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    INTRODUCTION TO DBMS

    Data is one of the most important assets of a company. It is very important to make

    sure data is stored and maintained accurately and quickly. DBMS (Database

    Management System) is a system that is used to store and manage data.

    A DBMS is a set of programs that is used to store and manipulation data. Manipulationof data include the following:

    Adding new data, for example adding details of new student. Deleting unwanted data, for example deleting the details of students who have

    completed course.

    Changing existing data, for example modifying the fee paid by the student.A DBMS provides various functions like data security, data integrity, data sharing, data

    concurrence, data independence, data recovery etc. However, all database

    management systems that are now available in the market like Sybase, Oracle, andMS-Access do not provide the same set of functions, though all are meant for data

    management.

    Database managements systems like Oracle, DB2 are more powerful and meant for

    bigger companies. Whereas, database management systems like MS-Access are meant

    for small companies. So one has to choose the DBMS depending upon the requirement.

    DBMS:

    A general purpose software system enabling:-

    1)Creation of large disk-resident databases.

    2)Posing of data retrieval queries in a standard manner.

    3)Retrieval of query results efficiently.

    4)Concurrent use of the system by a large number of users in a consistent manner.

    5)Guaranteed availability of data irrespective of system failures.

    DBMS stands for "Database Management System." In short, a DBMS is a database program.

    The DBMS manages incoming data, organizes it, and provides ways for the data to be

    modified or extracted by users or other programs.

    Some DBMS examples include MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft Access, SQL Server,

    FileMaker, Oracle, RDBMS, dBASE, Clipper, and FoxPro. Since there are so many database

    management systems available, it is important for there to be a way for them to communicate

    with each other. For this reason, most database software comes with an Open Database

    Connectivity (ODBC)driver that allows the database to integrate with other databases. For

    example, common SQL statements such as SELECT and INSERT are translated from a

    program's proprietary syntax into a syntax other databases can understand.

    http://www.techterms.com/definition/odbchttp://www.techterms.com/definition/odbc
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    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DBMS AND RDBMS :

    INTRODUCTION TO ORACLE

    An Oracle database is a collection of data treated as a unit. The purpose of a database is to

    store and retrieve related information. A database server is the key to solving the problems of

    information management. In general, a server reliably manages a large amount of data in a

    multiuser environment so that many users can concurrently access the same data. All this is

    accomplished while delivering high performance. A database server also prevents

    unauthorized access and provides efficient solutions for failure recovery.

    Oracle Database is the first database designed for enterprise grid computing, the most flexible

    and cost effective way to manage information and applications. Enterprise grid computing

    creates large pools of industry-standard, modular storage and servers. With this architecture,

    each new system can be rapidly provisioned from the pool of components. There is no need

    for peak workloads, because capacity can be easily added or reallocated from the resource

    pools as needed.

    The database has logical structures and physical structures. Because the physical and logical

    structures are separate, the physical storage of data can be managed without affecting theaccess to logical storage structures.

    DBMS RDBMS

    In DBMS relation between two tables

    or files area maintainedprogrammatically

    In RDBMS relationship between two

    table or files can be specified at the timeof table creation

    DBMS does not support client/serverArchitecture

    Most of the RDBMS supportsclient/server Architecture

    DBMS does not support Distributeddatabases

    Most of the RDBMS supportsDistributed databases

    In DBMS there is no security of data In RDBMS there are multiple level ofsecurity

    1. Logging in at O/S level

    2. Command level(i.e. at RDBMSlevel)3. Object level

    Each table is given an extension inDBMS

    Many tables are grouped in one databasein RDBMS

    DBMS may satisfy less than 7 to 8 rulesof Dr. E. F. Codd

    RDBMS usually satisfy more than 7 to 8rules of Dr. E.F. Codd

    Naming ConventionField Column, Attributes

    Record Row, Tuple, EntityFile Table, Relation, Entity class

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    VERSIONS OF ORACLE :

    Oracle Database 11g:Overcome the problems associated with using bind variables against

    indexed columns containing skewed data. Reduce the impact of automated maintenance tasks

    on your system by controlling how and when they run. Oracle 11g takes the next step downthe road to making manual memory management a thing of the past. Take advantage of the

    Automatic SQL Tuning features of Oracle 11g Release 1.

    Oracle Database 10g Express Edition: Oracle Database 10g Express Edition (Oracle

    Database XE) is an entry-level, small-footprint database based on the Oracle Database 10g

    Release 2 code base that's free to develop, deploy, and distribute; fast to download; and

    simple to administer. Oracle Database XE is a great starter database.

    Oracle Database 9i:Reduce segment header contention and wasted space within blocks by

    switching from using Free Lists to Automatic Segment Free Space Management. Replace youexisting rollback segments with self-tuning undo segments. Increase the performance and

    reduce the size of your data warehouse.

    Oracle Database 8i:Lists the available mechanisms for gathering database statistics that are

    used by the cost based optimizer. Hide unused columns or completely remove them. Query

    external data as if it were a relational table. Allow queries to use indexes even when you are

    performing a function on the indexed column.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORACLE SERVER 9i ANDORACLE SERVER 10g :

    10 G supports grid computing, ASM (Automatic storage management) and Memory

    management. Oracle 10g is higher version of 9i , Oracle 10g has added a following features :-

    Major changes to SQL optimizer internals Oracle Grid computing AWR and ASH tables incorporated into Oracle Performance Pack and Diagnostic

    Pack options

    Automated Session History (ASH) materializes the Oracle Wait Interface over time Data Pump replaces imp utility with impdp Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM) SQLTuning Advisor SQLAccess Advisor Rolling database upgrades (using Oracle10g RAC) dbms_scheduler package replaces dbms_jobfor scheduling

    INTRODUCTION TO STRUCURE QUERY LANGUAGE

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    Structured Query Language is a database computer language designed for managing data in

    relational database management systems (RDBMS), and originally based upon relational

    algebra. Its scope includes data insert, query, update and delete, schema creation and

    modification, and data access control. SQL was one of the first languages for Edgar F. Codds

    relational model in his influential 1970 paper, "A Relational Model of Data for Large SharedData Banks"]and became the most widely used language for relational databases.

    The SQL language is sub-divided into several language elements, including:

    Clauses, which are in some cases optional, constituent components of statements and queries Expressions,which can produce eitherscalar values ortables consisting ofcolumns and rows

    of data.

    Various type of SQL Languages :

    Data-Definition Language:

    A database schema is specified by a set of definitions expressed by a special language called a

    data-definition language (DDL). The result of compilation of DDL statements is a set of tables

    that is stored in a special file called data dictionary or data directory. A data dictionary is a file

    that contains metadata-that is, data about data. This file is consulted before actual data read or

    modified in the database system. The storage structure and access methods used by the

    database system are specified by a set of definitions in a special type of DDL called a data

    storage and definition language. The SQL DDL statements are CREATE, ALTER, DROP,

    RENAME.

    Data-Manipulation Language:

    Data manipulation means:

    The retrieval of information stored in the database The insertion of new information into the database The deletion of information from the database The modification of information of database

    A data-manipulation languages (DML) is a language that enables users to access or

    manipulate data as organized by the appropriate data model.

    There are basically two types:

    Procedural DMLsare requiring a user to specify what data are needed and how to get thosedata.

    Non-procedural DMLs require a user to specify what data are needed without specifyinghow to get those data.

    Data Control Language(DCL):

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalar_%28computing%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_%28database%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Column_%28database%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Column_%28database%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Table_%28database%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalar_%28computing%29
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    DCL statements control access to data and the database using statements such as GRANT and

    REVOKE. A privilege can either be granted to a user with the help of GRANT statement. The

    privilege assigned can be SELECT,ALTER ,DELETE ,EXECUTE ,INSERT, INDEX etc. in

    addition to granting of privileges, you can also revoke it by using REVOKE command. The

    SQL DCL statements are GRANT, REVOKE, COMMENT.

    Data Query Language(DQL):

    A query is a statement requesting the retrieval of information. The portion of a DML that

    involves information retrieval is called query language.The SQL DQL statement is SELECT

    command that is only to retrieve data from database.

    Transaction Control Language(TCL):

    Transaction stands for program in execution. A transaction is a collection of operation that

    performs a single logical function in a database application.The SQL TCL statements are SET

    TRANSACTION, COMMIT, ROLL BACK, SAVE POINT, END TRANSACTION.

    Data administrative statement(DAS):

    DAS statements allow the user to perform audits and analysis of solutions within the database.

    These statements are used to analyse the performance of database.

    The SQL DAS statements are START AUDIT, STOP AUDIT.

    Various Data Types of SQL:

    Code Datatype Description

    1 VARCHAR2(size

    [BYTE | CHAR])

    Variable-length character string having maximum length

    size bytes or characters. Maximum size is 4000 bytes or

    characters, and minimum is 1 byte or 1 character. You

    must specify size for VARCHAR2.

    BYTE indicates that the column will have byte length

    semantics; CHAR indicates that the column will have

    character semantics.

    2 NUMBER[(precision[, scale]])

    Number having precision p and scale s. The precision pcan range from 1 to 38. The scale s can range from -84 to

    127.

    8 LONG Character data of variable length up to 2 gigabytes, or 2 -

    1 bytes. Provided for backward compatibility.

    23 RAW(size) Raw binary data of length size bytes. Maximum size is

    2000 bytes. You must specify size for a RAWvalue.

    96 CHAR [(size [BYTE

    | CHAR])]

    Fixed-length character data of length size bytes. Maximum

    size is 2000 bytes or characters. Default and minimum size

    is 1 1

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    ADVANTAGES OF DBMS :

    The DBMS has a number of advantages as compared to traditional computer file processing

    approach. The DBA must keep in mind these benefits or capabilities during designing

    databases, coordinating and monitoring the DBMS.The major advantages of DBMS are described below.

    1. Controlling Data Redundancy:In non-database systems (traditional computer fileprocessing), each application program has its own files. In this case, the duplicated copies of

    the same data are created at many places. In DBMS, all the data of an organization is

    integrated into a single database. The data is recorded at only one place in the database and it

    is not duplicated. For example, the dean's faculty file and the faculty payroll file contain

    several items that are identical. When they are converted into database, the data is integratedinto a single database so that multiple copies of the same data are reduced to-single copy.In DBMS, the data redundancy can be controlled or reduced but is not removed completely.

    Sometimes, it is necessary to create duplicate copies of the same data items in order to relatetables with each other.By controlling the data redundancy, you can save storage space. Similarly, it is useful for

    retrieving data from database using queries.2. Data Consistency:By controlling the data redundancy, the data consistency isobtained. If a data item appears only once, any update to its value has to be performed only

    once and the updated value (new value of item) is immediately available to all users.If the DBMS has reduced redundancy to a minimum level, the database system enforces

    consistency. It means that when a data item appears more than once in the database and is

    updated, the DBMS automatically updates each occurrence of a data item in the database. 3. Data Sharing:In DBMS, data can be shared by authorized users of the organization.The DBA manages the data and gives rights to users to access the data. Many users can be

    authorized to access the same set of information simultaneously. The remote users can also

    share same data. Similarly, the data of same database can be shared between different

    application programs.4. Data Integration:In DBMS, data in database is stored in tables. A single databasecontains multiple tables and relationships can be created between tables (or associated data

    entities). This makes easy to retrieve and update data.

    5.User-friendly:Data is easier to access and manipulate with a DBMS than without it. In

    most cases, DBMSs also reduce the reliance of individual users on computer specialists to

    meet their data needs.

    6.Improved security:As stated earlier, DBMSs allow multiple users to access the same

    data resources. This capability is generally viewed as a benefit, but there are potential risks

    for the organization. Some sources of information should be protected or secured and only

    viewed by select individuals. Through the use of passwords, database management systems

    can be used to restrict data access to only those who should see it.

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    DISADVANTAGES OF DBMS :

    Although there are many advantages but the DBMS may also have some minor

    disadvantages. These are:1. Cost of Hardware & Software:A processor with high speed of data processing and memory of large size is required to run

    the DBMS software. It means that you have to upgrade the hardware used for file-based

    system. Similarly, DBMS software is also Very costly.2. Cost of Data Conversion:When a computer file-based system is replaced with a database system, the data stored into

    data file must be converted to database files. It is difficult and time consuming method toconvert data of data files into database. You have to hire DBA (or database designer) and

    system designer along with application programmers; Alternatively, you have to take the

    services of some software houses. So a lot of money has to be paid for developing databaseand related software.3. Cost of Staff Training:Most DBMSs are often complex systems so the training for users to use the DBMS is

    required. Training is required at all levels, including programming, application development,

    and database administration. The organization has to pay a lot of amount on the training of

    staff to run the DBMS.4. Appointing Technical Staff:The trained technical persons such as database administrator and application programmers etcare required to handle the DBMS. You have to pay handsome salaries to these persons.

    Therefore, the system cost increases.5. Database Failures:In most of the organizations, all data is integrated into a single database. If database is

    corrupted due to power failure or it is corrupted on the storage media, then our valuable data

    may be lost or whole system stops.

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    Experiment No.1

    AIM : Learning basic SQL commands .

    HARDWARE REQUIRED:-

    1)Physical memory (RAM) :- Min 512 MB recommended

    2)Disk space :-Min 2.04 GB

    3)Processor:-Min 800 MHz

    SOFTWARE REQUIRED:-

    1)Operating System :-Windows XP Professional

    2)SQL:-10.2.0

    Commands :-

    1.CREATE Table :It is used to create table .

    Syntax :-

    create table tablename(column1 datatype(size1),column2 datatype(size2),column3

    datatype(size3),..,columnNdatatype(sizeN));

    example :-Create table STUDENT440 (roll_no int, name varchar(20), sem number(2,0),

    branch char(5), address varchar(20), email_id varchar(20)) ;

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    2. DESC Tablename :-It is used display the structure of the table created.

    Syntax :

    desctablename ;

    example :- desc STUDENT440;

    3.INSERT INTO:-It is used to insert values in the table.

    Syntax:-

    insert into tablename values(value1,value2,value3,.valueN);

    example :-

    insert into STUDENT440 values('1154440','Divya Bajaj','5','CSE','Moahli','[email protected]');

    insert into STUDENT440 values('1154477','Manmeet

    Singh','5','CSE','Mohali','[email protected]');

    insert into STUDENT440 values('1154461','Jasmeet Singh','5','CSE','Mohali','[email protected]');

    insert into STUDENT440 values('1154411','Amanjot Singh','5','CSE','Patiala','[email protected]')

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    4.SELECT:-a) It is used to retrieve all the data inserted in the table

    Syntax:-

    Select * from tablename ;

    example :select * from STUDENT440;

    b)It is used to retrieve data from a particular column.

    Syntax:-

    Select column1,column2,columnN from tablename ;

    example :select roll_no,name,branch from STUDENT440;

    5. WHERE :-It is used with select clause to display data of particular column specified in

    condition.

    Syntax :

    Select * from tablename where

    example :select * from STUDENT440 where roll_no = 1154440;

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    EXPERIMENTNO.2

    AIM :Create three tables client_master440,product_master440 and

    salesman_master440 and practice various commands.

    1. Client_master440 table :

    create table client_master440(clientnovarchar(5),name varchar(20),address varchar(20),city

    varchar(20),pin number(8,2),state varchar(20),balancedue number(10,2));

    insert into client_master440 values('c1','Pradeep

    Jindal','HNO.68','Ludhiana','123435','Punjab','50000');

    insert into client_master440 values('c2','Varinderpal Singh','HNO.

    680','Patiala','147001','Punjab','6500');

    insert into client_master440 values('c3','Prateek Mehta','HNO.

    23','Ambala','167251','Haryana','10000');

    insert into client_master440 values('c4','Vinod Gupta','HNO. 109','Mohali','238976','Punjab','20000');

    select * from client_master440;

    OUTPUT :

    2. Product_master440 table :

    create table product_master440(productno varchar(5),description varchar(10),profit_per

    number(8,2),qtyonhand int,sell_price number(8,2),cost_price number(8,2));

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    insert into product_master440 values('p1','LG Mobile','5.5','10','18000','20000');

    insert into product_master440 values('p2','LG TV','6.5','15','48000','52000');

    insert into product_master440 values('p3','HP Laptop','4.5','9','54000','58000');

    insert into product_master440 values('p4','Motorbike','2.5','5','43000','47000');

    select * from product_master440;

    OUTPUT :

    3. Salesman440 table :

    create table salesman_master440(salesmanno varchar(5),name varchar(20),address

    varchar(20),city varchar(20),state varchar(20),salesamt number(8,2),targettoget

    number(6,2),sales number(8,2),remarks varchar(10));

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    insert into salesman_master440 values('s1','Pramod Kumar','HNO.

    65','Ambala','Haryana','3000','100','50','Good');

    insert into salesman_master440 values('s2','Avinash Kapoor','HNO.

    75','Patiala','Punjab','4000','200','10','Fair');

    insert into salesman_master440 values('s3','Sarabjeet Singh','HNO.

    95','Gurdaspur','Punjab','3000','200','50','Good');

    insert into salesman_master440 values('s4','Harsh','HNO.

    25','Karnal','Haryana','3500','300','150','Fair');

    select * from salesman_master440;

    OUTPUT :

    1. DISTINCT Clause:It is used to delete the duplicate entries in the table.

    Syntax :

    Select distinct from client_master440;

    example : Inserting duplicate entries in client_master440 table

    insert into client_master440 values('c3','Arun Kashyap','HNO. 64','Patiala','173524','Punjab','10000');

    insert into client_master440 values('c4','Abhilash','HNO. 84','Gurdaspur','173525','Punjab','20000');

    OUTPUT :

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    (a)select distinct * from client_master440;

    OUTPUT :

    (b)select distinct name ,city , balancedue from client_master440 ;

    OUTPUT :

    2. ORDER BY Clause :It is use to specify the order in which rows appear in the result set

    which can be in ascending or descending order. By default the order is ascending.

    Syntax:-

    select * from tablname where condition=value order by columnname ;

    example:(a) select * from salesman_master440 order by name;

    OUTPUT :

    (b) select * from salesman_master440 where state='Punjab' order by name ;

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    3. Creating table for existing table :- (a)Create table from another table and populate

    the table with same value as present in other table

    Syntax :

    Create table tablename 1 (colm1,colm2..colm n) As select colm1,colm2..colmn fromtablename2;

    example :create table employe440(empno,name,address,city,pin,state,salary) As select

    clientno,name,address,city,pin,state,balancedue from client_master440 ;

    OUTPUT :

    (b)Create table from another table without populating the values present in other table.

    Syntax:-

    Create table tablename(colm1,colm2.colm n) As selectcolm1,colm2..colm n from

    tablename where 1=2 ;

    example :create table workers440 (id,name,address,city,pin,state,salary) As select

    clientno,name, address,city,pin,state,balancedue from client_master440 where 1=2;

    select * from workers440;

    OUTPUT :

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    Retrive the names of all the clients from the table client_master:-

    select name from CLIENT_MASTER440;