origin of microprocessor and classification of microprocessor

Download Origin of Microprocessor and  Classification of Microprocessor

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  1. 1. Microprocessors- Evolution & Introduction to 8085
  2. 2. Introduction Microprocessor is an electronic chip that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer In other words, we can call microprocessor as the heart of any computer system. Some may call the microprocessors as the brain of the computers. The microprocessor based systems with limited resources are called as microcomputers. Now-a-days microprocessors are found in almost all electronic machines and appliances in its different form. Some common devices using microprocessors are computer printers, automobiles, washing machines, microwave ovens, mobile phones, fax machines, Xerox machines and advanced instruments like radar, satellites, flights etc.,
  3. 3. Continue... Any middle class house-hold will have about a dozens microprocessor in different forms inside various appliances. The recent developments in electronic industry and the large scale integration of devices has led to rapid cost reduction and more and more application of microprocessors and its derivatives. Almost all microprocessors use the basic concept of stored program execution. By this concept, programs or the instructions to be executed by the microprocessor are stored sequentially in memory locations. The microprocessor or the processor in general will fetch the instructions one after the other and execute them it in its arithmetic and logic unit.
  4. 4. A microprocessor can be programmed to do any task that can be written and programmed by the user. So, in order to work with the microprocessor, it is necessary for the user to know about the internal resources and features of the microprocessor. The programmers must also understand the instructions that a microprocessor can support. Every microprocessor will have its own associated set of instructions that it supports and this list is given by all the microprocessor manufacturers Continue...
  5. 5. The instruction set for microprocessors is given in two forms a) One in mnemonic which is comparatively easy to understand b) The other in binary machine code which the microprocessor really works upon and difficult to understand by us. Programs are written using mnemonics called the assembly level language and then they are converted into binary machine level language. This conversion can be done manually or using an application called assembler. In general, the programs are written by the user for a microprocessor to work with real world data. These data are available in many forms and are from many sources. To give this data to the microprocessor, the microprocessor based systems need some input interfacing circuits and some electronic processing circuits. These circuits include data converters and ports Continue...
  6. 6. After processing the real world data, the output from the microprocessor must be taken out to give to final end effect instrument or circuits. This again needs interfacing circuits and ports. So, a microprocessor based system will need a set of memory units, set of interfacing circuits for inputs and a set of interfacing circuits for outputs. All circuits put together along with microprocessor are called as microcomputer system. The physical components of the microcomputer system are in general called as hardware. The program which makes this hardware useful is called as software. Continue...
  7. 7. Basic terms Chip a) A chip or an integrated circuit is a small, thin piece of silicon with the required circuit and transistors etched on it to perform a particular function. b) Simpler processors might consist of a few thousand transistors etched onto a silicon base just a few millimeters square.
  8. 8. Bit a) A bit means a single binary digit. b) Also, the bit is the fundamental storage unit of computer memory. In binary, bit can have only two values, 0 or 1, whereas a decimal digit can have 10 values, represented by symbols 0 through 9. Bit Size The bit size of a microprocessor refers to the number of bits that can be processed simultaneously by Continue...
  9. 9. Word A number of bits grouped together for processing is called as word. In microprocessors, the word in general refers to the basic data size or bit size that can processed by the ALU of the processor. 16-bit binary number is called a word in a 16-bit processor. Memory word The number of bits that can be stored in a register of memory element is called a memory word. Mostly all memory units use 8-bits as their memory word. Continue...
  10. 10. Byte An 8-bit word is referred to as a byte. Nibble A 4-bit word is referred to as a nibble. Kilobyte A collection of 1024 bytes is called a kilobyte. Megabyte A collection of 1024 Kbytes is called a megabyte. Continue...
  11. 11. RAM or R/W memory Random Access Memory or Read/ Write memory is the type of semiconductor memory in which a particular memory location can be erased and written with a new data at any time. These memory units are volatile, which means that the content of the memory is erased when the power to the chip is disrupted. The access of the individual memory location can be done randomly. In microprocessors, the RAM is used to store data. Continue...
  12. 12. DRAM a) Dynamic Random Access Memory is a semiconductor memory in which the stored contents need to be refreshed repeatedly at about thousands of times per second. b) Without refreshing, the stored data will be lost. c) These memory chips are preferred in a computer system because it is economical although slower. Continue...
  13. 13. SRAM Static Random Access Memory chips keep the data stored in it as long as power is available. There is no need for refreshing. In terms of speed, SRAM is faster. ROM Read Only Memory are memory devices whose contents are retained even after removing the power supply. Continue...
  14. 14. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) a) ALU is a digital circuit present in the microprocessor to do performs arithmetic and logic operations on digital data. b) The typical operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, Logical AND, logical OR and comparison of binary data. c) Generally, the functions of the ALU of a microprocessor will decide the functionality that can be performed by the processor. Continue...
  15. 15. Microcontroller Microcontroller is a chip that includes microprocessor, memory and I/O signal ports. Microcontrollers can be called as single chip microcomputers. Microcomputer The system formed by interfacing microprocessor with memory, and I/O devices to work with the required program is called microcomputer. Continue...
  16. 16. Bus The bus in a microprocessor system refers to a group of wires or signals having a common functionality System Bus The System bus is a group of signals used for communication between the microprocessor and peripherals. Firmware Software written for a microprocessor application without provision for changes. These are stored into permanent storage or ROM of the computer system. Continue...
  17. 17. Input device The devices that are used for giving data to the microcomputer system are called as input devices. Usually keyboard and mouse are the input devices through which data and instructions are given to computer. Output device The devices that are used for getting data out from the microprocessor or microcomputer system are called as output devices. A display screen, printer and displays are the common output devices. Continue...
  18. 18. Clock The circuit in the computer that generates the sequence of evenly spaced pulses to synchronize the activities of the processor and its peripherals. The clock speed determines the speed of the operation of the computer. The computer with a high frequency clock works faster. Normally the clock frequency is in the range of Mega Hertz, MHz or Giga Hertz, GHz. Continue...
  19. 19. Types of Processors Two types of processors are manufactured a) The microprocessor b) The microcontroller The general purpose microprocessors give the computers all the necessary computing power. These microprocessors need additional circuitry elements such as memory devices, I/O ports to connect the input and output devices. All microprocessor based systems need two types of memories RAM and ROM.
  20. 20. Microcontrollers The microcontrollers are the microprocessors designed especially for control applications. Microcontrollers contain memory units and I/O ports inside a chip in addition to the CPU part. Microcontrollers are otherwise called as embedded controllers are generally used to control and operate smart machines. Some of the machines using microcontrollers are microwave ovens, washing machines, sewing machines, automobile ignition systems, computer printers and fax machines etc. Out of 100 processor chips manufactured, 99 are embedded processors and remaining 1 processor alone goes into general computers. Lots of semiconductor companies are in the market of microcontrollers and any application development engineer is flooded with the variety of microcontrollers as the choice.
  21. 21. The system consists of CPU, memory and I/O ports The interfacing of the processor with the other parts of the microcomputer system needs three bus architecture. The three buses are a) Data bus, b) Address bus c) Control bus Microprocessor based system
  22. 22. Each memory location or I/O port is identified by a specific address similar to the postal address. Here, in microprocessor systems, the addresses are all in binary and in general written in hexadecimal number format. The address is a unique pattern used to identify a location in memory or I/O port. The address bus consists of many lines that can have the digital data sent by the processor. Continue...
  23. 23. An address bus of 8 bits 28 differen

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