reseacrh (jackfruit peelings-as-charcoal-briquette)

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Jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus) Peelings

As Charcoal BriquetteRESEARCHERS:

JR Mae Christine D. Ecoben

Inee Fritz P. Gesta

Quillrose Roamee L. Nalaza

INTRODUCTIONCharcoalis a light, black residue, consisting ofcarbonand any remainingash, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents fromanimalandvegetationsubstances. Charcoal is usually produced by slowpyrolysis, the heating ofwoodor other substances in the absence ofoxygen(seecharandbiochar). It is usually an impure form of carbon as it contains ash; however,sugarcharcoalis among the purest forms of carbon readily available, particularly if it is not made by heating but by adehydration reactionwithsulfuric acidto minimise the introduction of new impurities, as impurities can be removed from the sugar in advance. The resulting soft, brittle, lightweight, black, porous material resemblescoal. Jackfruit is one of its own kind of tropical fruits, recognized for its unique shape, size, and fruity flavor of its bulbs that can be appreciated from a distance. it is also rich in energy, dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins and free from saturated fats or cholesterol, making it one of the healthy summer treats to relish! Jackfruit is rich in dietary fiber, which makes it a good bulk laxative. The fiber content helps protect the colon mucous membrane by binding to and eliminating cancer-causing chemicals from the colon. Jackfruit is a good source of antioxidant vitamin-C, provides about 13.7 mg or 23% of RDA. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful free radicals.It is one of the rare fruits that is rich in B-complex group of vitamins. It contains very good amounts of vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), niacin, riboflavin, and folic acid.

The researchers decided to test the effectiveness of Jackfruit Peelings as a Charcoal Briquette.

Statement of the Problem

This study entitled Jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus) Peelings as a Charcoal Briquette aims to know the feasibility of this fruit as souce of fuel or charcoal.

Specifically , it sought to answer the following questions:

How is this charcoal different from the other commercially known charcoal?

Is this charcoal going to be an effective one as a replacement of an LPG?Hyphotesis

Null hypothesis (Ho):

There is no significant difference between the efficiency of the charcoal that is made from the peelings extract of Jackfruit to other commercially known charcoals.

Alternative hypothesis (Ha):

There is a significant difference between the efficiency of the charcoal that is made from

the peelings extract of Jackfruit to other commercially known charcoals.

REVIEW OF RELATED LIERATURE In the United States, functional foods are not officially recognized as a regulatory category by the FDA. However, several organizations have proposed definitions for this rapidly growing food category, most notably the International Food Information Council (IFIC) and the Institute of Food Technologists. The IFIC considers as functional foods those that include any food or food component that may have health benefits beyond basic nutrition (IFIC 2009). Similarly, a recent report of the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT 2009) defined functional foods as foods and food components that provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition (for the intended population). These substances provide essential nutrients often beyond quantities necessary for normal maintenance, growth, and development, and/or other biologically active components that impart health benefits or desirable physiological effects.The concept of functional food is complex and may refer to many possible aspects, including food obtained by any process, whose particular characteristic is that one or more of its components, whether or not that component is itself a nutrient, affects the target function of the organism in a specific and positive way, promoting a physiological or psychological effect beyond the merely nutritional (Vinuda-Martos and others 2010).

The positive effect of a functional food may include the maintenance of health or well being, or a reduction in the risk of suffering a given illness (Alvarez and others 2003). Functional food may be obtained by modifying one or more of the ingredients, or by eliminating the same (Alvarez and others 2003). To develop these types of products, one must evaluate consumer perceptions, the most important quality aspects being that they taste good, appear wholesome, and have nutritional value (Garcia-Segovia and others 2007). Also,Alvarez and others (2003)describe that any functional food must be safe, wholesome, and tasty.

Jackfruit conforms to this definition in several ways, although the establishment of any function would involve identifying the bioactive components to help specify their possible beneficial effects on health.

Charcoal is becoming more and more a scarce product in East Africa and is not only contributing to severe environmental problem like deforestation and soil erosion, but also pauses serious health hazards like diseases linked with respiratory systems.

The use of trees on making charcoals has been a major factor that contributes to the climate change in developing countries especially East Africa. Thousands of tones of trees have been cut and the trend is still going on, despite the efforts made by different governments in the region to stop people from this long rooted behavior of cutting trees for charcoal making.Banana is a plant that can save the region from becoming dry if people will be taught other benefits of banana apart from the one they know, which is food. If the government leaders, especially politicians will advocate for the banana plantation, trees will be saved from being the only source of charcoal.Banana peels can be used as another source of making charcoal without causing hazards in the environment.Hajji Mohammed Kawere is a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of UGASTOVE Uganda Ltd, a company that deals in the production and giving out of various kinds of biomass technologies which include energy saving stoves for households, institutional saving stoves, baking ovens, incinerators, fire-less box cookers and charcoal briquettes. Kawere revealed that it takes lots of trees to come up with 10kg of charcoal compared to banana peels which do not cost anything when used to make charcoal.

Signifance of the Study

People living in big cities have scarcity in coal. By this study, it will help the people on how to find coal. This study can contribute to the easiest method in making coal as an alternative fuel source. People now and then start recycling some peeling of a fruit or vegetable. With this, we can lessen problems that the people are facing, like garbage that are scattered in the surroundings. It can make work easier and can save money. It can also lessen the numbers of woods that are cut down to make wood charcoal. Scope and Limitations

The study will focus primarily in determining the effectiveness of Jackfruit (Artocarposheterophyllus) Peelings as a Charcoal Briquette. It will also focus on the difference in terms of efficiency between commercialized charcoal. This study will cover and aim to test whether the charcoal from Jackfruit Peelings can be a complete substitute to the commercialized ones . The charcoal will undergo flammability test. It also aspires to search for other alternative source of fuel.METHODOLOGYA. DATA GATHERING1. Sample collection

Lantana camara leaves will be collected with the help of some people who have with the

collection of the plant.2. Extracting leaf extract from Lantana camara. The leaf of Lantana camara will be collected and will be air dried for 3 days. The dried leaves were pounded by the use of a mortar and a pestle. The pounded leaves were extracted

using a clean cloth.B. MAKING OF BIOFUELMATERIALS:

100 ml methanolbaster

glass blender or mixer2 lamp

3.5 grams of lye liter of leaf extract of Lantana camara

wide-mouthed glass container or pitcher

100 ml methanol is will be added to a glass blender or mixer (the blender or mixer to is set to "low). 3.5 grams of lye will be added to the blender. This process will take about two minutes. Proceed when mixture is clear, with no undissolved particles. 1 liter of the Lantana camara leaf extract will be heated to 130 F (55 C). The hot leaf extract is added to the mixture. The new mixture will be allowed to blend for about 20-30 minutes. As the reaction proceeds, two products will be formed - biodiesel and glycerin. The mixture will be poured into a wide-

mouthed glass container or pitcher (allow mixture to sit). The mixture will separate into two layers - biodiesel and glycerin. Because biodiesel is less dense than glycerin, it floats, forming the top layer. The mixture will bw allowed to sit for several hours. When the mixture separate completely, carefully keep the top layer to use as biofuel. The top layer will be separated from the bottom by pouring it off very carefully or using a baster or pump.C. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKFigure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Study

D. TESTING OF THE BIOFUEL

The flammability of the biodiesel is tested by using lamp.

Experimental Set-upTable for testing the flammability of the biofuelTime (hours)colorheatdensity

Biofuel (lantana camara extract)

Commercialized biofuel

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

In this research proposal the researcher will choose the One-Way ANOVA. This test can be used for the case of a quantitative outcome with a categorical explanatory variable that has two or more levels of treatment. The term one way, also called one-factor, indicate