities. This suggests that reducing dropout rates will require comprehensive approaches both to improve the at-risk settings in which potential dropouts live and to help them address the social and academic problems that they face in their lives. Second, the problem of school drop-out can be reduced by using several strategies. First, educational authorities have to work closely with parents to monitor attendance. They need to follow up and determine the reasons for a students absence. In some countries, parents are fined if the children are not attending. Schools also need social workers who can respond to family problems. A second approach is to implement changes in the curriculum so that school is more interesting for students at risk of dropping out. This could mean new methods of teaching or new subjects and facilities in the school. Thirdly, some financial help could be made available in a country like the UAE to encourage students with financial problems to stay in school. As can be seen, there is no one solution to the problem of school drop-outs. Educational authorities, parents and schools need to work closely together to find the reason for each students decision to leave school and to try to do as much as possible to encourage them to stay in the system.</p> <p>Prepared by: Peth Phannith</p> <p>Page 6</p> <p>Norton University College of Arts, Humanities, and Languages</p> <p>1.5.</p> <p>Scope and Delimitation of the study: This research has studied about the reason of drop-out in Cambodia. It</p> <p>particularly collected data in all universities in Cambodia to limit its scope, and family, universities and the Royal government should deal with these problems by offering something special, which helps them to keep their study, to students. 1.6. Research Methodology: This research is designed to know about the reason why students usually dropout their study, which has effected to our government and human resource. Furthermore, the research can introduce students not to drop-out their study while they are the pillars of the nation. According these reasons allows the researchers knowing clearly about students in Cambodia. Moreover, to design this study, it has used generally of secondary data, which were found in the internet that sharing the result of drop-out, some reported books, and the researchers discussion. The researchers analyzed all of these in reference to the given research question.</p> <p>Prepared by: Peth Phannith</p> <p>Page 7</p> <p>Norton University College of Arts, Humanities, and Languages</p> <p>CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW AND DISCUSSIONS</p> <p>2.1. Review of Related Literature:2.1.1. Definition and Concept of Drop out University: Dropout University refers to the students who do not complete their course to any degrees at university. Dropping out of university is a global issue in the world and in developing countries, like Cambodia have been concerned. Many studies of dropout have examined factors contributing to dropout of student in order to achieve the Education For all (EFA) goals and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This study will base on some related studies in Cambodia to provide theoretical framework in for conducting the study. 2.1.2. Overview of Research on Student Dropouts: According to Egyed, M cI ntosh, &amp; Bull (1998), university dropouts were discussed in literature as early as 1975. At that time the dropout phenomenon was called school leaving and was considered to be a psychological problem based on interest and attitudes (Fuller, 1975). Beginning in the 1970s, adolescents were viewed as restless and needing the freedom to explore new interests. If schools did not meet these needs, there would be a natural disposition for these students to escape (Egyed, McIntosh, &amp; Bull, 1998, p. 153). This review of the literature on student dropouts is based on a typology used by Goldschmidt and Wang (1999). Cambodian Student variables are grouped by ascriptive, family, student academic characteristics, and psychological and social characteristics. Following the characteristics of the typical dropout, the characteristics of nontraditional dropouts are described. School-level variables are grouped into sector, school policy and practice, and impact of teachers as done in research (e.g., Bryk &amp; Thum, 1989; Rumberger, 1995). Factors related to dropping out at the macro-level (i.e., community and region), are discussed. According to the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS), the number of drop out university increased in 1975-1979 because of the civil war in Cambodia.</p> <p>Prepared by: Peth Phannith</p> <p>Page 8</p> <p>Norton University College of Arts, Humanities, and Languages</p> <p>2.1.3. Theoretical Framework: According to Rumberger and Lim (2008), theoretical perception that is still worthwhile in clarifying dropout conduct which is a broadly acknowledged theory of institutional departure at the higher education level developed by Tinto (1987). First, personal attributes-- family background, skills and abilities, and prior school experiences, including goals (intentions) and motivation (commitments) to continue their schooling in Tintos model as the process of departure which is influenced. Second, two separate dimensions, a social dimension dealing with social integration and an academic dimension dealing with academic integration, influence students by both informal and formal structure of the university. For instance, the formal systems of classrooms and the informal system of communications with university in other situations may be existed in academic integration. Moreover, the needs and attributes of graduate students as well as external factors make them dropout which the dimensions can have distinct and free impacts on how the students do. Third, student mobility is another aspect of persistence. It differentiates between the commitment to the goal of finishing university and the commitment to the university, and how these commitments can be influenced by students experiences in university over time (p. 115). Furthermore, the theory suggests that universities can have various people or subgroups (p. 119) to provide unneeded accommodations an...</p>