roman military strategy and tactics
Post on 15-Oct-2014
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Roman Military Strategy and Tactics
War can only end in eventual victory
HastatiHastati- younger soldier, early form of the legionnaire VelitesVelites- light infantry, missile thrower TriariiTriarii- Veteran soldier, wealthier and more heavily armed Ferentarii- young, poor soldier Trireme- a ship with rectangular or triangular sails wide enough for three rowers at each oar, often equipped with a ram and siege weapons Quinquereme- similar to a trireme, but five rowers could be stationed at each oar, making the ship much larger Phalanx- rectangular military formation consisting almost entirely of heavily armored spearmen (though after Alexander the amount of armor became less important in labeling a division a phalanx)
ScutumScutum- large rectangular shield carried by Roman legionnaires LegionnaireLegionnaire- a member of an army (legion), usually used to describe the standard heavy infantry of the Imperial Roman Army PilumPilum- heavy spear, could be thrown as a javelin with an effective range of 20 meters ContuberniumContubernium- squad of eight men ManipleManiple- subdivision of a legion consisting of either 60 or 120 men. CohortCohort- division of legion made up of 480 men CenturyCentury- division of cohort consisting of 80 men (originally 100)
Rome Under the Etruscan KingsPrior to the republic the Roman Army resembled a Macedonian phalanx.
Cavalry used defensively
Equipment and rank based on wealth
Rome AdaptsCompletely reorganizes army.
Tactics during battle still not seen as important part of warfare.
Cavalry still not seen as an offensive unit and will not be for a while.
It has come to the triarii!
REALLY AdaptsNew Helmets! New Shields!
Rome Still Missing SomethingUp until the Second Punic War Rome had no generals that stood out from the crowd
The Shield and Sword of Rome
Quintus Fabius Maximus (Cunctator)
Marcus Claudius Marcellus
More Importantly Though
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus
Major Reformations Under Scipio
Tactics during battle Effective use of religion in battle Could attack better than Marcellus, and defend better than Fabius Changed basics of Roman formation Unknowingly set precedent by popularizing gladius
Knew that numbers meant nothing without tactics Made Roman Army selfselfsufficient, distrusted allies Destroyed other Carthaginian forces before engaging Hannibal Took advantage of outdated enemy tactics
The Classic Roman Legion
Came into being largely due to reforms of Caius Marius Any citizen could be a soldier now, so long as he was fit and willing to fight Soldiers prepared for any situation Pensions!
Way the Classic Legion Operated
With many wars under its belt the Roman Empire held dominance on the battlefield Rome had tactics that only it had the resources to pull off
In Order to Gauge the Enemy s Strength
Ace in the Hole
The Wedge (Pig s Head)
If Things Take A Turn for the Worse
The Roman Standards
Standards of a Legion and a Maniple
To reach the gates
The Siege of New Carthage
Scipio once again takes advantage of tactics of the time Mirage created by Romans crossing the lagoon Combined with naval attack
Siege Tower Battle of Pydna
Slow Development of Naval Tactics
Wars with Carthage gave Romans a reason to develop a navy. Objectives: Ram or Board Marcus Vispanius Agrippa showed Antony the importance of tactics at Actium
How Could Rome Lose?
Even an army of 400,000 could not keep these borders safe forever. Remember cavalry? The last competent general was Belsarius under Justinain.
An Empire Split, An Army Reformed
Diocletian splits the empire, reforms defense plan Comitatenses, Comitatenses, limitanei Theodosius and Constantine further reform army Magister Peditum, Magister Equitum
Roman Tactics Used Today
My mother bore a general, not a warrior