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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 1 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Do all cells have the same structure? Why? An efficiency apartment is a one-room apartment. This one room is where you sleep, eat, shower, and entertain your guests. It all happens in one room. It is a simple way of living in a small space. A mansion is a large, complex living space with many separate rooms. There are rooms for cooking, eating, sleeping, bathing, reading, watching TV, entertaining guests, exercising, and storage. The rooms in a mansion are constructed for the specific things you would like to be able to do. You can live in simple efficiency or complexity. In this activity we will be looking at cells that are as simple as a one-room efficiency apart- ment or as complex as a mansion. Model 1 – Three Types of Bacterial Cells Cytoplasm Free-floating DNA Free-floating DNA Ribosomes Cell wall Cell membrane Free-floating DNA Cell wall Flagellum Ribosomes Cytoplasm 1. The three bacterial shapes in Model 1 are referred to as coccus (sphere), spirillum, and bacillus (rod). Label the diagrams in Model 1 with the correct descriptions. 2. What is represented by the small dots found in each of the bacteria cells? 3. What is the name of the outermost layer that forms a boundary around the outside of each cell? 4. How is the DNA described and what does this mean? 2. The small dots found in each of the bacterial cells are the ribosomes CELL WALL DNA IS DESCRIBED AS "FREE FLOATING". IT MEANS IT'S NOT CONCEALED IN A NUCLEUS.

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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 1

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic CellsDo all cells have the same structure?

Why?An efficiency apartment is a one-room apartment. This one room is where you sleep, eat, shower, and entertain your guests. It all happens in one room. It is a simple way of living in a small space. A mansion is a large, complex living space with many separate rooms. There are rooms for cooking, eating, sleeping, bathing, reading, watching TV, entertaining guests, exercising, and storage. The rooms in a mansion are constructed for the specific things you would like to be able to do. You can live in simple efficiency or complexity. In this activity we will be looking at cells that are as simple as a one-room efficiency apart-ment or as complex as a mansion.

Model 1 – Three Types of Bacterial Cells

Cytoplasm

Free-floating DNA

Free-floating DNA

Ribosomes

Cell wall

Cell membrane

Free-floating DNA

Cell wall

Flagellum

Ribosomes

Cytoplasm

1. The three bacterial shapes in Model 1 are referred to as coccus (sphere), spirillum, and bacillus (rod). Label the diagrams in Model 1 with the correct descriptions.

2. What is represented by the small dots found in each of the bacteria cells?

3. What is the name of the outermost layer that forms a boundary around the outside of each cell?

4. How is the DNA described and what does this mean?

2. The small dots found in each of the bacterial cells are the ribosomes

CELL WALL

DNA IS DESCRIBED AS "FREE FLOATING". IT MEANS IT'S NOT CONCEALED IN A NUCLEUS.

2 POGIL™ Activities for High School Biology

5. All the internal structures are suspended (fl oating) in what substance?

6. One of the bacteria in Model 1 has a tail-like structure.

a. What is this structure called?

b. What might be the purpose of this structure?

c. Based on your answer to the previous question, what might you infer about the absence of this structure in the other two bacteria cells?

Model 2 – Animal and Plant Cells Animal Cell Plant Cell

Cell membrane

Temporary vacuoleNuclear membrane

DNANucleolus

Nucleus

Chloroplast

Cytoplasm

Endoplasmicreticulum

Ribosomes (freeor attached)Lysosome

Mitochondria

Vesicle

Golgi apparatus

Cell wall

Large permanent vacuole

7. Looking at Model 2, list at least three structural differences (other than shape) between an animal and a plant cell.

8. Where do you fi nd the DNA in each cell in Model 2?

9. Do both cells in Model 2 have a nucleus?

5. All internal structures are suspended in the cytoplasm.

FLAGELLUM

TRANSPORT, TRAVEL, MOVEMENT

THE TWO OTHER BACTERIA CELLS ATTACH THEMSELVES SOMEWHERE, OR FLOAT IN SOLUTIN, NO NEED FOR A FLAGELLUM

PLANT CELLS HAVE CHLOROPLASTS, CELL WALL, LARGE VACUOLE. ANIMAL CELLS DON'T HAVE THESE STRUCTURES.

THE DNA IN EACH CELL IN MODEL 2 IS FOUND INSIDE NUCLEUS.

YES, BOTH HAVE A NUCLEUS

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 3

10. List the structure(s) that form the boundary between the inside and the outside of each cell in Model 2.

11. What is different about the outermost boundary in a plant cell compared to an animal cell?

12. Decide as a group whether the cells in Model 1 or 2 are more complex and list at least three supporting reasons for your choice.

Model 3 – Structural Comparisons

Word Part Meaningpro beforekaryon nucleus or kerneleu true

13. Use the chart in Model 3 to determine the meaning of the word prokaryote.

14. What does the word eukaryote mean?

15. Based on the above word definitions, label the cells in Model 1 and Model 2 as prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

16. By comparing Model 1 and Model 2, what structures are the same in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

17. What differences are there between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?

ANIMAL CELL CELL MEMBRANE FORMS BOUNDARY OF CELLPLANT CELL: CELL WALL FORMS BOUNDARY OF CELL

PLANT CELLS HAVE A CELL WALL AROUND THEIR CELL MEMBRANE.

CELLS IN MODEL 2 (PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS) ARE MORE COMPLEX THAN CELLS IN MODEL 1 (BACTERIA). 1. PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS HAVE MORE ORGANELLES (MORE FUNCTIONS) THAN BACTERIA CELLS2. DNA IS PROTECTED BY NUCLEUS IN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS3. BACTERIA CELLS CAN ONLY BE UNICELLULAR

PRO= BEFORE; KARYON = NUCLEUS. PROKARYOTES = NO NUCLEUS!

EUKARYOTES MEANS ORGANISMS WITH A TRUE NUCLEUS

DNA, CELL MEMBRANE, CYTOPLASM

PROKARYOTIC CELLS HAVE NO NUCLEUS AND NO MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES SUCH AS MITOCHONDRIA, ER, GOLGI, ETC..

4 POGIL™ Activities for High School Biology

18. Refer to Models 1 and 2 to complete the chart below. Write yes or no in the box for each cell.

Bacterial Cell Animal Cell Plant Cell All Cells

Cell Membrane

Ribosome

Cytoplasm

Mitochondria

Nucleolus

Nucleus

DNA

Cell Wall

Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic

19. As a group, write a definition for a prokaryotic cell.

20. As a group, write a definition for a eukaryotic cell.

21. Complete the phrase below. Each member must contribute one complete sentence. The words prokaryotic and eukaryotic must be used:

All cells are not the same because…

22. As a group, discuss the opening analogy of an efficiency apartment and a mansion as it relates to cells. Record your final consensus of how this analogy applies to cell structure.

Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y

Y Y Y Y

N Y Y N

N Y Y N

N Y Y N

Y Y Y Y

Y N Y N

Y N N N

N Y Y N

A SMALL, PRIMORDIAL CELL WITH A MEMBRANE, CELL WALL, DNA, NO NUCLEUS, CYTOPLASMAND RIBOSOMES

COMPLEX CELL WITH MEMBRANE, INTERNAL ORGANELLES WITH MEMBRANES, A NUCLEUS

CELLS MAY BE EITHER PROKARYOTIC OR EUKARYTOTIC, AND PERFORM DIFFERENTFUNCTIONS, BE UNICELLULAR OR MULTICELLULAR

A SMALLER APARTMENT SUCH AS AN EFFICIENCY IS EASIER TO COOL, WARM UP, AND CLEAN.CELLS STRUCTURES ARE ALSO EASIER TO MAINTAIN HEALTHY IN SMALL SIZE.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 5

Extension Questions23. What effect do you expect the structural differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes to have

on their functions? Explain in detail.

24. With as much detail as possible, give another example of an analogy for describing the difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

6 POGIL™ Activities for High School Biology

25. Complete the chart by describing the function and structure in each cell.

Cell Type Function Structural adaptation(s) that enable the cell to carry out its function.

Root hair cell from a plant

Soil particles

Water

Muscle cell

Muscle fiber

FasciculusSarcolemma

Myofibril

Nerve cell

Sperm cell

Nucleus

Head

Tail

Coil of mitochondria