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Project & Quality Management Quality Management. Quality Management. Quality and quality attributes Quality problem-solving tools Product life cycle Quality and cost Reliability. What is Quality. ‘Conformance to specification’ ‘Fitness for purpose’ ‘Meeting customers requirements’ - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Project & Quality Management

    Quality Management

  • Quality Management

    Quality and quality attributes Quality problem-solving tools Product life cycle Quality and cost Reliability

  • What is Quality

    Conformance to specificationFitness for purposeMeeting customers requirementsDoing things right first timeThe features and characteristics of a product or service which bear upon its ability to satisfy a stated need (BS 4778)

  • What is QualityPerformance Features ReliabilityConformanceDurabilityServiceabilityAesthetics SafetyPerceived qualityNine Quality Dimensions

  • Quality DimensionsPerformanceA products primary operating characteristics

    FeaturesAdditional items to the basic specifications

    ReliabilityThe probability a product operates correctly for a given time frame under specified conditions

  • Quality DimensionsConformanceHow well physical and performance characteristics meet established standards

    DurabilityHow long the product lasts before it needs to be replaced

    ServiceabilityThe ease of getting a product serviced or repaired. After sales service.

  • Quality DimensionsAestheticsHow well the product looks, feels, smells or tastes

    SafetyAssurance that the customer will not be injured or hurt when using the product

    Perceived QualitySubjective assessment based on image, advertising or brand names.

  • What is Quality

    Different meaning:

    Designer features, safetyManufacturer - conformanceDistributor - perceived quality, serviceabilityCustomer - reliability, aesthetics, safety

  • Managing QualityDefine User Requirementswhat the person using the product needs

    Product Characteristicsproduct specification used by the manufacturer

    Measurable Quality Attributesa characteristic that is either present or absent in the product and can be measured

  • Example Mobile Phone

    User Requirements:Portable, Appearance, Calls, Texts, Pictures, etc.

    Product Characteristics:Weight, Shape, Colour, Screen/picture resolution, memory etc.

    Quality Attributes:Exact weight, pixels, size of memory, wireless range etc.

  • Quality Attributes

    Characteristics measured to control the quality of the product.

    Once defined, the manufacturing processes needed to achieve them and the means to measure them can be determined.

  • Example - Drink Bottle

    Customer requirements Product characteristicsQuality AttributesManufacturing processes

  • Customer requirements - Bottle

  • Customer requirements - BottleEasy to holdEasy to OpenLeak-proofNon-ToxicREQUIREMENTSWeigh less than 100gScrew on capRubber sealFood grade plastic

    CHARACTERISTICS

  • Customer requirements - BottleWall ThicknessThread geometryThickness of sealType of plastic

    ATTRIBUTESMould DimensionsShot WeightMaterial SpecMould TemperatureCooling timeAssembly methodetc.

    PROCESSES

  • Problem Solving Tools Why?

    Ideal quality attribute not always achievable in practice.Quality management strives to improve the process by all means possible:collecting dataanalysing datasuggesting ways to improve it

  • Problem Solving Tools

    Used to identify underlying trends in data that are not readily apparent otherwiseUsed to suggest solutionsEmphasis is on Systematically describing the process and its problemsUsed as part of a PDSA cycle.

  • PDSA CycleDeming CyclePlan Do Study Act

  • Deming CyclePlanAnalyse current situationGather dataUse problem solving tools to unravel problemSuggest solution

    Do Put trial or pilot solution in placeUsually on some small part of the process

  • Deming CycleStudy Critically evaluate trial solutionExamine problems or opportunities

    Act Implement solution in a standardised manner:Formally adopt as standard procedureFully documentBegin next cycle of PDSA

  • Problem Solving Tools

    Flow chartsBar ChartCause and effect diagramsScatter diagrams

  • Flow ChartsPurpose:describes the process to which the problem belongs Understand all the stages of the process and how they relate to one another

    Helps to:Eliminate duplicate or unnecessary stepsIdentify critical areasIdentify areas that need improvement

  • Example: PCB Project

  • Checksheet \ Tally Charts

    Simple method of gathering dataUseful when a lot of data needs to be gathered quickly by observationCan be used to show cumulative list of problem areas

  • Checksheet \ Tally ChartTally Chart of problems in PCB project

  • Bar Chart

    Useful for showing distribution of data e.g. sizes of a manufactured component.

    Can be used to pinpoint causes of error

  • Two Machines Making the Same PartTarget size 20mmMeasured sizes distributed around this valueMachine B: approx same distribution but centred around 20.2mmSuggests tool setting error

  • Cause and Effect DiagramUsed to identify causes of problemSometimes called fishbone diagram

  • Cause and Effect AnalysisCauses usually attributed to:

    MaterialsMachineryMethodsPeople

    3Ms and P

  • Case study: Soldering Problems

  • Soldering Problems more detail

  • Soldering Problems third pass

  • Scatter DiagramsUseful for establishing (or dispelling) a causal link between two factors

    Possible outcomes are:Positive correlationNegative correlationWeak correlationNo correlation

  • Scatter DiagramsPositive Correlationy increases as x increases

    Chart1

    4

    5

    4.5

    8

    7

    9

    15

    23

    Positive correlation = O.87

    Sheet1

    14

    25

    34.5

    48

    57

    69

    715

    823

    0.8756279696

    Sheet1

    Positive correlation = O.87

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Scatter DiagramsNegative Correlationy decreases as x increases

    Chart1

    87

    65

    45

    51

    23

    12

    6

    1

    Negative correlation = - 0.97

    Sheet1

    187

    265

    345

    451

    523

    612

    76

    81

    -0.971176893

    Sheet1

    Negative correlation = - 0.97

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Scatter DiagramsWeak CorrelationAnother factor may be the cause of the problem.

    Chart2

    50

    20

    35

    16

    25

    45

    18

    10

    Weak correlation = - 0.5

    Sheet1

    150

    220

    335

    416

    525

    645

    718

    810

    -0.5068287529

    Sheet1

    Weak correlation = - 0.5

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Scatter DiagramsNo CorrelationRandom arrangement of plotted points. No relationship between x and y.

    Chart3

    50

    20

    40

    16

    6

    55

    34

    30

    No correlation = - 0.06

    Sheet1

    150

    220

    340

    416

    56

    655

    734

    830

    -0.0604128393

    Sheet1

    No correlation = - 0.06

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Example:Small drills used to drill PCBs in aTechnology project

    Increasing drill size:Reduces breakagesReduces time taken to drill holeIncreases likelihood of bad joint

  • Data:

  • Plots

  • PlotsWhat the optimum size drill to use?Compromise will be involved No right answer

  • Degradation of Quality AttributesProduct characteristics:WaterproofResistant to corrosion

    Quality attributes:Effectiveness of seal between casing and lidCorrosion resistance of material

    Pond Alarm Unit

  • Degradation of Quality AttributesIdeal situation:Unit completely waterproof and Corrosion resistant.

    Design stage student choices made re: materials and manufacturing processesCover plastic on a CNC routerCasing tinplate and soldered

  • Degradation of Quality AttributesDegradation factors:how accurately the parts are manufacturedtolerance achievedbending the tinplate soldering techniqueflux may cause some surface corrosion

  • Degradation of Quality AttributesCompromise:function satisfactorily in the rain but not when submerged

    last a specified number of years

  • The Cost of QualityQuality costs moneyTimeResourcesPeople

  • The Cost of QualityTwo costs associated with quality:

    Cost of conformancePutting measures in placeRunning quality system

    Cost of non-conformanceErrorsWasteWarranty claims etc.

  • The Cost of QualityCost of non-conformances

    Warranty claimsRejects & ScrapErrors & WastePoor Service/DeliveryLoss of CustomersetcCost of conformanceTotal cost of non-conformanceCost of non-conformanceCost of conformance

    Quality systemsProcess controlReliability etcTotal cost of conformanceCost of non-conformance > cost of conformanceCost

  • Product Life Cycle 4 StagesIntroductoryProduct expensiveRecover cost of developmentMinimal profitsPeople not aware of product

    GrowthProduct is successfulAdopted by mass marketStill expensive Strong demand

  • Product Life Cycle 4 StagesMaturitySales and profits stabiliseCompeting products enter marketPrices fall

    DeclineSales and profit decrease

  • Product Life CycleSalesProfit

  • Quality and Market Share

    The quality of the product plays a large part in its market share.

    Premium-quality products usually:have large market sharesare early entrants to their markets. charge premium prices for their product.

  • Quality and Market Share

    Quality improvement can reduce profitability, i.e. the amount of profit per product, due to increased costs.