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SOCIETY AS RESOURCE AND RISK II. SEMINAR

SOCIETY AS RESOURCE AND RISK II. SEMINAR

SOCIETY AS RESOURCE AND RISK II. SEMINAR

SOCIETY AS RESOURCE AND RISK II. SEMINAR

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Table of Contents

1. SOCIETY AS RESOURCE AND RISK II. SEMINAR 0

1. Preface 0

2. 1. Geographical description of labour market process, labour supply and demand 0

2.1. 1.1. Content 0

2.2. 1.2. Review of the curriculum 0

2.3. 1.3. Questions, tasks 0

3. 2. International labour flow 0

3.1. 2.1. Content 0

3.2. 2.2. Review of the curriculum 0

3.3. 2.3. Questions, tasks 0

4. 3. The study of human ecological context between the religions, socio-economic interactions and geographical environment 0

4.1. 3.1. Content 0

4.2. 3.2. Review of the curriculum 0

4.3. 3.3. Questions, tasks 0

5. 4. Distribution of the world's population by religious groups I. 0

5.1. 4.1. Content 0

5.2. 4.2. Review of the curriculum 0

6. 5. Distribution of the world's population by religious groups II. 0

6.1. 5.1. Content 0

6.2. 5.2. Review of the curriculum 0

7. 6. Geographical study of the most important religions I. 0

7.1. 6.1. Content 0

7.2. 6.2. Review of the curriculum 0

8. 7. Geographical study of the most important religions II. 0

8.1. 7.1. Content 0

8.2. 7.2. Review of the curriculum 0

9. 8. The geographical dimensions of health status of the population and health care 0

9.1. 8.1. Content 0

9.2. 8.2. Review of the curriculum 0

9.3. 8.3. Questions, tasks 0

10. 9. The Pandemics 0

10.1. 9.1. Content 0

10.2. 9.2. Review of the curriculum 0

10.3. 9.3. Questions, tasks 0

11. 10. Social problems, social integration disorders, deviances I. 0

11.1. 10.1. Content 0

11.2. 10.2. Review of the curriculum 0

11.3. 10.3. Questions, tasks 0

12. 11. Social problems, social integration disorders, deviances II. 0

12.1. 11.1. Content 0

12.2. 11.2. Review of the curriculum 0

12.3. 11.3. Questions, tasks 0

13. 12. Case study 0

13.1. 12.1. Content 0

13.2. 12.2. Review of the curriculum 0

13.3. 12.3. Questions, tasks 0

14. References 0

15. Internet resources: 0

15.1. 0

15.2. 0

SOCIETY AS RESOURCE AND RISK II. SEMINAR

SOCIETY AS RESOURCE AND RISK II. SEMINAR

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Chapter 1. SOCIETY AS RESOURCE AND RISK II. SEMINAR

Dr. Antal Tóth

A tananyag a TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0038 számú projekt keretében készült.

This course is realized as a part of the TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0038 project.

1. Preface

Geographer MSc started in 2011/12 school year in the Department of Geography, in the Eszterházy Károly College. Students can choose between two unique specializations: resource and risk analysis and regional manager.

Students of geographer specialized in resource and risk analysis will be able to explore new resources, the sustainable utilization of them, in addition the recognition and rational moderation of global and local environmental risks.

Besides natural and physical geographical knowledge the integration of topics relating to society and social environment into the educational program is provided, since these are necessary in the world of 21th century that can be characterized with the appreciation of human resources and risks as well.

Course of society as resource and risk is involved into the differentiated professional knowledge of the specialization, in the third semester as lecture, in the fourth as seminar.

Present e-teaching material is made for the seminar of the course, it is the continuation of lecture e-teaching material.

However many literature are available in the topic, according to our knowledge there is not any academic textbook or lecture note, which would present knowledge relating to society with similar thematic and aspect.

I would like to express my thanks for my helpful and supporting colleagues, who contributed to make this lecture note, Dr. György Kajati associate professor, Zsuzsa Piskóti-Kovács and Enikő Kovács junior researchers.

2. 1. Geographical description of labour market process, labour supply and demand

2.1. 1.1. Content

Definition of labour market; models of labour market; rudiments of labour market;geographical description of labour supply anddemand; territorial differences of unemployment and the population’s economical activity.

2.2. 1.2. Review of the curriculum

Labour market

„The labour market is a market in economy related to sale and purchase of labour force. The sellers (supply) are those who are looking for jobs, and all these are the labour supply. The sellers (demand) are the employers, and all these are the labour demand. The difference between labour supply and demand is the lack of labour or labour surplus (unemployment). The lack of labour is advantageous for employees. The labour surplus is advantageous for sellers.” (http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munkaer%C5%91piac).

The labour market is the place of the work as production factor’s supply and demand. The market rules apply to it like in other markets’ case, although it belongs to the so-called „non-perfect markets”.

Influential factors of labour market (Thész, G. 2011):

· The external environmental conditions:

· Economic environment: change of demand; balance and dynamics of economy; competitive environment; globalization; innovation, information, informatics.

· Social and legal environment: social values; law of labour, protection of interests; social dialogue; training; social care.

· Labour market environment: employment and its structure; unemployment and its structure; regulation and flexibility of the market.

· Internal conditions: company culture; organization strategy (increase, reduce); size; bureaucracy; product, technology; employees’ qualifications, cultures and attitudes; roles of trade unions.

„Characters of labour market:

· Employers: represent the labour supply, employ given numbered and compound labour at a stated time.

· Employees: labour supply, those who work or apply for jobs and want to work within a stated time.

· State (legislation, government): regulatest he market with means of employment policy, economical policy, educational policy, demographic policy and division policy.

· Trade unions: in both sides making agreements, solving conflicts with means of work.” (Thész, G. 2011, pp. 2-3.)

Models of labour market (Thész, G. 2011, 4. p.):

1. Pure market model: every intervention makes the marketing effects blunt, so they are minimalized, and thus the market logics, the competition prevails. Complete freedom and independence for participants who follow their interests. They are polarized by this model, there are a lot of conflicts.

2. Social model: „The market functions, but the social control is strong. It tries to compensate the negative social effects of the labour market.”

3. Welfare state model (social democracy): The state is resbonsible for avoiding the negative effects and for this it has the next implements: the economic management, high level employment, significant centralization, the well-functioned social providing systems. However the considerable intervention limits the success of the marketing mechanism.

4.”Caring” company (Japanese model): Having strong and mutual attachment between the employer and employee. In this case the social feature functions basically in micro-level. The employer takes responsibility for their employees. Devoted work and unconditional faithfulness is its compensation. Emphasis is on the company internal market.”

5. Social market economy (German model): The market effectiveness and care work together. On one hand it means state regulations, on the other hand the independent agreement among partners of labour market. In crisis the employer also has social-care obligations. From economic reasons this model has been financed less and less.

Rudiments of labour market:

1. According to the method of Hungarian census (http://www.ksh.hu/nepszamlalas/docs/modszertan.pdf):

Economically active population : employed and unemployed.

Employed: every 15 year-old and older person who had income by doing at least one-hour work in the previous week, or who was only temporarily away from their permanent work.

Unemployed: who did not work in the week before the given time, who was actively looking for a job in the last four weeks, or who will start work within two weeks (getting unemployment benefit is not condition of qualifying as unemployed).

Economically not active population: inactive seekers and dependants.

Inactive seekers: who were not looking for a job in the time of recording but who had income: pensioners; who educate, bring children up; who get social benefit, who live from their wealth or other income which has no connection with work.

Dependants: children, who are under 15 and do not study; regular students who do not work and who are not inactive job-seekers; other dependants (eg. housewives).

2. According to the Central Statistical Office’s

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