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Post on 03-May-2018
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David Campos Sacedn
Orienteering- Adventure Sport that requires navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain. Often there is a time goal.
Map- A representation, usually on a flat surface, of a whole or part of an area.
Compass- An instrument for determining directions, as by means of a freely rotating magnetized needle that indicates magnetic north. Shows direction (bearing) relative to the geographic "cardinal directions", or "points" on a map. (see how to use a compass)
Marked trails- A trekking route which is defined by markers. Good for novices.
Un-marked trails- A trekking route which is not marked out.
Landmarks- A recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation (orienteering), a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances.
Reading a compass
North is the most important direction on the compass.
The compass needle-the red part of it is always pointing towards the earth's magnetic north pole
What do I do if I want to go a different direction to north e.g North West?
Find out where on the compass housing (turnable) NW is.
Turn the compass housing (turnable) so that NW on the turnable comes exactly where the large direction of travel-arrow meets the housing.
Hold the compass in your hand. And you'll have to hold it quite flat, so that the compass needle can turn.
Then turn yourself, your hand, the entire compass, just make sure the turnable doesn't turn.
Turn until the compass needle is aligned with the orientating arrow.
When you are sure you've got the bearing right, walk off in the direction, the direction of travel-arrow is pointing to.
To keep this accurate you should:
Check the compass every hundred meters at least.
Dont stare down at the compass.
Find a suitable target in the terrain (e.g., a tree, boulder or a bush) towards which the direction arrows point. Walk towards the chosen object.
When you reach your target, find a new object that is aligned with your bearing, and repeat the process.
Remember the difference between the magnetic needle that always points to the magnetic North Pole and the direction arrows that show the travel direction
To avoid going in the opposite direction, look at the sun! At noon, the sun is roughly in South (or in the north on the southern hemisphere), so if you are heading north and have the sun in your face, it should ring a bell!
How to use the sun to determine direction
The sun always rises in the east and sets in the west ( not exact due east or due west)
In summer, the sun rises further north on the horizon. In June the sun rises NorthEast.
When the sun is at its highest point in the sky (when an object casts no shadow) it is in line with due south so if you are heading north and have the sun in your face, you are going in the right direction!
In the northern hemisphere, shadows will move clockwise. Shadows will move anti-clockwise in the southern hemisphere. With practice, you can use shadows to determine both direction and time of day(see shadow- tip).
Using the moon
If the moon rises before the sun has set, the illuminated side will be the west.
If the moon rises after midnight, the illuminated side will be the east.
This obvious discovery provides us with a rough east-west reference during the night.
Shadow- tip method for determining north
1. Place a stick or branch into the ground. Mark the shadow tip with a stone, twig etc.
This first shadow mark : always West.
2. Wait 10 to 15 minutes until the shadow tip moves a few inches. Mark the new position of the shadow tip.
3. Draw a straight line through the two marks. This is an East- West line.
4. Stand with the first mark (west) to your left.
-North is to the front
-East is to the right
-South is behind you.
Using the stars
We can use the constellation the Ursa Major : the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia (opposite to each other).
They rotate anti-clockwise around the North Star.
1.The two lowest stars in the Big Dipper cup form a straight line that "points" to the North Star.
2. After locating the North Star drop down straight to the horizon and that direction is North.
NB Cassiopeia is a w shape on its side. The North Star is straight out from Cassiopeia's centre star.