Project & Quality Management Quality Management

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Project & Quality Management Quality Management. Quality Management. Quality and quality attributes Quality problem-solving tools Product life cycle Quality and cost Reliability. What is Quality. Conformance to specification Fitness for purpose Meeting customers requirements - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Project & Quality ManagementQuality ManagementQuality Management Quality and quality attributes Quality problem-solving tools Product life cycle Quality and cost ReliabilityWhat is QualityConformance to specificationFitness for purposeMeeting customers requirementsDoing things right first timeThe features and characteristics of a product or service which bear upon its ability to satisfy a stated need (BS 4778)What is QualityPerformance Features ReliabilityConformanceDurabilityServiceabilityAesthetics SafetyPerceived qualityNine Quality DimensionsQuality DimensionsPerformanceA products primary operating characteristicsFeaturesAdditional items to the basic specificationsReliabilityThe probability a product operates correctly for a given time frame under specified conditionsQuality DimensionsConformanceHow well physical and performance characteristics meet established standardsDurabilityHow long the product lasts before it needs to be replacedServiceabilityThe ease of getting a product serviced or repaired. After sales service.Quality DimensionsAestheticsHow well the product looks, feels, smells or tastesSafetyAssurance that the customer will not be injured or hurt when using the productPerceived QualitySubjective assessment based on image, advertising or brand names.What is QualityDifferent meaning:Designer features, safetyManufacturer - conformanceDistributor - perceived quality, serviceabilityCustomer - reliability, aesthetics, safetyManaging QualityDefine User Requirementswhat the person using the product needsProduct Characteristicsproduct specification used by the manufacturerMeasurable Quality Attributesa characteristic that is either present or absent in the product and can be measuredExample Mobile PhoneUser Requirements:Portable, Appearance, Calls, Texts, Pictures, etc. Product Characteristics:Weight, Shape, Colour, Screen/picture resolution, memory etc.Quality Attributes:Exact weight, pixels, size of memory, wireless range etc.Quality AttributesCharacteristics measured to control the quality of the product. Once defined, the manufacturing processes needed to achieve them and the means to measure them can be determined.Example - Drink BottleCustomer requirements Product characteristicsQuality AttributesManufacturing processesCustomer requirements - BottleCustomer requirements - BottleEasy to holdEasy to OpenLeak-proofNon-ToxicREQUIREMENTSWeigh less than 100gScrew on capRubber sealFood grade plasticCHARACTERISTICSCustomer requirements - BottleWall ThicknessThread geometryThickness of sealType of plasticATTRIBUTESMould DimensionsShot WeightMaterial SpecMould TemperatureCooling timeAssembly methodetc.PROCESSESProblem Solving Tools Why?Ideal quality attribute not always achievable in practice.Quality management strives to improve the process by all means possible:collecting dataanalysing datasuggesting ways to improve itProblem Solving ToolsUsed to identify underlying trends in data that are not readily apparent otherwiseUsed to suggest solutionsEmphasis is on Systematically describing the process and its problemsUsed as part of a PDSA cycle.PDSA CycleDeming CyclePlan Do Study Act Deming CyclePlanAnalyse current situationGather dataUse problem solving tools to unravel problemSuggest solutionDo Put trial or pilot solution in placeUsually on some small part of the processDeming CycleStudy Critically evaluate trial solutionExamine problems or opportunitiesAct Implement solution in a standardised manner:Formally adopt as standard procedureFully documentBegin next cycle of PDSAProblem Solving ToolsFlow chartsBar ChartCause and effect diagramsScatter diagramsFlow ChartsPurpose:describes the process to which the problem belongs Understand all the stages of the process and how they relate to one another Helps to:Eliminate duplicate or unnecessary stepsIdentify critical areasIdentify areas that need improvementExample: PCB ProjectChecksheet \ Tally ChartsSimple method of gathering dataUseful when a lot of data needs to be gathered quickly by observationCan be used to show cumulative list of problem areasChecksheet \ Tally ChartTally Chart of problems in PCB projectBar ChartUseful for showing distribution of data e.g. sizes of a manufactured component.Can be used to pinpoint causes of errorTwo Machines Making the Same PartTarget size 20mmMeasured sizes distributed around this valueMachine B: approx same distribution but centred around 20.2mmSuggests tool setting errorCause and Effect DiagramUsed to identify causes of problemSometimes called fishbone diagram Cause and Effect AnalysisCauses usually attributed to:MaterialsMachineryMethodsPeople3Ms and PCase study: Soldering ProblemsSoldering Problems more detailSoldering Problems third pass Scatter DiagramsUseful for establishing (or dispelling) a causal link between two factorsPossible outcomes are:Positive correlationNegative correlationWeak correlationNo correlationScatter DiagramsPositive Correlationy increases as x increasesChart1454.58791523Positive correlation = O.87Sheet1142534.54857697158230.8756279696Sheet1Positive correlation = O.87Sheet2Sheet3Scatter DiagramsNegative Correlationy decreases as x increasesChart187654551231261Negative correlation = - 0.97Sheet11872653454515236127681-0.971176893Sheet1Negative correlation = - 0.97Sheet2Sheet3Scatter DiagramsWeak CorrelationAnother factor may be the cause of the problem.Chart25020351625451810Weak correlation = - 0.5Sheet1150220335416525645718810-0.5068287529Sheet1Weak correlation = - 0.5Sheet2Sheet3Scatter DiagramsNo CorrelationRandom arrangement of plotted points. No relationship between x and y.Chart3502040166553430No correlation = - 0.06Sheet115022034041656655734830-0.0604128393Sheet1No correlation = - 0.06Sheet2Sheet3Example:Small drills used to drill PCBs in aTechnology projectIncreasing drill size:Reduces breakagesReduces time taken to drill holeIncreases likelihood of bad joint Data:PlotsPlotsWhat the optimum size drill to use?Compromise will be involved No right answerDegradation of Quality AttributesProduct characteristics:WaterproofResistant to corrosionQuality attributes:Effectiveness of seal between casing and lidCorrosion resistance of materialPond Alarm UnitDegradation of Quality AttributesIdeal situation:Unit completely waterproof and Corrosion resistant.Design stage student choices made re: materials and manufacturing processesCover plastic on a CNC routerCasing tinplate and solderedDegradation of Quality AttributesDegradation factors:how accurately the parts are manufacturedtolerance achievedbending the tinplate soldering techniqueflux may cause some surface corrosionDegradation of Quality AttributesCompromise:function satisfactorily in the rain but not when submergedlast a specified number of years The Cost of QualityQuality costs moneyTimeResourcesPeopleThe Cost of QualityTwo costs associated with quality:Cost of conformancePutting measures in placeRunning quality systemCost of non-conformanceErrorsWasteWarranty claims etc.The Cost of QualityCost of non-conformancesWarranty claimsRejects & ScrapErrors & WastePoor Service/DeliveryLoss of CustomersetcCost of conformanceTotal cost of non-conformanceCost of non-conformanceCost of conformanceQuality systemsProcess controlReliability etcTotal cost of conformanceCost of non-conformance > cost of conformanceCostProduct Life Cycle 4 StagesIntroductoryProduct expensiveRecover cost of developmentMinimal profitsPeople not aware of productGrowthProduct is successfulAdopted by mass marketStill expensive Strong demandProduct Life Cycle 4 StagesMaturitySales and profits stabiliseCompeting products enter marketPrices fallDeclineSales and profit decreaseProduct Life CycleSalesProfitQuality and Market ShareThe quality of the product plays a large part in its market share.Premium-quality products usually:have large market sharesare early entrants to their markets. charge premium prices for their product.Quality and Market ShareQuality improvement can reduce profitability, i.e. the amount of profit per product, due to increased costs.The increase in market share will normally cancel out the extra cost involved Quality, Market Share and CostsSimple statistical measuresUseful and common methods of measuring the central tendency of a variable: The ModeThe MedianThe MeanSimple statistical measuresModeIs the most common value from a group. The following are drill sizes in mm 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 The mode is 4mm which is the most common value, appearing on four occasionsSimple statistical measuresMedianIs the middle value when all outputs are arranged in numerical order. 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 In the example above, the middle values are 3mm and 4mm, so the median would be 3.5mm, halfway between 3mm andSimple statistical measuresMean Is the average value represented by the following equation:Classification of Quality CostsPrevention costsPlanning & operation of a quality systemAppraisal costsMonitoring & inspecting the productInternal Failure costsFailure costs associated with non-conformance. Detected before it leaves factoryExternal Failure costsCost of non-conformance after deliveryExample: Quality CostsClassification of Quality Costs