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  • Phonics

    Literacy teaching guide: Phonics

    NSW Department of Education and TrainingLearning and Development

    The Literacy teaching guide: Phonics and the Literacy teaching guide: Phonemic awareness are companion guides and as such should be read in conjunction with each other.

  • The Literacy teaching guide: Phonics and the Literacy teaching guide: Phonemic awareness are companionguides and as such should be read in conjunction with each other.

    Literacy teaching guide:Phonics

  • Literacy teaching guide: Phonics

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    State of New South Wales through the Department of Education and Training, 2009. This workmay be freely reproduced and distributed for personal, educational or government purposes.Permission must be received from the Department for all other uses.

    Licensed Under NEALS

    ISBN 9780731386093SCIS 1363832

  • Literacy teaching guide: Phonics

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    ForewordThis teaching guide on phonics is one of a series of connectedresources to support literacy teaching.

    These resources incorporate the most recent research on literacy andliteracy education, the findings of national and international reviewsand teachers experience with, and feedback on literacy supportmaterials that the Department has produced in the past.

    This guide needs to be read and used in conjunction with that onphonemic awareness, which has been simultaneously published. Thesetwo critical aspects of literacy need to be taught and learned together.

    The teaching of phonics has been the subject of some public debate. The Departments position isclearly stated in our Literacy Policy, namely, that phonics should be explicitly and systematicallytaught, within an integrated and balanced program.

    This guide reaffirms that principle. Indeed, with the benefit of research and experience, it articulateseven more strongly the need for explicit and systematic teaching.

    Teachers using this guide will find a significant body of evidence-based information to support theteaching and learning of phonics. The guide examines and debunks some of the commonly heldmisconceptions or myths about teaching phonics. It recommends a sequence for the teaching ofphonics knowledge and skills and presents a process that supports teachers to teach phonics in anexplicit and systematic way, as part of a balanced and integrated literacy program. Teachers will alsofind practical ideas and suggestions to enhance their phonics teaching.

    Additional support for the teaching and learning of phonics is available in the form of a LiteracyContinuum. This continuum sets out eight critical aspects of literacy and their developmentalmarkers. Phonics is one of these critical aspects. A further online professional learning resource,that is linked to the phonics aspect of the continuum will provide teachers with phonics learningstrategies.

    Your feedback and suggestions on this guide would be appreciated. As this resource will be online,it will be regularly revised. Your comments should be emailed to: pa .curriculum@det .nsw.edu .au.

    While the teaching of phonics is essential, no one aspect of literacy learning is sufficient tobecoming literate. Effective literacy teaching includes all aspects critical to successful literacydevelopment, within a balanced and integrated program.

    I commend this teaching guide to you and wish you every success as you work with your colleaguesto improve the learning of your students.

    Trevor FletcherDeputy Director-General, Schools

  • Literacy teaching guide: Phonics

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  • Literacy teaching guide: Phonics

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    Contents

    Introduction 6Purpose 6

    Links to the Literacy Continuum 6About this guide 7

    Exposing phonics myths 8Catering for student diversity when teaching phonics 10

    About phonics teaching 12Principles of effective phonics teaching 12Phonics methods 15

    Sequencing phonics instruction 16

    The NSW English K6 syllabus and the Four Literacy Resources model 20Being explicit and systematic about teaching phonics in a balanced andintegrated literacy program 22

    Three key strategies: Modelled, guided and independent teaching 24

    Early years teachers talk about teaching phonics in their literacy sessions 26

    Explicit phonics teaching in action 29Navigating this section of the guide 29At a glance: The phonics aspect of the Literacy Continuum 30A process for explicit and systematic phonics teaching 31

    The process in action: Phonics 32

    Bibliography 48

    Appendices 50Appendix 1 Glossary 50

    Appendix 2 Websites for additional information and support 53Appendix 3 Supporting students with significant difficulties in learning to read 54

    Appendix 4 Supporting Aboriginal students 55

    Appendix 5 Supporting students who are learning English as a secondlanguage (ESL) 56

    Appendix 6 Supporting students from low socio-economic backgrounds 57

    Appendix 7 The Four Literacy Resources model 58Appendix 8 Linking the NSW English K6 syllabus and the Literacy Continuum 59Appendix 9 Ideas for practising and applying phonics learning 63

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    Introduction

    PurposeThis resource has been developed to help teachers gain deeper insights into theteaching of phonics. It offers advice on why and how to teach phonics andprovides a range of teaching and learning strategies to develop studentsphonics knowledge and skills.

    In simple terms, phonics involves knowing the connections between printedletters (and combinations of letters) and speech sounds. For example, studentsshow their phonics knowledge when they are asked to point to the letter mand provide the sound it makes.

    Phonics instruction involves teaching students to know the relationshipsbetween letters and sounds and how to use this knowledge to recognise wordswhen reading, and to spell words when writing.

    Experts argue about how much emphasis should be placed on phonicsinstruction, but just about all agree that phonics is one of the aspects of literacycritical to successful literacy learning.

    Recommendation 2 from the National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy(2005) states that:

    teachers provide systematic, direct and explicit phonics instruction so thatchildren master the essential alphabetic code-breaking skills required forfoundational reading proficiency. Equally, that teachers provide an integratedapproach to reading that supports the development of oral language,vocabulary, grammar, reading fluency, comprehension and the literacies ofnew technologies.

    Accordingly, phonics should be taught explicitly and systematically as part of abalanced and integrated literacy program.

    Links to the Literacy Cont inuumEarly years teachers will be familiar with the early literacy continuum used in theBest Start Initiative.

    Eight critical aspects of literacy form the foundation of this continuum. Phonicsis one of these aspects.

    The continuum describes the development of literacy knowledge and skillstypically expected of most students in these eight critical aspects.

    Along each critical aspect key developmental points are signalled by clusters ofmarkers along the continuum.

    Hence, The process in action: Phonics (pp. 3247) in this guide is organisedaround each cluster of phonics markers.

    Phonics involvesknowing theconnect ionsbetween printedlet ters and speechsounds.

    Phonics is one ofthe aspects ofliteracy crit ical tosuccessful literacylearning.

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    About this guideThis guide is one in a series, each dealing with a critical aspect of literacydevelopment.

    Others in the series focus on:

    Phonemic awareness

    Vocabulary knowledge

    Aspects of speaking

    Concepts about print

    Aspects of writing

    Comprehension

    Reading texts.

    NB: Other crucial areas of literacy, such as grammar, spelling, punctuation andlistening are developed within a number of the above aspects.

    It is important that this guide on phonics (knowing letter-sound relationships) isused in conjunction with the Literacy teaching guide: Phonemic awareness(manipulating sounds in words).

    Phonics and phonemic awareness are closely related. Learning about one aspectreinforces the other. Both are concerned with sounds, with phonemicawareness involving spoken language and phonics involving written language.For example, you are asking your students to show their phonemic awarenesswhen you say mat and ask them to say the three separate sounds they hear inthe word.

    This guide and each of the other guides, will be supported by a summary of theliterature upon which the advice in the guide is based.

    The guide avoids the use of technical language however, at times, it has beennecessary to use terms that are specifically related to the teaching of phonics. Aglossary has been provided at Appendix 1 to define these terms.

    Phonics andphonemicawareness areclosely related.Learning aboutone reinforces theother.

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    Exposing phonics mythsFor decades now, the teaching and learning of phonics has been the subject ofdebate. It seems everyone has an opinion, so much so that a host of mythsabout phonics teaching and learning have almost become accepted as truths.Exposing some of these commonly held myths is intended to prompt teachersto examine and reflect on their classroom practices in light of the informationabout phonics teaching provided in this guide.

    Some of the more common myths about teaching phonics are listed below initalics together with statements in bold that debunk these myths.

    Myth: Reading is primarily about decoding symbol to sound. If students are thoroug

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