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  • 1. Research MethodologyChapter 1Nagendra AmatyaAssociate ProfessorScience and Humanities DepartmentCentral Campus Pulchowknbamatya@ioe.edu.np

2. Introduction Conceptualization of Research Nature of research types of research Qualities of research Place of theory in research Relationship of theory and facts Research process 3. IntroductionYOUR RESEARCHResearch can be one of the most interesting features of anydegree course as it offers you a measure of control and autonomyover what you learn. It gives you an opportunity to confirm, clarify,pursue or even discover new aspects of a subject or topic youare interested in.RESEARCH IS.. a process of enquiry and investigation; it is systematic,methodical and ethical; research can help solve practical problemsand increase knowledge. 4. Introduction cont..THE PURPOSE OF RESEARCH IS TO Review or synthesize existing knowledge Investigate existing situations or problems Provide solutions to problems Explore and analyse more general issues Construct or create new procedures or systems Explain new phenomenon Generate new knowledge or a combination of any of the above!(Collis & Hussey, 2003) 5. DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH:Exploratory Descriptive Analytical PredictiveExploratoryDescriptiveAnalytical researchresearchresearchoften extends theis undertaken whencan be used toDescriptivefew or no previousidentify and classifyapproach tostudies exist. Thethe elements orsuggest or explainaim is to look forcharacteristics ofwhy or howpatterns,the subject, e.g.something ishypothesesnumber of days losthappening, e.g.or ideas that can bebecause ofunderlying causestested and will formindustrial action.of industrialthe basis for furtherQuantitativeaction.research.techniques areAn importantTypical researchmost often used tofeature of this typetechniques wouldcollect, analyze andof research is ininclude casesummarize data.locating andstudies,identifying theobservation anddifferent factorsreviews of previous(or variables)related studies andinvolved.data.The aim ofPredictive researchis to speculateintelligently onfuture possibilities,based on closeanalysis ofavailable evidenceof cause andeffect, e.g.predicting whenand where futureindustrial actionmight take place 6. Qualities of Good Researcher A good researcher manifests thirst for newinformation. A good researcher has a keen sense of things aroundhim. A good researcher likes to reflect or think about thethings he encounters. A good researcher must be intelligent enough toexpress his ideas. A good researcher applies a systematic approach inassessing situations...Qualities of a Good Researcher.docx(source : P. A. Regoniel .2012 http://simplyeducate.me/2012/10/24/5-qualities-of-a-good-researcher ) 7. Deductive Thinking 8. Deductive Logic Working from the general to the more specific Think up a theory > Narrow down to specifichypotheses > Narrow down even further to collectobservations > Test the hypotheses with specificdata -- a confirmation (or not) of original theory. Use and development of deductive logic > attributedto Greek philosophy (Aristotle) 9. DeductionThe Deductive approach begins explicitly with atheory (which could provide a possible answer orexplanation for a particular problem) used topostulate tentative hypothesis or set of hypotheses,then proceeds to use observations to rigorously testthe hypotheses. 10. The Deductive argument moves from premises, atleast one of which is a general or universalstatement, to a conclusion that is a singularstatement. Deductive propositions form a hierarchy fromtheoretical to observational; from abstract toconcrete. The Deductivist accepts that observation isguided and presupposed by the theory. 11. Deduction -FalsificationAttempts are made to refute the hypothesesthrough rigorous criticism and testing. If the dataderived by testing the hypothesis is not consistentwith the predicted conclusions, the theory must befalse.Surviving theories are corroborated, but are neverproved true despite withstanding testing andobservation.A current theory is superior to its predecessorsonly because it has withstood tests which falsifiedits predecessor. 12. Inductive Thinking 13. Inductive Approach Working from the specific to the general(theories) Specific observations >> patterns andregularities >> tentative hypotheses >> tests(further observations) >> extended to generalconclusions or theories Perfect induction >> Baconian induction Imperfect Inductions >> limited observationsand generalization >> certainty of thegeneralization and concept of probability >>continuous reassessment. 14. InductionThe Inductive approach to enquiry buildsgeneralizations out of observations of specificevents. It starts with singular or particularstatements and ends up with general or universalpropositions.It presupposes that explanations about theworkings of the world should be based on factsgained from pure, dispassionate and neutralobservation, rather than on preconceived notions;that nature will reveal itself to a passivelyreceptive mind. 15. Induction (Continued)The Inductive strategy assumes that all sciencestarts with observations which provide a securebasis from which knowledge can be derived andclaims that reality impinges directly on thesenses.The conclusion of an inductive argument makesclaims that exceed what is contained in thepremises and so promises to extend knowledge bygoing beyond actual experience.The more observations that demonstrate, say, arelationship between phenomena, the higher theprobability that the general statement is true. 16. Mix of Inductive and DeductiveLogic Natural sciences > usually deductive and alsoobjective (greater store of theories?) >Mathematics is almost totally deductive Social sciences > inductive and also normativein many instances. These days: Research methods use both types oflogics in their procedure and methodologies Methods specific to nature of discipline,problem and objectives of research. 17. Combined approachA scheme has been proposed by Wallace(1971) that combines Inductive andDeductive strategies to capitalize ontheir strengths and minimize theirweaknesses creating a cyclic process thatallows for movement between theorizingand doing empirical research while usingboth Inductive and Deductive methods ofreasoning. 18. The Research Wheel 19. RetroductionRetroductive research logic involves thebuilding of hypothetical models as a way ofuncovering the real structures and mechanismswhich are assumed to produce empiricalphenomena. The model, if it were to exist andact in the postulated way, would account forthe phenomena in question. In constructingthese models of mechanisms that have usuallynever been observed, ideas may be borrowed fromknown structures and mechanisms in otherfields. 20. A phenomena or range of phenomena isidentified, explanations based on thepostulated existence of a generative mechanismis constructed and empirically tested, and thismechanism then becomes the phenomenon to beexplained and the cycle repeats.Astronomical examples:heliocentric model/Geocentric model,earths tilt and rotation and changing length of daysmotion/s of earth, moon and sun and eclipses 21. Retroduction has 'hypothesis formulation' asthe first stage of an enquiry. Here, ahypothesis must eliminate puzzlement as anecessary first step.The hypothesis must be tested using bothDeduction and Induction; in the second stage ofan enquiry, consequences are deducted from thehypothesis and, in the third stage, theseconsequences are tested by means of Induction. 22. Retroduction differs from Induction which infersfrom one set of facts, another set of facts,whereas Retroduction infers from facts of onekind, to facts of another. 23. RESEARCH PROCESS IN FLOW CHARTFFDefineresearchproblemReview Concept &TheoriesReview PreviousresearchFindingsFormulateHypothesisDesign Research (including sampleDesignFF: Feed forward( Serves theVital function of providingcriteria for evaluationCollect DataAnalyze data(TestHypothesis ifanyInterpretFFF: Feed back ( Helps incontrolling the sub systemto which it is transmitted

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