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    Projects, Reports, proposals

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    What is a Report?

    A systemmatic,well organized docu. Whichdefines & analyses a subject or a problem andincludes:-

    Record

    Interpretation

    Evaluation

    Discussion Conclusion

    Recommendation

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    Thus C.A. Brown defines as :- A report

    is a communication from someone

    who has some information tosomeone who wants to use that

    information

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    Basic Reports

    Oral Reports

    Simple , easy to present

    No proof

    Denied at any time

    Vague

    Can be miscommunicated

    Written Reports

    Most preferred

    Written form

    Permanent record

    Accurate & precise

    Can change hands without

    danger of distortion during

    transmission

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    Reports must always be:

    accurate

    concise

    clear

    well structured

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    Study 5 Ws and 1 H

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    WHY???

    Important to

    study the

    problem

    Purpose of

    analysis

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    What????

    Significance andrelevance to the

    concerned dep. Or

    organization

    Benefits out of reportto various

    departments, org. or

    pupils.

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    WHO????

    Is involved in thissituation- reader,

    writer or third party

    Is the reader-same

    or changed

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    WHEN????

    Starting point of the

    problem, does is a

    analytical problem,

    research required, facts

    comparisons needed

    etc.

    Report writing

    time-time factor

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    WHERE????

    Place of reading the report by the reader is

    very imp. i.e. in a meeting, or in his room theapproach will matter.

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    HOW????

    How it has to be written i.e. final execution, which

    information to be included or excluded , which charts,graphs needed

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    An effective report can be written

    going through the following steps-

    Determine the objective of the report, i.e., identify theproblem.

    Collect the required material (facts) for the report.

    Study and examine the facts gathered. Plan the facts for the report.

    Prepare an outline for the report, i.e., draft the report.

    Edit the drafted report.

    Distribute the draft report to the advisory team andask for feedback and recommendations.

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    Judgment for a good Report

    1. Precision

    2. Accuracy of facts

    3. Relevance

    4. Reader-orientation5. Objectivity of recommendations

    6. Simple & unambiguous language

    7. Clarity

    8. Brevity

    9. Grammatical accuracy

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    LENGTH OF A WRITTEN REPORT

    o To Executive-level managers - One or two pages

    o To Middle-level managers - Three to five pages

    o To Supervisory-level managers- Less than 10 pages

    o To Operational - level personnel - less than 50pages.

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    Important points while writing

    A Paragraph should convey a single idea. They should flow nicely, one tothe next.

    Proper paragraphs structure can almost always be traced tooutlining deficiencies.

    Sentences should not be too long. The average sentence length shouldnot exceed 20 words. Studies suggest that sentences longer than 20words are more difficult to read and understand.

    Write in Active Voice (Direct Speech). The passive voice becomes wordy and

    boring when used consistently.

    Eliminate Jargon.

    *** Always Remember -HARD WRITING MAKES EASY READING !!!"

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    Examples of different types of

    reports :- laboratory reports

    health and safety reports

    research reports

    case study reports

    field study reports

    cost-benefit analysis reports proposals

    comparative advantage reports

    progress reports

    feasibility studies

    technical reports

    instruction manuals

    financial reports

    And on it goes

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    Classification of Reports.

    function formality.

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    According to functions:-

    Informational

    reports.

    Analytical

    reports Research

    reports.

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    According to formality:-

    Statutory

    reports

    Non

    statutory or

    voluntary

    reports.

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    Statutory Reports

    Routine Reports Special Reports

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    Informational Reports.

    These reports present facts about certaingiven activity in detail without any note or

    suggestions. Whatever is gathered is reported

    without giving any thing by way of either

    explanation or any suggestion.

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    Analytical Reports.

    These reports contain facts along with

    analytical explanations offered by the reporter

    himself or may be asked for by the one who is

    seeking the report. Such reports contain thenarration of facts, collected data and

    information, classified and tabulated data and

    also explanatory note followed by theconclusions arrived at or interpretations.

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    Research Reports.

    These reports are based on some researchwork conducted by either an individual or a

    group of individuals on a given problem.

    In fact such a report is the result of a research.

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    Statutory Reports

    These reports are to be presented according

    to the requirements of a particular law or a

    rule or a custom now has become a rule.

    These reports are generally prepared in the

    prescribed form as the rules have prescribed.

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    Non Statutory Reports.

    These reports are not in the nature of legal requirements orrules wants, therefore, the reports are to be prepared andsubmitted. These reports are required to be prepared andsubmitted:

    (i) for the administrative and other conveniences,

    (ii) for taking decision in a matter

    (iii) for policy formulations,

    (iv) for projecting the future or

    (v) any thing alike so that efficient and smooth functioning

    maybe assured and proper and necessary decision may betaken with a view to see that every thing goes well and theobjectives of the organization are achieved with assuredsuccess.

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    Routine Reports.

    These reports are required to be prepared and submittedperiodically on matters required by the organization so asto help the management of the organization to takedecisions in the matters relating to day to day affairs.

    The main objectives of routine reports are to let themanagement know as to what is happening in theorganization, what is its progress where the deviation is,what measures have been taken in solving the problemsand what to do so that the organization may run smoothlyand efficiently. Routine reports are generally brief.

    They only give the facts. No comments or explanations areusually offered in such reports. Generally forms areprescribed for preparation and submission of such reports.

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    Special Reports.

    Such a type of report is specially required to be

    prepared and submitted on matters of special

    nature. Due to an accident a death of the

    foreman has occurred in a factory. The factory manager may ask for a detail report

    from the head foreman. Such a report is classified

    as special reports. These reports contain not onlyfacts and details but they may contain suggestion,

    comments and explanations as well.

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    Some of the reasons we write reports

    are to:

    inform

    make proposals or recommendations for

    change

    analyse and solve problems

    present the findings of an investigation or

    project

    record progress

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    Format for Report writing

    Basically two types of formats are followed:-

    Letter style Report

    Schematic Report

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    Schematic Style Report

    1. Terms of reference- purpose of the report, whorequested it, scope of enquiry

    2.Action taken- details-writer for presentation-task he is

    reporting-how matter gathered-date of his investigation.

    3. Findings- what was done-observed-what information wasgathered-all data relevant to the action or enquiry-conclusions-writers opinion-assessment of the situation.

    Recommendations-suggesting a course of action.

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    Executive Summary

    An executive summary plays an important

    part of a business report or business plan. An

    executive summary is typically a short

    summary of a long document providing aquick overview of a full-length business report

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    PROJECTS

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    PROJECT REPORT

    There is no set outline that can be user forpreparing the pr report , it is determined by thenature of the target audience.

    numbering system is used to indicate eachsection or subsection. Becoming more popular,however, is changing the font size of headings to

    indicate the importance of each heading. Thereport is broken into sections and each sectionand subsection has a heading.

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    Types of Project reports

    Basically two types

    Academic Reports

    Related to studies and education, basically

    industry related projects.

    Manuals giving guidelines, procedures &

    rules.

    Business Reports

    Diff B/W A d i & B i

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    Difference B/W Academic & Business report

    Business Report

    Imp part of business

    Written on a issue/project

    Submitted to a committeefor further action

    As & when the need arises

    Can be informational, not

    live research

    Academic Report

    Academic requirement

    compulsory

    On a project comp. in a

    industry Submitted to superiors for

    evaluation

    At the end of summer term

    Findings & results of actual

    project

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    Continue..

    Business Report

    Practical in nature to

    study a prevailing

    problem Everyone do not prepare

    Good report earns good

    name for writers and

    suggestions considered

    Academic Report

    Compulsive in nature, not

    necessary to be used in future

    or suggestions may not beconsidered

    All students prepare

    Good report earns credit as

    grades& probability of

    placement

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    Sequence of items in Project Report

    1. Cover Page (On cover of the spiral bound report)

    2. Declaration by the candidate

    3. Certificate from the Industry Guide (wherever applicable)

    4. Certificate from the Faculty Guide

    5. Acknowledgements

    6. Preface

    7. (Detailed) Table of Contents (with page numbers).

    8. List of Figures (with figure number, figure titles and pagenumbers)

    9. List of Tables with table number, table title and page number, Listof Abbreviations

    10. List of graphs & diagrams

    (Point No. 2 10, should have page numbers in roman, for e.g., i, ii, ix. Kindly not that the cover page should not bear the pagenumber

    C t

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    Cont.11. Main Text

    a)Introduction

    b)Main findingsc)Conclusions and recommendations

    12. Introduction

    a)Introducing the theme

    b)Review of related literature

    c)Methodology adopted

    13. Results

    a) Statistical analysis

    b) Testing of hypothesis

    c) Conclusions

    d) Recommendations

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    14.End Matter

    a) Annexureb) Bibliography

    c) Questionnaire

    d) Mathematical derivations

    e) Appendices

    T bl f C

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    Table of Contents1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1. Aim1.2. Scope1.3. Background to study

    2. PROCEDURE

    2.1. Data collection method

    2.2. Literature review2.2.1. Literature review of journals ,ETC

    3. ANALYSIS Of DATA

    3.1. Research Methodology3.2. ..

    4. CONCLUSIONS5. RECOMMENDATIONS

    REFERENCES

    APPENDICES

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    Research Paper work

    Should not be more than 4000 words & between 15-20 pages. Format

    1) Introduction

    1.1)Objective of the study

    1.2)Organization of study

    2)Research material & design

    3) Findings & discussions

    3.1)Demographic characteristics of the sample

    3.2)Extent of research in industry

    3.3)Perceived benefits related to customers

    3.4)perceived corporate related .benefits

    4)Conclusions & implications of the study

    5)Recommendation & limitation of study

    5.1)Recommendation

    5.2)Limitation

    References

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    PROPOSALS

    It is a persuasive offer to complete a task,

    submitted either voluntarily or in response to

    a request or an advertisement.

    Unlike a report, a proposal may be sent to an

    expert or a review committee for evaluation &

    recommendation concerning the benefits ofthe proposed services, products, etc.

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    Types of Proposals

    Research Proposal

    Business Proposal

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    Business Proposal

    They provide information concerning the

    nature and benefits of the proposed

    product/services, cost of equipment etc.

    Transmittal letter or prefatory note is sent

    along with the proposal.

    Written for a beneficial response.

    They should be creative & effective.

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    Short Business Proposal has following:-

    Small proposal drafted in form ofletterLetter of transmittal

    or prefatory note

    Gives information on project team

    Scope of services

    Cost of equipment

    Details as per the advertisement

    Details asked for

    BodyofProposal

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    Letter of Transmittal

    Follows the formula of AIDA for an effective

    sales communication.

    Attention

    Interest

    Desire Action

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    Difference b/w Proposal and Report

    Solicited or unsolicited

    Can be official orunofficial

    Concerns the future

    Request for action

    Needs to be influencingand convincing

    Based on the AIDAformula

    Awaits a decision

    Always solicited

    Official document

    Concerns the past

    Just a statement

    Need not to be convincing

    Not to be based on AIDA

    formula Does not awaits a

    decision

    4 P f P l

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    4 PofProposal

    POSITION

    PROBLEM

    POSSIBILITIES

    PROPOSAL

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    Contents to be incorporated

    Introduction

    Background details

    Benefits

    Description of the proposed work

    Method & procedure

    Qualifications

    Costs & Resources

    Conclusion

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    PARAGRAPHS

    This is the most important writing skill

    This is basically done to test the written

    communication skills.

    It tests the writers ability to

    a) Understand the implication or scope of the topic

    b) Organize his/her thinking

    c) Express in a lucrative style.

    Freedom of expression

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    How to write effective paragraph

    Choose the topic carefully Jot or sort out the facts carefully

    Use simple English

    Prepare the outlines Keep it short & precise

    Give an attractive beginning

    Maintain paragraph unity

    Make effective use of topic sentences Avoid unnecessary details or never be irrelevant

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    Cont

    Make the paragraph move forward

    Different points in different paragraphs

    Dont repeat the information

    Answer the question being askedDont use company jargons

    Dont overload with statistics

    Be honest and dont whineConclusion should be clearly & firmly stated

    Find time to revise

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    Topics to write a paragraph

    The career of a business Executive

    Advertisement

    The policy of Liberalization

    Problems of Globalization

    Qualities of a good manager

    Indian tourism industry