Paintings (Exterior & Interior) and wall papers

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<ul><li><p>0 </p><p> Building Construction (CIV 216) </p><p>Group 10's Research </p><p>PAINTINGS (INTERIOR &amp; EXTERIOR) </p><p>&amp; WALLPAPERS </p><p>Supervision </p><p>Dr. Ahmed Mohamed Saleh </p><p>:Prepared by </p><p>Group 10 </p><p>Ahmed Atef Mohamed </p><p>Amira Abdullah Yousef </p><p>Esraa Hamed </p><p>Alaa Ahmed </p><p>Aya Mohamed Ahmed </p><p>Samar Mohamed </p><p>Merna Ahmed Hassan </p><p>Hagar Ibrahim Abdullah </p><p>Level 2 Civil Eng. Department </p></li><li><p>1 </p><p>Content and Missions </p><p>Interior Paintings .............................................................................................. 1 </p><p>General Definition and types (Amira Abdullah Yousef) ............................. 2 </p><p>Choosing Paint Color (Ahmed Atef Mohamed) ....................................... 10 </p><p>Surface Preparation and Tools (Aya Mohamed Ahmed) ....................... 14 </p><p>Exterior Paintings ............................................................................................ 24 </p><p>General Definition and Types (Samar Mohamed) ................................... 24 </p><p>Properties and Paint ways (Esraa Hamed) ................................................ 28 </p><p>Surface Preparation and tools (Alaa Ahmed) ......................................... 34 </p><p>Wall Paper ....................................................................................................... 35 </p><p>General Definition and Properties of wallpaper( Hagar Ebraheem) .... 35 </p><p>Types , Hanging and removing of wallpaper (Merna Ahmad Hassan ) </p><p> ........................................................................................................................... 39 </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>Paintings </p><p>Painting a room or your whole house, inside or out, is a popular home </p><p>improvement project. New paint can change the mood of a space and </p><p>value of your property. increase the </p><p>A Brief History of House Painting </p><p>One can just imagine the </p><p>caveman agonizing over the </p><p>choice between fire soot grey </p><p>and bison blood burgundy for </p><p>his cave decor. Evidence shows </p><p>that mankind has decorated his </p><p>far back as living space as</p><p>40,000 years ago using what </p><p>could be called paint. The </p><p>rom material would be made f</p><p>natural ingredients too. -all </p><p>Prehistoric paint was made -</p><p>from colored earth, soot, and organic materials mixed with animal </p><p>Recently archeologists discovered a site in South blood and fatty oils. </p><p>brown -Africa that indicated that men (or women) used a yellowish</p><p> clayey soil based coating which may have been used like paint. </p><p>Caveman paints </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p> Fast forward to Egypt only about 2,000 years ago. Brightly colored </p><p>walls in Dendera have stood the test of time and still look as vivid today </p><p>as when they were painted! We dont know of any modern day paints </p><p>that offer that kind of guarantee. The Egyptians created six colors by </p><p>mixing oil or fat with lead, earth, animal blood, ground glass or </p><p>semiprecious stones. Their palate included white, red, yellow, green, </p><p>black and blue. Intricate and elaborate paintings that illustrated their </p><p>culture and history were painted along with furnishings and living spaces </p><p>of the pharaohs and the ruling classes. Some of the best painting was </p><p>reserved for the Egyptian tombs as their belief in the afterlife called for. </p><p> House painting became </p><p>something to be avoided if you were </p><p>a part of the early American </p><p>colonies. The Pilgrims considered </p><p>painting your house to be a display </p><p>of immodesty, wealth and vanity. </p><p>The practice was consider immoral </p><p>by many and in 1630 a preacher that </p><p>decorated his Charlestown home </p><p>interior with paint was criminally </p><p>charged with sacrilege. </p><p> The demand for interior painting </p><p>continued despite the puritan objections. Oil and water became the </p><p>base that would be mixed with a wide variety of materials including </p><p>lead, ground shells, iron or copper oxide, coffee, rice, eggs, fruits, berries </p><p>and other vegetation to create many types and colors of paint. Paint </p><p>producers cooked up their product despite the fact that it was illegal. </p><p>Many homes were elaborately decorated with lifelike murals of sky, </p><p>stone and landscape features painted on the walls, paneling, cornices </p><p>and ceilings. </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p> The painting tools used during these times are very similar to todays </p><p>brushes employing wooden handles with various types of hair attached. </p><p>Modern brushes use synthetic fibers but the object was the same, to </p><p>apply the paint to the surface with the appropriate thickness and stroke </p><p>in order to ease the process and achieve the best finished result. Many </p><p>of the paints were quite thick and not at all like the easy to apply paint </p><p>that we are accustomed to. </p><p> In 1718 Marshall Smith invented </p><p>a Machine for the Grinding of </p><p>Colors which sparked a race of </p><p>innovation to create the best ways </p><p>to grind pigment materials </p><p>effectively and actually start </p><p>manufacturing paint in a paint mill. </p><p>By the mid 1800s linseed oil began to </p><p>be used as a less expensive binding </p><p>agent that actually protected wood </p><p>that was painted. </p><p> In 1866 the first company to </p><p>produce ready-to-use paint was </p><p>formed, Sherwin-Williams. Harry Sherwin, Alanson Osborn and Edward </p><p>Williams formed Sherwin, Williams, &amp; Co. in Cleveland, Ohio. Henry </p><p>Sherwin later developed a tin can that consumers could reseal. In 1883, </p><p>a competition that continues today started when Benjamin Moore </p><p>began operations. The company put much emphasis on the chemistry </p><p>to improve the color mixing and production throughout the twentieth </p><p>century and were the first to design the computer based color-matching </p><p>system that we all are accustomed to back in 1982. </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>Interior and Exterior Paintings </p><p>Interior paint is the name given to paint used for walls, ceilings and trim </p><p>within a house. </p><p> Exterior paint is the name for paint used outside the house on walls</p><p>whether wood, brick, or vinyl or aluminum sidingand trim. </p><p> Interior and exterior paint are formulated differently because they </p><p>have different conditions and situations. Interior paint is made to be </p><p>easy-to-clean and touch up when necessary. Exterior paint is prepared </p><p>to be fade- and mildew-resistant and flexible when the surface expands </p><p>and contracts due to climate changes. The two types of paint are </p><p>specially formulated for their purposes, and are not interchangeable. </p><p> Difference between Exterior and Interior Painting </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>Interior Painting </p><p>Types of interior paintings </p><p> There are several different types of interior wall paints, and the more </p><p>you know about appropriate paintable surfaces and the effects that </p><p>paint can achieve, the easier it is to make the right choice. Its also </p><p>feasible to mix different types of interior wall paint within a room, but you </p><p>should know what youre doing. </p><p>1. Matte Paint </p><p> Matte color is the most </p><p>common of interior wall paints. </p><p>Theres no shine or sheen to the </p><p>finish, making it ideal for walls and </p><p>ceilings where you don't want any </p><p>visual distractions. Its easy to </p><p>apply, although it can often take </p><p>more than a single coat to create </p><p>a good solid color. Matte paint </p><p>can be applied with a brush or </p><p>roller and works well covering </p><p>imperfections on your walls. This </p><p>makes it ideal for older houses. </p><p>On the downside, matte paint is </p><p>easily marked. Although some marks can be removed with a damp </p><p>cloth, matte paint needs regular retouching. </p><p>2. Matte Enamel </p><p> Matte enamel is very much like </p><p>matte paint, but tends to be far </p><p>more durable. Its much easier to </p><p>clean and rarely needs retouching, </p><p>giving it a great advantage, </p><p>especially if you have young </p><p>children. It is also excellent for the </p><p>kitchen, where youll regularly need </p><p>to wipe the walls. The visual effect is </p><p>very similar to matte paint and it </p><p>can be applied in the same way. </p><p></p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>3. Satin </p><p> Satin finish is one of the types </p><p>of interior wall paint that many </p><p>people know of, but few really </p><p>understand. The finish is </p><p>somewhere between matte and </p><p>gloss and produces a low, soft </p><p>sheen. This makes it ideal for areas </p><p>where youll need to clean the </p><p>walls regularly; however, you </p><p>shouldnt use a satin finish where </p><p>you have a wall with </p><p>imperfections because it will </p><p>make them more apparent. </p><p>4. Eggshell </p><p> An eggshell finish has a shine thats </p><p>extremely subtle but without the same </p><p>smoothness as a satin finish. Thus, it </p><p>doesnt highlight imperfections quite </p><p>as much, making it a much more </p><p>suitable interior wall paint. Its easy to </p><p>apply and can often cover well with a </p><p>single coat, making it a better choice </p><p>for many people. </p><p>Tip: Eggshell and semi-gloss paint both usually cover more surface area </p><p>with less paint than matte paint. </p></li><li><p>8 </p><p>5. Semi-gloss </p><p> Semi-gloss is another common interior paint, although its more </p><p>commonly used on trim rather than walls. It offers a hard finish, is suitable </p><p>for heavy use and is easy to clean with just soap and water. The shine </p><p>produced is less than full gloss paint, but its usually easy to achieve a </p><p>good covering with just a single coat. </p><p>Tip: Shiny paints bring out imperfections. Spackle spots and other repairs </p><p>are greatly accentuated by shiny paint, and they have to be perfect. </p><p>Also, spackle spots must be primed or they will show up as flat spots in </p><p>the shiny paint. The best way to </p><p>cover spackle and repair </p><p>patches under semi-gloss is to </p><p>buy a quart of flat paint tinted to </p><p>the color of the finish coat and </p><p>spot prime the repairs. </p><p>6 . Gloss </p><p>Gloss finish paint is very shiny and </p><p>mimics the look of enamel or </p><p>plastic. Gloss is the most </p><p>reflective finish. It is becoming </p><p>very popular to use for a </p><p>dramatic look on cabinets, trim </p><p>and furniture. </p><p> A lot of prep work is required </p><p>with this finish. If there are any imperfections in the item you are painting </p></li><li><p>9 </p><p>the finish will enhance the problem. That said, gloss is very durable and </p><p>will hold up to many cleanings. </p><p>Choosing paint colour </p><p> Just as with exterior painting, picking the </p><p>right color scheme for interior spaces requires </p><p>a certain amount of imagination and </p><p>creativity. Simply thinking about what color </p><p>would look best on a wall isnt enough to </p><p>ensure a positive paint job. Virtually any color </p><p>will look good on a surface as long as it is </p><p>applied correctly, but choosing the right color </p><p>involves looking at an interior space with a </p><p>very critical eye. </p><p> The floor and ceiling surfaces cannot be </p><p>ignored, as they are crucial elements of color </p><p>combination. Most ceilings are traditionally </p><p>painted white for a number of reasons </p><p> particularly for their ability to keep rooms </p><p>looking bright and to avoid taking attention </p><p>away from the walls. Lighter ceiling colors can </p><p>also help to make a room appear larger and </p><p>more open. </p><p> Deviating from white ceilings is a great </p><p>way to change the overall appearance of a </p><p>house, but since darkening a ceiling can steal </p><p>some of the light and visually shorten the </p><p>height of the room. Ceiling colors should offset </p><p>and complement the walls and the floor </p><p>instead of calling attention above. </p><p> The easiest way to choose a color scheme is </p><p>to look through color catalogues or at paint </p><p>samples. Most hardware stores and paint depots keep catalogs handy for customers </p><p>to take home. Painters should take their time looking at the spaces in these catalogs </p><p>and comparing colors to their existing floors, carpets, curtains, blinds, furniture and </p><p>decorations. Its important to look at fabric and upholstery first and then look at the </p><p></p></li><li><p>10</p><p> other aspects to see if they coordinate with your color choices. Consider the prominent </p><p>color in this coordination for the walls. </p><p> Each color has certain properties and psychological effects that can influence the </p><p>mood of the interior occupants. </p><p> Some of the most popular colors used for interior painting include: </p><p>1. Black and gray </p><p>black is usually associated with somberness and malignity, it can also represent </p><p>sophistication, reverence and physical attraction. Interior designers have </p><p>traditionally shunned black paint, but homeowners increasingly choose it for trim </p><p>and accents that are meant to be dramatic and striking. Black is the perfect </p><p>match and contrast for white, and the amount used can range from trim areas to </p><p>an accent wall. With the right furniture and dcor, black is ideal for living rooms, </p><p>bedrooms and ultra-modern kitchens. </p><p>Gray is a timeless color, but it could also be considered drab if not accessorized </p><p>with bold colors. Anyone who has grown tired of looking at white paint on walls for </p><p>years should consider gray tones. Gray paint is cooler than its white counterpart </p><p></p></li><li><p>11</p><p> and more versatile, as it manages to blend well with most decorations. It is an ideal </p><p>color for all interior spaces and provides the perfect backdrop for color bursts. </p><p>2. Brown </p><p>Brown denotes a personality that is earthy, realistic and trustworthy. This classic </p><p>earth tone can be applied to living and work areas alike, as it evokes a feeling of </p><p>being well-rounded and connected with nature. Terracotta and dark mustard </p><p>brown combinations are perfect for Latin American and Santa Fe-style dcor. </p><p>Brown hues are great for interior spaces that get a lot of sunlight. Lighter shades of </p><p>brown, such as beige and taupe, are neutral colors that particularly work well in </p><p>homes that are being shown to potential buyers. </p><p>3. Green: </p><p>The psychological effect of green is largely dependent on the tone or hue. Some </p><p>green hues create a positive, natural atmosphere. However, darker hues or pale </p><p>olive green can seem militaristic or ill. Multiple shades of green can serve different </p><p>purposes and set different moods. Maritime greens are ideal for studios and offices </p><p>as they inspire concentration, while cool forest greens can be used in bedrooms </p><p>and bathrooms. </p><p>4. Red and pink: </p><p> red is the color of passion and can create drama in any space. In the past, </p><p>interior designers mostly chose red as an accent color, but it is now increasingly </p><p>used in stylish living rooms and bedrooms. Flat red is modern and inviting, cherry </p><p>red is youthful and darker red conjures up feelings of warmth and loyalty. </p><p> Pink is also a soft romantic color, but it can also denote innocence. This is the </p><p>traditional color for baby girls, but it's also used in womens spaces, such as in </p><p>makeup rooms, bathrooms and bedrooms. Hot pink must be used with care in </p><p>spaces that get a lot of sunlight, as it can make the room feel dark. </p><p>5. Yellow: </p><p> Yellow is generally a happy color that increases confidence. Similar to gray, </p><p>yellow can be very versatile. Pale yellows used in sunlit rooms with flowery </p><p>decorations are very inviting, especially in the morning time. Darker yellows can </p><p>add warmth to a room even in the winter time. Bright yellows help reduce the </p><p>amount of illumination needed in a space and are ideal for any room in the house. </p></li><li><p>12</p><p> 6. Orange: </p><p>...</p></li></ul>