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By: Fadel H. Ramadan ID: 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Supervised By: Dr.Osama Al Rawi

Gulf University College of Engineering Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department

Control Stepper Motor ManuallyA project Submitted to the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department/ Gulf University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering

By: Fadel H. Ramadan Supervised by: Dr. Osama Al-Rawi Submission Date :9/5/2012

Acknowledgment

By: Fadel H. Ramadan ID: 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Supervised By: Dr.Osama Al Rawi

At the beginning most people told that it will be hard and the effort will be in vain but our belief in ourselves and our faith that we can make the future of our University better was and still our motivation. To set an example of the "Source Of Quality Education'' But we would achieve nothing without the help of those who has given us the encouragement, time and effort. So we dedicate the project for all who had helped us and enlighten our way with their vision. So thank you

Dr. Nouaman Nouaman Dr. Osama Al-Rawi Dr. Mohammad Majid Thanks to everyone helped and believed in us

Thank you all

By: Fadel H. Ramadan ID: 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Supervised By: Dr.Osama Al Rawi

AbstractStepper motors are extremely important to the industry as it is used in many applications depends on position control like filling and packaging. But this kind of motors requires special driving technique. Our project aims to build Hybrid Unipolar Stepper Motor Driver can withstand up to 50 Volt and 1 Ampere with high accuracy ,simple interface and easy maintenance. The controlling method is manually using set of 555 IC timer and a 4 bit Universal shift register DM74LS194A to produce the sequence pattern. The project targets the students of electrical engineering to get a general picture of this machine and it's characteristics.

By: Fadel H. Ramadan ID: 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Supervised By: Dr.Osama Al Rawi

List of Abbreviations:

IC: Integrated Circuit DC: Direct Current PM: Permanent Magnet VR: Variable reluctance RPM: revolutions per minute

Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

Table of Contents1. Acknowledgment 2.Abstract 2. List of Abbreviations-

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 1.3 Motivation Aim of the project

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CHAPTER TWO: Theoretical Background and Applications 2.1 Introduction: '' What is Stepper Motor and What are its basic

characteristics? '' 2.2 Early history of stepper motors 2.3 Types Of Stepper Motors 2.3.1 Permanent-magnet (PM) Stepper Motors 2.3.2 Variable-reluctance (VR) Stepper Motors 2.3.3 Hybrid Stepper Motors 2.3.4 Two-phase stepper motors a. b. 2.4 Applications Unipolar motors Bipolar motor

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

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CHAPTER THREE: Practical Experiment 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The Circuit Driver 3.3 Basic Stepper Motor Driver Operation 3.4 Inputs Vs. Outputs Waveforms 3.5 Integrated Circuit Chips Used 3.6 74194 Stepper Motor Driver Notes 3.7 74194 Stepper Driver Initialization Notes 3.8 Stepper Circuit Board Parts List

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CHAPTER FOUR: Conclusion

3. References4. Appendices: Data Sheet

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION1.1 IntroductionThis report is about one type of many of electrical machines, in particular the one which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. DC Motors and Stepper Motor in particular which I will clarify and the main topic of this report. Here I give only short review and important at the same time for an electrical engineer knowledge and to be familiar to deal with such motors that can be found around us and depend on it daily at home , office, factory, and even a hospital . The way that I'm going to explain is first to mention the requires information and background and at last an experiment of sampling a circuit to drive a stepper motor to put a picture in mind and let the information fit which each other.

1.4 MotivationThis report has done to implement my knowledge and study of Electrical Engineering major it is presented to My Instructor DR. Osama Al-Rawi and it is basic since it is requirement as graduation project.

1.5 Aim of the projecta. Explain what is stepper motors and their theory. b. Show the History of this machine. c. Some Application.3

Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

d. Using simple and available discrete components to drive the motors.

CHAPTER TWOTheoretical Background and Applications2.1 Introduction: '' What is Stepper characteristics? '' [1] Motor and What are its basic

Figure 1.1[2] Illustrates the cross-sectional structure of a typical stepper motor; this is so called single stack variable reluctance motor. We shall first study how this machine works, using this figure. The stator core has six silent poles or teeth, while the rotor has four poles, both stator and rotor core being of soft steel. Three sets of windings are arranged as shown in the figure. Each set has tow coils connected in series . A set of windings called 'phase'. And consequently this machine is a threephase motor. Current is supplied from a DC power source to the windings via switches I, II and III. In state :(1) The winding of phase I is supplied with current through switch I or 'phase' I

is excited in technical terms .The magnetic flux which occurs in the air-gap due to the excitation is indicated by arrows. In state (1), the two stator salient4

Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

poles of phase I being excited are in alignment with two of the four rotor teeth. This is an equilibrium state in terms of dynamics. When switch II is closed to excite phase II in addition to phase I, magnetic flux is built up at the stator poles of phase II in the manner shown in state (2), and a counterclockwise torque is create owing to 'tension' in the inclined magnetic field lines. The rotor will then, eventually, reach state (3). Thus the rotor rotates through a fixed angle, which is termed the 'step angle', 15 in this case, as one switching operation is carried out. If switch I is now opened to de-energize phase I, the rotor will travel another 15 to reach state (4). The angular position of the rotor can thus be controlled in units of the step angle by a switching process. If the switching is carried out in sequence, the rotor will rotate with a stepped motion; the average speed can also be controlled by the switching process. Nowadays, transistors ate used as electronic switches for driving a stepping motor, and switching signals are generated by digital ICs or a microprocessor (see Fig. 1.2).[3] As explained above, the stepping motor is an electrical motor which converts a digital electric input into a mechanical motion. Compared with other devices that can perform the same or similar functions, a control system using a stepping motor has several significant advantages as follows: (1) No feedback is normally required for either position control or speed control. (2) Positional error is non-cumulative. (3) Stepping motors are compatible with modern digital equipment.5

Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

For these reasons, various types and classes of stepping motor have been used in computer peripherals and similar systems.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

2.2 Early history of stepper motors.[4](1) An issue of JIEE published in 1927 carried an article '' The Application of Electricity in Warships'', and a part of this article described a three-phase variable-reluctance stepping motor of the above type which was used to remotecontrol the direction indicator of torpedo tubes and guns in British warship. (2) According to an article in IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control, stepping motors were later employed in the US Navy for a similar purpose. Though practical applications of modern stepping motors occurred in the 1920s, the prototypes of variable-reluctance motors actually existed in earlier days. We shall here refer to two noteworthy inventions made in 1919 and 1920 in Britain. a. Tooth structure to minimize step angle. A UK patent was obtained in 1919 by C.L Walker, a civil engineer in Aberdeen, Scotland, for the invention of a stepping motor structure which can more in small step angles (see Fig. 1.3.)[5]

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

b. Production of a large torque from a sandwich structure. C.B Chicken and J.H Thain in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1920 obtained a US patent for the invention of a stepping motor which could produce a large torque per unit volume of rotor. The longitudinal construction of this machine is shown in Fig. 1.4[6]

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

2.1

Types Of Stepper Motors:[7]2.1.1

Permanent-magnet (PM) Stepper Motors: The permanent-magnet stepper motor operates on the reaction between a permanent-magnet rotor and an electromagnetic field. Figure 1.5 shows a basic two-pole PM stepper motor. The rotor shown in Figure 1.5 (a) has a permanent magnet mounted at each end. The stator is illustrated in Figure 1.5 (b). Both the stator and rotor are shown as having teeth. The teeth on the rotor surface and the stator pole faces are offset so that there will be only a limited number of rotor teeth aligning themselves with an energized stator pole. The number of teeth on the rotor and stator determine the step angle that will occur each time the polarity of the winding is reversed. The greater the number of teeth, the smaller the step angle.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

Figure 1.5 When a PM stepper motor has a steady DC signal applied to one stator winding, the rotor will overcome the residual torque and line up with that stator field. The holding torque is defined as the amount of torque required to move the rotor one full step with the stator energized. An important characteristic of the PM stepper motor is that it can maintain the holding torque indefinitely when the rotor is stopped. When no power is applied to the windings, a small magnetic force is developed between the permanent magnet and the stator. This magnetic force is called a residual, or detent torque. The detent torque can be noticed by turning a stepper motor by hand and is generally about one-tenth of the holding torque.2.1.2

Variable-reluctance (VR) Stepper Motors: The variable-reluctance (VR) stepper motor differs from the PM stepper in that it has no permanent-magnet rotor and no residual torque to hold the rotor at one position when turned off. When the stator coils are energized, the rotor teeth will align with the energized stator poles. This type of motor operates on the principle of minimizing the reluctance along the path of the applied magnetic field. By alternating the windings that are energized in the stator, the stator field changes, and the rotor is moved to a new position. The stator of a variable-reluctance stepper motor has a magnetic core constructed with a stack of steel laminations. The rotor is made of unmagnetized soft steel with teeth and slots. The relationship among step angle, rotor teeth, and stator

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

teeth

is

expressed

using

the

following

equation:

Figure 1.6 shows a basic variable-reluctance stepper motor. In this circuit, the rotor is shown with fewer teeth than the stator. This ensures that only one set of stator and rotor teeth will align at any given instant. The stator coils are energized in groups referred to as phases. In Figure 1.6, the stator has six teeth and the rotor has four teeth. According to the above mentioned Eq. , the rotor will turn 30 each time a pulse is applied. Figure 1.6 (a) shows the position of the rotor when phase A is energized. As long as phase A is energized, the rotor will be held stationary. When phase A is switched off and phase B is energized, the rotor will turn 30 until two poles of the rotor are aligned under the north and south poles established by phase B. The effect of turning off phase B and energizing phase C is shown in Figure 1.6 (c). In this circuit, the rotor has again moved 30 and is

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

now aligned under the north and south poles created by phase C. After the rot or has been displaced by 60 from its starting point, the step sequence has completed one cycle. Figure l.6 (d) shows the switching sequence to complete a full 360 of rotation for a variable-reluctance motor with six stator poles and four rotor poles. By repeating this pattern, the motor will rotate in a clockwise direction. The direction of the motor is changed by reversing the pattern of turning ON and OFF each phase.

Figure 1.6

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

The VR stepper motors mentioned up to this point are all single-stack motors. That is, all the phases are arranged in a single stack, or plane. The disadvantage of this design for a stepper motor is that the steps are generally quite large (above 15). Multistack stepper motors can produce smaller step sizes because the motor is divided along its axial length into magnetically isolated sections, or stacks. Each of these sections is excited by a separate winding, or phase. In this type of motor, each stack corresponds to a phase, and the stator and rotor have the same tooth pitch.2.1.3

Hybrid Stepper Motors: The hybrid step motor consists of two pieces of soft iron, as well as an axially magnetized, round permanentmagnet rotor. The term hybrid is derived from the fact that the motor is operated under the combined principles of the permanent magnet and variable-reluctance stepper motors. The stator core structure of a hybrid motor is essentially the same as its VR counterpart. The main difference is that in the VR motor, only one of the two coils of one phase is wound on one pole, while a typical hybrid motor will have coils of two different phases wound on one the same pole. The two coils at a pole are wound in a configuration known as a bifilar connection. Each pole of a hybrid motor is covered with uniformly spaced teeth made of soft steel. The teeth on the two sections of each pole are misaligned with each other by a half-tooth pitch. Torque is created in the hybrid motor by the interaction of the magnetic field of the permanent magnet and the magnetic field produced by the stator. Stepper motors are rated in terms of the number of steps per second,

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

the stepping angle, and load capacity in ounce-inches and the poundinches of torque that the motor can overcome. The number of steps per second is also known as the stepping rate. The actual speed of a stepper motor is dependent on the step angle and step rate and is found using the following equation:

2.3.4 Two-phase stepper motors:[11]There are two basic winding arrangements for the electromagnetic coils in a two phase stepper motor: bipolar and unipolar.c.

Unipolar motors

A unipolar stepper motor has logically two windings per phase, one for each direction of current. Since in this arrangement a magnetic pole can be reversed without switching the direction of current, the commutation circuit can be made very simple (e.g. a single transistor) for each winding. Typically, given a phase, one end of each winding is made common: giving three leads per phase and six leads for a typical two phase motor. Often, these two phase commons are internally joined, so the motor has only five leads. A microcontroller or stepper motor controller can be used to activate the drive transistors in the right order, and this ease of operation makes unipolar motors popular with hobbyists; they are probably the cheapest way14

Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

to get precise angular movements. (For the experimenter, one way to distinguish common wire from a coil-end wire is by measuring the resistance. Resistance between common wire and coil-end wire is always half of what it is between coil-end and coil-end wires. This is due to the fact that there is actually twice the length of coil between the ends and only half from center (common wire) to the end. Unipolar stepper motors with six or eight wires may be driven using bipolar drivers by leaving the phase commons disconnected, and driving the two windings of each phase together. It is also possible to use a bipolar driver to drive only one winding of each phase, leaving half of the windings unused.

Figure2.2.5

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

d. Bipolar motorBipolar motors have logically a single winding per phase. The current a needs to be reversed in order to reverse a magnetic pole, so the driving circuit must be more complicated, typically with an H-bridge arrangement. There are two leads per phase, none are common. Because windings are better utilized, they are more powerful than a unipolar motor of the same weight.

Fig 2.2.6

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

2.2 Applications:As the sizes of Stepper Motor Varies, the uses and it's applications varies in different ways. Specially in motion control position systems, Which follows the open-loop theory (no feedback required). Briefly, Here is some areas where it is used: 1- Office Equipments: Printers, Scanners and Optical disk drive.2- Medical Equipments: digital dental photography, fluid pumps,

respirators, blood analysis machinery, chemically mixing machine.

Milling Machine[8]

Serial Printer[9]

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

CHAPTER THREE Practical Experiment3.1 Introduction:This chapter is mainly about our stepper motor driver using discrete component simple and expensive which is available in any electronic shop. The experiment is to connect theoretical part with practical part in order to make it more understandable by my colleague. In the next section you will find the circuitboard schematic with component's lists and the driver operation, which implies the basic control function for the stepper motor; such as: Forward, Reverse, Stop, Slower and Faster step rate are possible.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

3.2 The Driver Circuit:* [10]

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

3.3 Basic Stepper Motor Driver Operation:1. The LM555 (IC 1) a stable oscillator produces CLOCK pulses that are fed to

PIN 11 of the 74194 (IC 2) shift register. 2. Each time the output of the LM555 timer goes HIGH (positive) the HIGH state at the 74194's OUTPUT terminals, (PIN's 12, 13, 14, 15), is shifted either UP or DOWN by one place. The direction of the output shifting is controlled by switch S1. When S1 is in the OFF position (centre) the HIGH output state will remain at its last position and the motor will be stopped. Switch S1 controls the direction indirectly through transistors Q2 and Q3. When the base of Q2 is LOW the output shifting of IC 2 will be pins 15 - 14 - 13 - 12 - 15; .etc. When the base of Q3 is LOW the output shifting of IC 2 will be pins 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 12; .etc. The direction of the output's shifting determines the direction of the motor's rotation. 3. The outputs of the 74194 are fed to four sets of paralleled segments of a ULN2803 Darlington driver (IC 3).

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

When an input of a ULN2803 segment is HIGH, its darlington transistor will turn ON and that OUTPUT will conduct current through one of the motors coils. 4. As the coils of the motor are turned ON in sequence the motor's armature rotates to follow these changes. Refer to following diagram.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

3.4

Inputs Vs. Outputs Waveforms:

The following diagram shows the stepping order for the outputs of the ULN2803 (IC 3) as compared to the input and output of the 74194 (IC 2). The output is shown stepping in one direction only.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

3.5

Integrated Circuit Chips UsedIC 1 - LM555 - Timer, normally configured as an stable oscillator but can be used a monostable timer for 1 step at a time operation or can be used as a buffer between external inputs and IC2. (See later Diagrams.) IC 2 - 74194 - 4-Bit Bidirectional Universal Shift Register. The shift register provides the logic that controls the direction of the drivers output steps. IC 3 - ULN2803 - 8 Segment, Darlington, High Current, High Voltage Peripheral Driver. Each segment can handle currents of up to 500 milliamps and voltages up to 50 volts. In this circuit 2 output segments are connected in parallel, this allows a maximum output current of 1 amp per phase. IC 4 - LM7805 - Positive 5 Volt Regulator. Provides low voltage power to the driving circuitry and can also power external control circuits.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

3.6

74194 Stepper Motor Driver Notes:Due to the lack of error detection and limited step power, this circuit should not be used for applications that require accurate positioning. (The driver is designed for hobby and learning uses.) There are links to other stepper motor related web pages further down the page. These may be helpful in understanding stepper motor operation and control. For the parts values shown on the schematic, if the external potentiometer (RT) is set to "ZERO" ohms, the calculated CLOCK frequency will be approximately 145 Hz and a motor will make 145 steps per second. This step rate should be slow enough for most motors to operate properly. The maximum RPM at which stepper motors will operate properly is low when compared to other motor types and the torque the motor produces drops rapidly as its speed increases. Testing may be needed to determine the minimum values for RT and C1 to produce the maximum CLOCK frequency for any given motor. Data sheets, if available, will also help determine this frequency.

If RT is set to 1 Mega , the calculated step rate will be 0.73 Hz and the motor would make 1 step every 1.39 seconds. There is no minimum step speed at which stepper motors cannot operate. Therefore, in theory, the values for RT and C1 can be as large as desired but there are practical limitations to these values. The main limitation is the 'leakage' current of electrolytic capacitors.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

External CLOCK pulses can also be used to control the driver by passing them through IC 1 via the "T2" terminal of the circuitboard. Using IC 1 as an input buffer should eliminate "noise" that could cause the 74194's output to go into a state where more than one output is HIGH. If stepping rates greater than 145 per second are needed, capacitor C1 can be replaced with one of lower value. A 0.47uF capacitor would give a calculated range of 1.5 to 310 steps per second. A 0.33uF capacitor would give a calculated range of 2.2 to 441 steps per second. Alternately, capacitor C1 can be removed from the circuitboard and an external clock source connected at terminal 'T2'. With C1 removed, the practical limit on the step rate is the motor itself.

In the above items the "calculated" minimum and maximum CLOCK frequencies are valid for the nominal part values shown. Given the tolerances of actual components and the leakage currents of electrolytic capacitors the actual CLOCK rates may be lower or higher. The direction of the motor can be controlled by another circuit or the parallel output port of a PC. This will work as long as the voltage at the bases of Q2 and Q3 can be made lower than 0.7 volts. Additional NPN transistors may be required to achieve this result, depending on the method used.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

If the bases of both Q2 and Q3 are made LOW at the same time the SN74194 will go into a RESET mode. This will cause the step sequence to stop and on the next clock pulse pins 15 and 14 will go to a HIGH state. Making the bases of both Q2 and Q3 LOW at the same time can be used to reset the SN74194 to its starting position without having to remove the circuit power.

Each stepper motor will have its own power requirements and as there is a great variety of motors available. This page cannot give information in this area. Users of this circuit will have to determine motor phasing and power requirements for themselves. Power for the motors can be regulated or filtered and may range from 12 to 24 volts with currents up to 1,000 milliamps depending on the particular motor. Motors that operate at voltages lower than 12 volts can also be used with this driver but a separate supply of 9 to 12 volts will be needed for the control portion of the circuit in addition to the low voltage supply for the motor.

A LED connected to the output of the LM555 timer (IC 1) flashes at the CLOCK frequency. If a direction has been selected, The motor will move one step every time the led turns ON. There is no CLOCK output terminal on the circuitboard but there is a pad to the right of the LED that can be used if a clock output signal is required. This pad is connected to pin 3 of the LM555 IC.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

The LM7805, positive 5 volt regulator used on the circuitboard can also be used to provide power for external control circuits. With its tab trimmed off, the regulator can easily dissipate up to 1 watt. For a 12 volt supply, external circuits can draw up to 100 milliamps. For a 24 volt supply, external circuits can draw up to 25 milliamps.

The photo of the circuitboard shows the tab of the 7805 regulator cut off, this is an option that is available on request.

3.7

74194 Stepper Driver Initialization Notes:When power is applied to the 74194 Stepper Driver circuit there is a very short delay before stepping of the outputs can begin. The delay is controlled by Capacitor C2, resistor R4 and transistor Q1.

The function of the delay is to allow the outputs of IC 2 to be set with pin 12 in a HIGH state and pins 13, 14 and 15 in a LOW state before direction control becomes active. The delay also prevents IC 1 from oscillating until IC 2 has been set. If the power to the circuit is turned off, there should be a pause of at least 10 seconds before it is reapplied. The pause is to allow capacitor C2 to discharge through R4 and D2.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

If the initialization delay were not used, IC 3 could have: none, any or all of its outputs in a high state when stepping is started. This would cause the motor to move incorrectly or not at all during normal operation.

The stepper motor driver is ready to start operation as soon as the initialization delay is complete.

3.8Qty. 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 2 1 4

Stepper Circuit Board Parts List:Part # DigiKey Part # - LM555CNFS-ND - 296-9183-5-ND - 497-2356-5-ND - LM7805ACT-ND - 2N3904FS-ND - 160-1712-ND - 1N4148FS-ND - 1N4001FSCT-ND - 3.3KQBK-ND - 10KQBK-ND - 470QBK-ND - P5174-ND - P5177-ND - P5168-ND - ED1602-ND DigiKey Description - IC TIMER SINGLE 0-70DEG C 8-DIP - IC BI-DIR SHIFT REGISTER 16-DIP - IC ARRAY EIGHT DARLINGTON 18 DIP - IC REG POS 1A 5V +/-2% TOL TO-220 - IC TRANS NPN SS GP 200MA TO-92 - LED 3MM GREEN DIFFUSED - DIODE SGL JUNC 100V 4.0NS DO-35 - DIODE GEN PURPOSE 50V 1A DO41 - RES 3.3K OHM 1/4W 5% CARBON FILM - RES 10K OHM 1/4W 5% CARBON FILM - RES 470 OHM 1/4W 5% CARBON FILM - CAP 1.0UF 50V ALUM LYTIC RADIAL - CAP 4.7UF 50V ALUM LYTIC RADIAL - CAP 470UF 35V ALUM LYTIC RADIAL - TERMINAL BLOCK 5MM VERT 3POS

- IC 1 - IC 2* - IC 3 - IC 4 - Q1, 2, 3 - D1 - D2 - D3 - R1, 2, 8, 9 - R4, 6, 7 - R3, 5 - C1 - C2, 3 - C4 -

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

CHAPTER FOUR ConclusionsStepper motors has played major part in the world of technology, it was and still a huge invention for science of machine control system, as it was mention it was used since 1919 at British Army and how it was improved until now days. This report indicates the very basic of stepper motor and its theory, types and application. It was a success in terms of getting control of the stepper motor. There is a lot of room for improvement but the main goal was reached. The stepper motor moved as seen in the experiment in both direction at different speeds and step pace like the notes said it should.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

References:[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [8] [9] Stepping Motors and their Microprocessor controls, Takashi Kenjo Ed:1, Published 1984. [7] Industrial Electronics, Colin D. Simpson, Published 2006. [10] http://home.cogeco.ca/~rpaisley4/Stepper1200Proto.html [11] WEB: Wikipedia [12] Stepping Motors Fundamentals, Reston C. etal. [13] Practical Electric Motor Handbook, Irving G., Ed: 1st 1997. [14] Rotating Machinery: Practical Solutions to Unbalance and Misalignment, Robert B. McMillan, 2004.

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

Project II, EEE 450 Dr.Osama Al Rawi

Appendices: Data Sheet

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[1]

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

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Fadel Hasan Ramadan 07075933 BSC in Electrical Engineering

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