Phonics Teaching Strategies

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Teaching strategies linked to the NSW literacy continuum

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<ul><li><p>Page 1 Not part of NEALS State of New South Wales through the NSW Department of Education and Communities, 2011</p><p>Teaching ideas for Phonics</p><p> Enjoys repeating short rhyming verses, chants and jingles.</p><p> Notices that some words rhyme in verses, chants and jingles.</p><p> Identifies rhyming words on some occasions.</p><p> Identifies words that start with the same initial sound on some occasions.</p><p> Identifies two or more letters that are the same in words.</p><p> Identifies some letters that are the same in more than one context.</p><p> Names some letters in a given word.</p><p> Says one of the sounds for letters in a given word.</p><p> Writes approximate letters for some sounds.</p><p>Phonemic awareness</p><p>involves hearing and</p><p>Phonics</p><p>involves making the connection between sounds and letters when reading and spelling.</p><p>Texts include oral, aural, written, visual, electronic and multimodal texts.multimodal texts.</p><p>2nd cluster</p><p>First cluster of markers:</p><p> Identifies one letter that is the same in two words.</p><p> Identifies some letter names, e.g. first letter of own name. </p><p>Letters in print</p><p>Provide students with a set of plastic letters (both upper and lower case). Provide newspaper headlines or other large sections of print and ask students to find the plastic letters that match those in the print. </p><p>Students can also use their name cards and place upper and lower case plastic letters over the letters of their name and then copy their name onto paper. </p><p>Letters and words</p><p>Create cards a little larger than normal playing cards and print an individual letter on each card. Do multiples of common letters, e.g. e, s, or focus on new letters you want students to learn. </p><p>In pairs and small groups students play a variety of games including:</p><p>Snap: recognising a visual match Memory: recognising and remembering a visual match Fish: asking for a card by letter name</p><p>Also create some CVC word cards, e.g. sun, pet. </p><p>Students spread out the word cards, then deal out the letter cards. Students take turns to place a one of their letter cards under the matching letter in a word card, saying the sound that the letters makes in this word as they place the card. Continue until all word cards have been filled. </p><p>Sounds in words</p><p>Write out some CVC words on small cards. Provide students with coloured counters (about 10 cent size). </p><p>Students take turns to select a word card. They say the word, stretching it out to hear its individual sounds, and place one counter below the word card for each sound they hear, e.g.,</p><p>1st cluster</p><p> Identifies one letter that is the same in two words.</p><p> Identifies some letter names, e.g. first letter of own name.</p><p>s u n</p><p>s u n</p><p>b a t</p></li><li><p>Page 1 Not part of NEALS State of New South Wales through the NSW Department of Education and Communities, 2011</p><p>Teaching ideas for Phonics</p><p> Identifies all letters that are the same in more than one context.</p><p> Names most letters in a given word.</p><p> Says some of the sounds for letters in a given word.</p><p> Blends up to three sounds in words when reading.</p><p> Writes letters to correspond with single letter sounds. </p><p> Names all letters in a given word.</p><p> Says most of the sounds for letters in a given word.</p><p> Spells unknown words phonetically with most letters in the correct sequence.</p><p> Recognises, says and writes names and common sounds of alphabet.</p><p>3rd cluster 4th cluster</p><p> Consistently identifies words that rhyme.</p><p> Consistently identifies words that start with the same initial sound.</p><p> Provides a word starting with a given sound.</p><p> Says the new word when asked to delete one phoneme (phoneme deletion).</p><p> Says the new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word (phoneme addition).</p><p> Identifies rhyming words on some occasions.</p><p> Identifies words that start with the same initial sound on some occasions.</p><p>Second cluster of markers:</p><p> Identifies two or more letters that are the same in words. </p><p> Identifies some letters that are the same in more than one context. </p><p> Names some letters in a given word. </p><p> Says one of the sounds for letters in a given word. </p><p> Writes approximate letters for some sounds.</p><p>Letters in words</p><p>Write out some short words onto word cards. Include words with two of the same letter, e.g. dad, little, good. Provide students with coloured counters (about 10 cent size). </p><p>Students select a card and place a counter for each letter, using the same colour counter for the letters that are the same. </p><p>Same letters</p><p>Cut out some short words of different sizes and fonts from magazines and newspapers. </p><p>Students spread out the words and then take turns to find two that contain the same letter. </p><p>They can paste the pairs of words, circle the common letter and then and write it. </p><p>Letter matching</p><p>Provide some pictures of recognisable objects and a set of letter cards. Select 5 to 10 pictures where the word for each starts with a different sound and place them in a plastic bag with a set of letter cards to correspond to the beginning sound of each word (you might want to include some other letter cards as well). </p><p>Students spread out the pictures and take turns to say what is in the picture and find the card with the beginning letter for that word. As they place the card on the picture, they say the letter name.</p><p> Identifies two or more letters that are the same in words.</p><p> Identifies some letters that are the same in more than one context.</p><p> Names some letters in a given word.</p><p> Says one of the sounds for letters in a given word.</p><p> Writes approximate letters for some sounds.</p><p>2nd cluster</p></li><li><p>Page 2 Not part of NEALS State of New South Wales through the NSW Department of Education and Communities, 2011</p><p>Teaching ideas for Phonics</p><p>Saying sounds in words</p><p>Place a small mirror on the wall at students height and stick VC and CVC word cards around it. </p><p>In pairs, students take turns to look at the words and say the sounds for the letters they see. If they say all the sounds, they can take the card.</p><p>Same letters: Snap</p><p>Write word cards that contain some common letters in different positions, e.g. t in tap, little, stop, hat. </p><p>Students place the cards in two piles, then take turns in turning over one card from each pile. </p><p>If the cards have a common letter, then the student keeps the cards. If the cards have no common letters the cards are turned back over again and placed on the bottom of the piles. </p><p>The student with the most pairs at the end of the game is the winner. </p><p>This can also be played as a memory game with the cards laid out in a grid and students turning over two at a time, claiming them if the letters match or turning them back over if they dont. </p><p>Word Bingo </p><p>Make some sets of Bingo word cards using words with different combinations of known letters. Have all the words on a master sheet. </p><p>Each student has a card. The caller calls out words from the master sheet. Students listen the word called out and put a counter on the word if it is on their card. </p><p>The first student to cover all words on their card is the winner. The winner becomes the caller. Students can select a new word grid for a new game. </p><p>Writing letters</p><p>Students have a grid card with an initial letter in each square and a felt pen. (The card can be laminated so that it can be reused). </p><p>A caller has a set of short words that have initial letters the same as those on the grid cards. </p><p>As the caller says a word, students write it in a square that contains the correct initial letter. After all words have been called, students check their spelling against the callers set of words.</p><p>Cluster 2</p></li><li><p>Page 1 Not part of NEALS State of New South Wales through the NSW Department of Education and Communities, 2011</p><p>Teaching ideas for Phonics</p><p> Blends initial consonants with common vowel patterns or word families.</p><p> Attempts to read more complex words using letter/sound knowledge.</p><p> Uses knowledge of letter clusters and vowel digraphs to spell unfamiliar words.</p><p>5th cluster</p><p> Says the new word when one phoneme is substituted for another (phoneme substitution).</p><p> Names all letters in a given word.</p><p> Says most of the sounds for letters in a given word.</p><p> Spells unknown words phonetically with most letters in the correct sequence.</p><p> Recognises, says and writes names and common sounds of alphabet.</p><p>4th cluster</p><p> Consistently identifies words that rhyme.</p><p> Consistently identifies words that start with the same initial sound.</p><p> Provides a word starting with a given sound.</p><p> Says the new word when asked to delete one phoneme (phoneme deletion).</p><p> Says the new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word (phoneme addition).</p><p>Third cluster of markers:</p><p> Identifies all letters that are the same in more than one context. </p><p> Names most letters in a given word. </p><p> Says some of the sounds for letters in a given word. </p><p> Blends up to three sounds in words when reading. </p><p> Writes letters to correspond with single letter sounds.</p><p>Identifying letters</p><p>Provide a set of plastic letters, a page of a newspaper or magazine text and a felt pen for each student. </p><p>Students select a plastic letter and circle all examples of that letter in their text. </p><p>Naming letters</p><p>Provide a set of word cards that use letters you have introduced. </p><p>Students work in groups to take turns in selecting a card and naming the letters in that word. </p><p>Other students check and agree if the letter names are correct. If all letters are correctly named, the student keeps the card. If not, it is returned to the bottom of the pile. </p><p>The winner is the student with most word cards.</p><p>Have-a-go sheets </p><p>Introduce Have-a-go sheets for students to attempt spelling words. Provide the letters along the top and bottom for students to refer to when attempting to write letters in words. </p><p>For example: </p><p>A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m</p><p> My first attempt My second attempt Spelling checked</p><p>N n O o P p Q q R r S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z</p><p> Identifies all letters that are the same in more than one context.</p><p> Names most letters in a given word.</p><p> Says some of the sounds for letters in a given word.</p><p> Blends up to three sounds in words when reading.</p><p> Writes letters to correspond with single letter sounds. </p><p>3rd cluster</p></li><li><p>Page 2 Not part of NEALS State of New South Wales through the NSW Department of Education and Communities, 2011</p><p>Teaching ideas for Phonics</p><p>One student, with a set of word cards, says a word while others attempt to write it using the letters on their Have-a-go sheet. They then check against the word card.</p><p>Word frames </p><p>Provide students with a word frame cards, on which VC and CVC words are written into boxes divided into the correct number of letters, e.g. </p><p>Cluster 3</p><p>In pairs or small groups, students take turns to: </p><p> select a card from prepared VC and CVC word frame cards </p><p> say the word, breaking it into individual sounds, e.g. /r/ /u/ /n/ </p><p> push a counter onto each letter, saying the sound for each letter </p><p> blend the sounds together and repeat the word, e.g. run. </p><p>Flip books </p><p>Make flip books with the beginning of a word on the lefthand side, e.g. c, b, m, r, h, p and ending options on the righthand side, e.g. at, in, eg). </p><p>Students flip the pages, identify words and write them in a list. </p><p>As an alternative, they can write words in one list, e.g. cat, bin and not words in another list, e.g. reg, hin.</p><p>Cut and make </p><p>Select some words that contain known letters and photocopy onto coloured cardboard. </p><p>Students cut up the words and rearrange the letters, making as many different words as possible and then reading the words by blending the sounds. </p><p>These letters can then be stored in envelopes or small plastic bags for students to use at a later time. </p><p>r u n</p></li><li><p>Page 1 Not part of NEALS State of New South Wales through the NSW Department of Education and Communities, 2011</p><p>Teaching ideas for Phonics</p><p> Manipulates phonemes (add, delete and swap) to generate new words, e.g. swap the /p/ in spin with /k/.</p><p> Segments sounds in consonant clusters to spell unfamiliar words.</p><p> Uses familiar words and letter clusters to decode words when reading.</p><p>6th cluster</p><p> Blends initial consonants with common vowel patterns or word families.</p><p> Attempts to read more complex words using letter/sound knowledge.</p><p> Uses knowledge of letter clusters and vowel digraphs to spell unfamiliar words.</p><p>5th cluster</p><p> Says the new word when one phoneme is substituted for another (phoneme substitution).</p><p> Says the new word when asked to delete one phoneme (phoneme deletion).</p><p> Says the new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word (phoneme addition).</p><p>Fourth cluster of markers:</p><p> Names all letters in a word. </p><p> Says most of the sounds in a given word. </p><p> Spells unknown words phonetically with most letters in the correct sequence.</p><p> Recognises, says and writes names and common sounds of alphabet.</p><p>Saying sounds in words</p><p>Provide a set of word cards where the words can be decoded using sound-letter knowledge. </p><p>Each student has an individual whiteboard and a felt pen. </p><p>One student selects a word card and says the sounds in sequence: /c/, /a/, /t/. The other students in the group write the letters that represent these sounds and say what the word is. </p><p>Naming letters game</p><p>Provide a set of word cards where words can be decoded using sound-letter knowledge. </p><p>Each student has an individual whiteboard and a felt pen. </p><p>Students take turns to selects a word card and say: The first letter is t.</p><p>The other students write the letter on their whiteboards.</p><p>Students continue writing the word, letter by letter, as the caller says the letters. </p><p>At any time, a student can guess what the word might be and, if correct, they become the letter caller.</p><p> Names all letters in a word.</p><p> Says most of the sounds in a given word.</p><p> Spells unknown words phonetically with most letters in the correct sequence.</p><p> Recognises, says and writes names and common sounds of alphabet.</p><p>4th cluster</p></li><li><p>Page 1 Not part of NEALS State of New South Wales through the NSW Department of Education and Communities, 2011</p><p>Teaching ideas for Phonics</p><p> Recognises that common suffixes in words can have different sounds, e.g. wanted, talked.</p><p> Understands that sounds can be represented in various ways when spelling words, e.g. meet, meat.</p><p>7th cluster</p><p> Manipulates phonemes (add, delete and swap) to generate new words, e.g. swap the /p/ in spin with /k/.</p><p> Segments sounds in consonant clusters to spell unfamiliar words.</p><p> Uses familiar words and letter clusters to decode words when reading.</p><p>6th cluster</p><p> Says the new word when one phoneme is substituted for another (phoneme substitution).</p><p>Fifth cluster of markers:</p><p> Blends initial consonants with common vowel patterns or word families.</p><p> Attempts to read more complex words using letter/sound knowledge.</p><p> Uses knowledge of letter clusters and vowel digraphs to spell unfamiliar words.</p><p>Flip books</p><p>Make flip books with the beginning of a word on the lefthand side, using letters, letter clusters and digraphs students are learning, e.g. s, p, h, sh, th, st, bl and ending options on the righthand side, e.g. at, ay, ing. </p><p>Students flip the pages, identify words and write them in a list. </p><p>As an alternative, students can w...</p></li></ul>