prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (and viruses)

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PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS (AND VIRUSES) Cell Biology Standard 1c Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.

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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses). Cell Biology Standard 1c Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure. Prokaryotic Cells (Bacteria). Bacteria Simplest cells - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS (AND VIRUSES)

Cell Biology Standard 1cStudents know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.

Page 2: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

PROKARYOTIC CELLS (BACTERIA) Bacteria Simplest cells No membrane-

bound organelles No nucleus

DNA is found in “nucleoid region”

pro = before karyo = nucleus

Page 3: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

EUKARYOTIC CELLS Membrane-bound

organelles Many chemical reactions

can take place at the same time

Nucleus (Contains DNA) Eu = true karyo =

nucleus Unicellular or multicellular

organisms 2 Types: Plant & Animal

Cells

Page 4: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

VIRUSES Not alive DNA or RNA surrounded by protein

Page 5: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

TRUE OR FALSE??? 1. Viruses are living and bacteria are non-

living. 2. Both types of cells as well as viruses have

genetic material. 3. The two types of Eukaryotic cells are plant

cells and animal cells. 4. A prokaryotic cell does not have

membrane bound organelles like mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum.

Eukaryotic cells are found in bacteria.

Page 6: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

Eukaryotic cells are differentiated fromprokaryotic cells because eukaryotic cells

A are much smaller.B have permeable membranes.C have a higher rate of reproduction.D have a nucleus.

Page 7: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

ORGANELLES OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Cell Biology Standard 1d, 1e

Page 8: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

NUCLEUS 1D The “brain” of the cell

Contains DNA that codes for ALL the proteins in your body

Surrounded by the nuclear membrane

Membrane has nuclear pores to let mRNA out

Page 9: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

When DNA is uncoiled it’s called chromatin

When DNA is coiled up it’s called chromosomes

Page 10: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

TRANSCRIPTION 1D DNA is transcribed

(copied) into messenger RNA (mRNA)

mRNA leaves through nuclear pore into cytoplasm

Page 11: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

TRANSLATION 1D

mRNA is translated into a protein by a ribosome

That’s how your genes (DNA) predict your appearance (proteins)!

Page 12: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

The central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information as the following:

A. DNA ->mRNA-> protein -> ribosome

B. mRNA ->DNA -> ribosome -> protein

C. DNA -> mRNA -> ribosome -> protein

D. Protein -> ribosome -> mRNA -> DNA

Translation is the process of:

A. DNA replication B. ribosomes reading

mRNA code to build a protein

C. DNA copied into mRNA D. mRNA copied into DNA

Page 13: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

ORGANELLES 1E Ribosomes: read the mRNA

and make proteins.

Rough ER : covered in ribosomes where proteins are made.

Golgi apparatus: packages proteins in vesicles which are moved to the membrane.

Smooth ER: modifies and detoxifies lipids. (fats, steroids)

Page 14: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

Which cellular organelle is responsible for packaging the proteins that the cell secretes?

A cytoskeleton B cell membrane C lysosome D Golgi apparatus

Page 15: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

WHICH CELLULAR ORGANELLE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR MODIFYING AND DETOXIFYING LIPIDS?

A Rough ERB MitochondriaC RibosomesD Smooth ER

Page 16: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

THE CELL MEMBRANECell Biology standard 1a

Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.

Page 17: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

Surrounds ALL cells!

Controls what enters/leaves the cell

SEMIPERMEABLE – allows some things through but not others

CELL MEMBRANE

Page 18: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

Phospholipid bilayer

Polar heads “love” water (hydrophilic) Nonpolar tails “fear” water (hydrophobic)

STRUCTURE

Page 19: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

“Fluid mosaic model” Proteins float around like icebergs in the

ocean

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL

Page 20: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

Molecules can enter/leave the cell 3 waysDiffusionCarrier-Facilitated (“helped”) diffusionActive transport

CELL TRANSPORT

Page 21: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

No energy required

Molecules move from area of high concentration to low concentration

Diffusion of water is called “osmosis”

1. DIFFUSION

Page 22: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

No energy required Molecules “helped” across by proteins from high

to low concentration

2. CARRIER-FACILITATED DIFFUSION

Page 23: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

Energy required! ATP – the “battery” of the cell Breaking a bond in ATP releases energy Can “pump” molecules from low to high

concentration building them up in the cell

3. ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Page 24: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

The cell membrane of the red blood cell will allow water, oxygen, carbon dioxide,and glucose to pass through. Because other substances are blocked from entering, this membrane is called

A. perforated.B. semi-permeable.C. non-conductive.D. permeable.

Page 25: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

TRUE OR FALSE??? 1. In both diffusion and carrier-facilitated

diffusion molecules move from high to low concentration.

2. The cell membrane is called the fluid mosaic model because ribosomes float around like icebergs in an ocean.

3. The type of energy needed for active transport to move molecules against the concentration gradient from low to high is ATP.

The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with polar heads on the inside and non polar tails on the outside.

Page 26: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

CELLULAR ENERGETICSPhotosynthesis and RespirationStandards 1f and 1g

Page 27: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1F Process where sunlight is converted into

chemical energy stored in carbohydrates (sugar)

Occurs in the Chloroplast

CO2 + H2O + light C6H12O6 + O2Carbon Dioxide + water + light Glucose + Oxygen

Page 28: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

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• Has stacks of membranes called thylakoids surrounded by space called the stroma

Page 29: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

REACTIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light-dependent reactions

Need light Energy from sunlight is stored in chemical bonds of

ATP and NADPH O2 is released from waterH2O + light ATP + NADPH +O2

(full batteries) Light-independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)

Use ATP and NADPH to make glucose from CO2

CO2 + ATP + NADPH C6H12O6

(sugar)

Page 30: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)
Page 31: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

Which of these best completes this concept map?

A an animal cellB a prokaryotic cellC a virusD a plant cell

Page 32: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

Which molecule in plant cells first captures the radiant energy from sunlight?

A glucose B carbon dioxide C chlorophyll D adenosine triphosphate

Page 33: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

The first stage of photosynthesis in achloroplast is

A. light-dependent.B. temperature-dependent.C. glucose-driven.D. ATP-driven.

Page 34: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1G Series of reactions where carbohydrates are

broken down to produce CO2 and energy (ATP)

Occurs in the Cytoplasm & Mitochondria

C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP energy Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP energy

Page 35: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

Matrix is center of the mitochondriaCristae are folded portions of inner

membrane

Page 36: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

3 sets of reactions Glycolysis – glucose split into two pyruvate

(Cytoplasm) = 2 ATP

Krebs Cycle – pyruvate broken into CO2 (matrix of the mitochondria) = 2 ATP

Electron TransportChain – most ATP produced (cristae of the mitochondria) = 32-34

ATP

Page 37: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)
Page 38: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

WHICH STEP OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION PRODUCES THE MOST ATP? A. Glycolysis B. Krebs Cycle C. Electron Transport Chain D. All steps produce the same amount of ATP

Page 39: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

In aerobic respiration, the Krebs cycle(citric acid cycle) takes place in

A. chloroplasts.B. nuclei.C. lysosomes.D. mitochondria.

Page 40: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells (and viruses)

A cell from heart muscle would probablyhave an unusually high proportion of

A. lysosomes.B. mitochondria.C. mRNA.D. Golgi bodies.