prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells...bacteria are composed of prokaryotic cells eukaryotic cells:...

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells: Have _________________ organelles. Bacteria are composed of prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells: ___________________ cells, containing membrane-bound organelles that each perform a specific function.

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  • Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    Prokaryotic cells: Have _________________

    organelles. Bacteria are composed of prokaryotic cells

    Eukaryotic cells: ___________________ cells,

    containing membrane-bound organelles that each

    perform a specific function.

  • Parts of the earth's air, water, and

    soil where life is foundBiosphere

    Smallest unit of a chemical element that

    exhibits its chemical properties





    A community of different species

    interacting with one another and with their

    nonliving environment of matter and energy

    Populations of different species living in a

    particular place, and potentially interacting

    with each other

    A group of individuals of the same species

    living in a particular place


    An individual living being

    The fundamental structural and functional

    unit of life



    Chemical combination of two or more atoms

    of the same or different elements

  • Ecosystems Have Living and Nonliving Components


    Nonliving components

    – Water

    – Air

    – Nutrients

    – Rocks

    – Heat

    – Solar energy


    _________________(Example: Leaf litter is biotic)

  • Range of Tolerance for a Population

    of Organisms


  • Several Abiotic Factors Can Limit Population Growth

    Limiting factor principle

    – Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimal range of tolerance

  • Heat Heat


    Heat Heat







    (top carnivores)

    First Trophic


    Second Trophic

    LevelThird Trophic


    Fourth Trophic










    Decomposers and detritus feeders

    Trophic Level: A step in a food chain

    _____________________in an ecosystem.

    Living Components of Ecosystems

  • Living Components of Ecosystems

    Autotrophs / Producers

    – Photosynthesis

    – Chemosynthesis

    Heterotrophs / Consumers

    - Generally not more than three or four levels of consumers due to the energy pyramid

  • Chemosynthesis

    o Uses the energy from certain

    compounds such as hydrogen

    sulfide from volcanic vents to

    provide the energy to produce


    o Performed by certain

    prokaryotic organisms.

    o Occurs at ____________

    ___________ below ocean.


    o Uses sunlight to provide the

    energy required to produce

    carbohydrates from carbon

    dioxide and water.

    6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2

    Photosynthesis vs. Chemosynthesis

  • Discuss with your table partner:

    What do photosynthesis and chemosynthesis have in common?

    How do the two processes differ?

  • ____________________________________________



  • Releasing Stored EnergyAll organisms store energy in sugars and other organic molecules.

    This energy is released as needed through either: -aerobic respiration (with oxygen)

    C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O- anaerobic respiration (without oxygen)also known as _______________

    Plants perform both photosynthesis

    and aerobic respiration.

  • Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)Gross Primary Productivity is the ________________


    Usually measured in a unit of energy per unit of area over a given time span.

    Example : kcal/m2/year

    Some of the gross primary productivity is needed to support the producer and is not passed along the food chain.

  • Net Primary Productivity

    Net Primary Productivity is the amount of chemical energy available _______________________________________________________________.

  • Discuss with your table partner:What could you measure to determine the NPP of an ecosystem? (Hint: Productivity = rate of photosynthesis)

    Estuaries and swamps generally have a high net primary productivity. Why?

    Why is the NPP compared for different ecosystems rather than the GPP?

    By measuring the increase in____________________________________________________or the decrease in __________________________


    NPP can be measured by ________________________ GPP ____________________________________

  • Estimated Annual Average NPP in Major Life Zones and Ecosystems

  • Detritivores and DecomposersDetritivores ______________ dead organisms.

    Decomposers ______________________to break down

    dead organisms. Recycle nutrients into the surrounding


    ___________________in an Ecosystem

  • Water Cycle Processes

    evaporation: conversion from liquid to vapor form

    transpiration: ______________________

    condensation: conversion of vapor to liquid droplets

    precipitation: movement as rain, sleet, hail, & snow

    percolation: __________________________

    runoff: surface flow downslope to ocean.

    infiltration: ______________________

  • Review with your table partner:

    What are the similarities and differences between evaporation and transpiration?

    Put the following terms in the correct order that they would occur: Percolation, Precipitation, Infiltration.





  • Transpiration Animation:

  • Discuss with your table partner:

    How might deforestation of a tropical rainforest affect the rainfall in a region? (What process would be changed and how could this affect rainfall)





  • Role of Carbon?

    • ___________________________________

    (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, & nucleic

    acid) – essential to life

    • currency of energy exchange – chemical

    energy for life stored as bonds in organic


    • carbon dioxide (CO2) greenhouse gas –

    traps heat near Earth's surface & plays a

    key role as "nature's thermostat“

  • Carbon Cycle Processes

    photosynthesis (= carbon fixation) moves C from

    atmosphere to organic molecules (C,H,O

    compounds) in organisms

    movement through food web: C movement in

    organic form from organism to organism

    aerobic respiration: organic molecules broken

    down to release CO2 back to atmosphere

    combustion: organic molecules broken by burning

    down to release CO2 back to atmosphere

  • Review with your table partner:

    What are two ways that humans are shifting the carbon cycle to increase the amount of carbon found in the atmosphere (CO2) rather than stored in organic (carbon-containing) molecules?

    - _____________________________________


    - _____________________________________


  • Nitrogen Cycle

    Nitrogen is needed by all living things.

    • N is part of DNA and protein.

  • • Nitrogen (N2) is the most common gas in the atmosphere (78%).

    • However, most organisms can not utilize N2.


  • nitrogen fixation: conversion of N2 (nitrogen gas)

    to NH4+ (ammonium),

    biological by ___________________


    e.g., Rhizobium (___________ ) in nodules on

    roots of legumes;

    atmospheric by lightning,

    nitrification: conversion of NH4+ to NO2

    - (nitrite) to

    NO3-(nitrate) by microbes;

    uptake by plants, forms proteins and other N

    containing organic compounds, enters food chain;

  • Nitrogen Cycle Processes Cont.

    • ammonification: returned to NH4+

    inorganic forms by saprophytes and decomposers;

    • denitrification: conversion of NH4+ to N2 by

    combustion or microbes. Conversion of NOx to N2 by bacteria

  • Review with your table partner:

    Name a form of nitrogen that can’t be used by most organisms.

    Name a form of nitrogen that can be used by most/ all organisms.

    Why do legume plants (bean family) have an advantage in getting enough of the usable nitrogen compounds they need?

    Continue to next slide





  • What three types of bacteria are involved in the nitrogen cycle? Which are involved in producing usable nitrogen compounds and which are involved in cycling nitrogen compounds back to the atmosphere?

    ________________ bacteria- _______________


    ___________________bacteria- _____________




  • Inorganic Fertilizers

    During WWII, Fritz Haber developed process to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia to make inorganic nitrate fertilizers.____________________________________________

    Revolutionized farming: increasing yields. Part of the GREEN REVOLUTION

  • Discuss with your table partner:Review with your table partner the process of eutrophication.Definition:



    Addition of ______________________










    Hypoxyia = __________Anoxyia =_________

  • P















    • ____________________________ (slow process)

    • No atmospheric component of cycle

    • Needed by all living things for:

    DNA , ATP, Phospholipids

  • Sulfur Cycle

    Sulfur is in rocks, soil and fossil fuels (esp. coal)

    Sulfur is required by all living things (__________

    contain sulfur)

    Sulfur is found in the atmosphere as_____________