Ncert Compilation by Mrunal

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<ul><li><p>7/19/13 Mrunal [Old NCERT World History Ch7] Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Their Effect on Society, Rise of Trade Unions &amp; </p><p>mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch7-industrial-revolution-capitalism-their-effect-on-society-rise-of-trade-unions-socia 1/17</p><p>[OldNCERTWorldHistoryCh7]IndustrialRevolution,Capitalism,TheirEffectonSociety,RiseofTradeUnions&amp;Socialism</p><p>1. Prologue2. IntroductiontoChapter3. Capitalism4. CapitalismandColonization5. IndustrialRevolution6. FactorySystem7. WhyIndustrialRevolutionstartedinEngland?</p><p>1. TextileIndustry:Therevolution2. Powerloom3. CottonGin4. SteamEngine5. BlastFurnace6. TRANSPORTRevolution7. PostalRevolution8. AgricultureRevolution</p><p>8. IndustrialRevolutioninOtherCountries9. Tariffbarriers</p><p>10. Race4rawmaterial11. FromVillagetoCity12. IndustrialCapitalism</p><p>1. Industrialcapitalism:Consequencesof2. LabourLaws3. TradeUnions</p><p>13. Laissezfaire14. Socialism15. EXERCISES</p><p>Prologue</p><p>UntilnowweveseenOldNCERTs,Class10,Ch.9to13.(=StoryofcivilizationVolumeIIbyArjunDev.)Inthosechapterswegotanoverview/foundationoffollowingtopics(fromUPSCsyllabuspointofview):</p><p>1. colonization,decolonization2. Twoworldwars3. (Politicalphilosophieslike)Communismanditseffectonthesociety</p></li><li><p>7/19/13 Mrunal [Old NCERT World History Ch7] Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Their Effect on Society, Rise of Trade Unions &amp; </p><p>mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch7-industrial-revolution-capitalism-their-effect-on-society-rise-of-trade-unions-socia 2/17</p><p>NowmovingtoOldNCERTClass9,chapter7.Inthischapter,wellseeIndustrialrevolution,politicalphilosophieslikeCapitalismandtheireffectonthesociety.</p><p>IntroductiontoChapter</p><p>TOWARDStheendofthemiddleAges,feudalismasaneconomicsystemhadstarteddeclining.ThisprocesswasfurtheredbytheRenaissanceandotherdevelopments.Theriseoftownsandcitiesandthegrowthintradestimulatedtheproductionofmanufacturedgoods.Therewasanincreaseinthedemandforgoodswhichpreviouslyhadbeenconsideredluxurygoods.Lifeinthenewtownsandcitieshadcreatedadesireformanynewgoodsalso.Allthesefactorsprovidedagreatstimulustotheproductionofmanufacturedgoods.Foralongtime,however,thetechniquesandorganizationofproducinggoodsdidnotundergoanysignificantimprovement.Thetraditionalmethodswereinadequatetomeetthegrowingdemandforgoods.Duringthelaterhalfofthe18thcenturytherebeganaseriesofchangeswhichrevolutionizedthetechniquesandorganizationofproduction.Thesedevelopmentsresultedintheriseofanewtypeofeconomyanindustrialeconomy.ThetermIndustrialRevolutionisusedtodescribethesedevelopmentsbecausethechangescamerapidlyandtheyhadfarreachingeffectsonthehistoryoftheworld.</p><p>Capitalism</p><p>ThenewsystemofsocietywhichhadbeenemerginginEuropefromthe15thcenturyiscalledcapitalism.Undercapitalism</p><p>1. Theinstrumentsandthemeansbywhichgoodsareproducedareownedbyprivateindividualsandtheproductioniscarriedoutformakingprofit.</p><p>2. Theworkersunderthissystemdonotownanythingbutworkforawage.3. Theownersofwealthundercapitalismwhoarecalledcapitalistsdonot</p><p>keeptheirwealthorconsumeitoruseitforpurposesofdisplaybutinvestittomakeprofit.</p><p>4. Goodsareproducedforsaleinthemarketwithaviewtomakingprofit.5. Thissystemisinmarkedcontrastwiththefeudalsysteminwhichgoods</p><p>wereproducedforlocaluseandtheinvestmentofwealthformakingprofitdidnottakeplace.</p><p>Feudalism Capitalism</p><p>Economiclifeunderfeudalismwasstaticas Economylifeundercapitalism</p></li><li><p>7/19/13 Mrunal [Old NCERT World History Ch7] Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Their Effect on Society, Rise of Trade Unions &amp; </p><p>mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch7-industrial-revolution-capitalism-their-effect-on-society-rise-of-trade-unions-socia 3/17</p><p>goodswereproducedforlocalconsumptionandtherewasnoincentivetoproducemorebyemployingbettermeansofproducinggoodsforabiggermarket.</p><p>wasfastmovingwiththeaimofproducingmoreandmoregoodsforbiggermarketssothatmoreprofitscouldbemade.</p><p>CapitalismandColonization</p><p>Thediscoveryofnewlandsandtheestablishmentofcolonieshadresultedinunprecedentedexpansionoftradeandaccumulationofwealthbymerchants.Thetradeincludedalsothetradeinhumanbeings,thatis,slavetrade.(Mrunal:Wealreadysawtheslavetradeandtriangulartradeunderthe[Worldhistory]ColonizationofAfrica.)Thecolonizationwasaccompaniedbytheplunderofthewealthofthepeoplewhowerecolonized.Forexample,thetreasuresoftheIncaandtheAzteccivilizationswereplunderedbytheSpaniards.MinesinthenewlyconqueredareasintheAmericaswerealsoexploitedforpreciousmetalslikegoldandsilver.Largenumbersofnativepeoplewereworkedtodeathinthesemines.YouhavealsoreadabouttheuseofslavelabourintheplantationsintheAmericas.ColonizationofAsiacausedsimilarhavocanddevastation.DuringafewdecadesofDutchrule,thepopulationofaprovinceofJavainIndonesiawasreducedtolessthanonefourthofitsformersize.ThedefeatoftheNawabofBengalbytheEnglishin1757wasfollowedbyyearsofnakedplunderofthewealthofBengal.AccordingtoestimatesoftheEnglishgovernmentatthattime,theEnglishCompanyanditsofficialsreceived6,000,000poundsasgiftsduringtheperiodof17571766.TheplunderbytheEnglishcontributedtoafaminein176970inwhichaboutaquarterofthepopulationofBengalperished.ThusalotofwealthwasaccumulatedinEuropeforinvestmenttomakemoreprofit.</p><p>InthewordsofKarlMarx,</p><p>ThetreasurescapturedoutsideEuropebyundisguisedlooting,enslavement,andmurder,floatedbacktothemothercountryandwerethereturnedintocapital.</p><p>IndustrialRevolution</p><p>ThedesiretoproducemoregoodsatlowcosttomakehigherprofitsledtotheIndustrialRevolutionandfurthergrowlhofcapitalism.TheIndustrialRevolutionbeganinEnglandinabout1750.Itwasthenthatmachinesbegantotakeoversomeoftheworkofmenandanimalsintheproductionofgoodsandcommodities.ThatiswhyweoftensaythattheIndustrialRevolutionwasthe</p></li><li><p>7/19/13 Mrunal [Old NCERT World History Ch7] Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Their Effect on Society, Rise of Trade Unions &amp; </p><p>mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch7-industrial-revolution-capitalism-their-effect-on-society-rise-of-trade-unions-socia 4/17</p><p>beginningofamachineage.</p><p>Ofcourse,thereweremanymachinesinusebefore1750.Theplough,airpump,printingpressandspinningwheelareonlyafewofthemanyexamplesthatcouldbelisted.Forhundredsofyearseachcivilizationhadbeentryingtoperfectoldtechnicalskillsanddevelopnewones.Butafter1750,newinventionscamefaster,andtheywereofakindthatbroughtmornrapidchangesinmorepeopleslives.TheIndustrialRevolutionchangedmenswaysoflivingandthinkingallovertheworld.</p><p>Theguildsystemhadgivenwaytothedomesticorthe`puttingoutsystem.Inthe18thcentury,thedomesticsystemhadbecomeobsolete.Itstartedgivingwaytoanewsystemcalledthefactorysystem.Inplaceofsimpletoolsandtheuseofanimalandmanualpower,newmachinesandsteampowercametobeincreasinglyused.Manynewcitiessprangupandartisansanddispossessedpeasantswenttheretowork.</p><p>FactorySystem</p><p>Productionwasnowcarriedoutinafactory(inplaceofworkshopsinhomes),withthehelpofmachines(inplaceofsimpletools).Facilitiesforproductionwereownedandmanagedbycapitalists,thepeoplewithmoneytoinvestinfurtherproduction.Everythingrequiredforproductionwasprovidedbythecapitalistsfortheworkerswhowerebroughttogetherunderoneroof.Everythingbelongedtotheownerofthefactory,includingthefinishedproduct,andworkersworkedforwages.Thissystem,knownasthefactorysystem,broughtontheIndustrialRevolutionTheearlyformofcapitalismaboutwhichyouhavereadbeforewasnowtransformedtoindustrialcapitalism.</p><p>WhyIndustrialRevolutionstartedinEngland?</p><p>Englandinthe18thcenturywasinthemostfavorablepositionforanindustrialrevolution,Becauseoffollowingreasons</p><p>1. Throughheroverseastrade,includingtradeinslaves,shehadaccumulatedvastprofitswhichcouldprovidethenecessarycapital.InthetraderivalriesofEuropeancountries,shehademergedasanunrivalledpower.Shehadacquiredcolonieswhichensuredaregularsupplyofrawmaterials.</p><p>2. Afterthedisappearanceofserfdom,peoplewerenolongertiedtothelandandwerefreetodotoanyjobtheycouldfind.Theenclosuremovementhadbeguninthe18thcentury.Biglandownerswantedconsolidatetheirlargelandholdings.Inisprocess,smallpeasantswhohadallholdingsin</p></li><li><p>7/19/13 Mrunal [Old NCERT World History Ch7] Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Their Effect on Society, Rise of Trade Unions &amp; </p><p>mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch7-industrial-revolution-capitalism-their-effect-on-society-rise-of-trade-unions-socia 5/17</p><p>landwereoustedandlargearmyoflandlessunemployedpeoplewascreated.Thustherewasnoshortagelabourforcetoworkinthefactories.</p><p>3. Asresultoftherevolutionoffthe17thcentury,astablesystemofgovernmenthadbeenestablished,whichwasnolongerunderthedominationofthefeudalclasses.Commercialclasseshadacquiredmorepoliticalpowerandtherewasnodangerofgovernmentinterference.</p><p>4. Englandhadplentyofnaturalresources,suchasironandcoal,essentialforindustries.ThesourcesofironandcoalexistedsidebysideandthissavedEnglandfrommanydifficultiesthatothercountriesfaced.</p><p>5. Englanddevelopedalargeshippingindustryandhadnoproblemoftransportation.</p><p>Noothercountryenjoyedalltheseadvantagesatthisperiod.Somesufferedfromalackofcapitalornaturalresourcesandsomefromanunfavorablepoliticalsystem.ThesefactorsmadeEnglandanaturalplacefortheIndustrialRevolutiontobegin.AlmostallotherEuropeancountrieshadagrarianeconomiesandlivedunderbackwardpoliticalsystems.Manyofthem,suchasItalyandGermany,werenotevenunitedandsufferedfrommanyeconomicrestrictions.</p><p>TextileIndustry:Therevolution</p><p>Inthe1700stheEnglishEastIndiaCompanywassendingcottonclothfromIndiatoEngland.Soon,calicoclothmadeinCalicutandDaccamuslinandKashmirshawlswereingreatdemandinEngland.ShrewdEnglishbusinessmenthenbegantoimportcottonandmakeitintoclothinEngland.Whentheworkersusingoldfashionedspinningwheelsandhandloomscouldnotkeepupwiththeincreasingdemand,aseriesofinventionscamealongtomakefasterspinningandweavingpossible.</p><p>Powerloom</p><p>Hargreavesinventedamachinewhichspeededupspinning.Arkwrightadaptedthismachineforrunningwithwater.Crompton,sometimelater,combinedtheadvantagesofthemachinesinventedbyHargreavesandArkwright.ThesethreeinventionsalonemadeitpossibleforEnglandtoproducethreadthatwasfinerandcheaperthananythatcouldbeproducedbyothersorwitholdertechniques.Thenin1785.Cartwrightinventedapowerloom.Thismachinecouldherunbyhorsesorbullocksandlater,whenfactoriesweresetupalongriversandcanals,waterpowerwasusedtooperateit.</p><p>CottonGin</p><p>Butenoughrawcottonforfeedingthesemachineswasstillnotavailablebecausetheprocessofseparatingthefibresfromtheseedswasveryslow.A</p></li><li><p>7/19/13 Mrunal [Old NCERT World History Ch7] Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Their Effect on Society, Rise of Trade Unions &amp; </p><p>mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch7-industrial-revolution-capitalism-their-effect-on-society-rise-of-trade-unions-socia 6/17</p><p>workercouldcleanonlyfiveorsixpoundsofcottonaclaybyhand.In1793,EliWhitney,anAmerican,unventedacottonginThismachinemadeitpossibletoseparatetheseedsfromcottonthreehundredtimesfasterthanbyhand.</p><p>SteamEngine</p><p>Year CottonImportbyEngland(kg.)1760 1million1815 50million1840 250million</p><p>SuchatremendousincreaseinrawcottonimportswouldnothavetakenplacebutfortheinventionthesteamenginebyJamesWattin1769.ItwasthismachinethatmadeitpossibletoproducegoodsonareallybigsealMachinesrunbythemusclesofmenanimals,orbywaterpower,couldnotcompetewiththosedrivenbythesteamengine.Thisinventionrevolutionizedproduction.</p><p>BlastFurnace</p><p>Withsteampoweravailable,thereademandformoremachinery.Englandhadplentyofironandcoaltomakesteelandmanufacturemachinery,butnewandcheaperwaysofprocessingironhadtobefound.Thedevelopmentoftheblastfurnaceand,later,themethodofturninglowgradeironintosteel,enabledtheEnglishindustriestoproducesteelcheaply.Thustheycouldhavemoreandbettermachines.</p><p>TRANSPORTRevolution</p><p>Railways</p><p>In1814,GeorgeStephensondevelopedsteamenginetohaulcoalfromminestoportsbyrailways.In1830,thefirstrailwaytrainbegantocarrypassengersandfreightfromLiverpooltoManchester.TheseeventswerefollowedbyagreatwaveofrailroadconstructioninEnglandandtheUnitedStates.Asearlyas1853inLordDalhousiestime,thefirstrailroadwaslaidinIndia.</p><p>Roads</p><p>TheneedtotransportrawmaterialsandmanufacturedproductsledtotheimprovementofroadsandthediggingofcanalsinEnglandandothercountries.McAdamdevisedthemethodofmakingpakkaormacadamizedroads.</p></li><li><p>7/19/13 Mrunal [Old NCERT World History Ch7] Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Their Effect on Society, Rise of Trade Unions &amp; </p><p>mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch7-industrial-revolution-capitalism-their-effect-on-society-rise-of-trade-unions-socia 7/17</p><p>Canals</p><p>ToexpandfacilitiesfortransportbywatermuchcheaperthanoverlandEnglandbeganconnectingriversandlakeswithcanals.CanalbuildingspreadtoEuropeandAmericaandwasabighelpinprovidingcheapertransportation,especiallyaftersteamboatscameintouse.</p><p>PostalRevolution</p><p>Improvedtransportationhelpedincarryingmessagesaswellaspeopleandgoods.RawlandHillsideaofthepennypostfastandcheapcommunicationbyletterbegantooperateinEnglandintheearly19thcentury.Soonitwasadoptedinothercountries,includingIndia.Peoplecouldthussendletterstoandfromallpartsofthecountryatthesamelowrateregardlessofthedistance.Businessconcernstookadvantageofthepennypostintheirbuyingandsellingtransactionsfarandnear.</p><p>AgricultureRevolution</p><p>FarmMechanization</p><p>Therewasarevolutioninagriculturealso.TherevolutioninagricultureinfacthadstartedbeforetheIndustrialRevolution.Naturally,therewerechangesinfarmingmethodstoproducemorefood,andmoreimportantly,toproducecashcropsforthemarketandrawmaterialsforindustries.Newfarmmachineryincludedthesteelploughandharrowforbreakingtheground,themechanicaldrillforseedingandthehorsedrawncultivatortoreplacethehoe.Therewerealsomachinesforreapingandthreshing.</p><p>CropRotation</p><p>Farmersadoptedintensivemanuringandthepracticeofcroprotationtomaintainsoilfertility.Thelatteristhepracticeofchangingthecroponapieceoflandeachyear,forexample,wheat,barley,clover,andsooninsteadoflettingthelandliefalloweverythirdyearaswasdoneintheMiddleAges.Croprotationiseffectivebecausedifferentcropstakedifferentelementsfromthesoil.Moreover,plantingacroplikeclovercanactuallybebetterforthesoilthanlettingitliefallow,becausecloverisoneoftheplantsthataddfertilitytothesoil.</p><p>LandConsolidation</p><p>LandownersinEnglandalsobegantoenlargetheirfarms.Theyhadalreadyconsolidatedtheirholdingsthroughtheenclosuremovement,as</p></li><li><p>7/19/13 Mrunal [Old NCERT World History Ch7] Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, Their Effect on Society, Rise of Trade Unions &amp; </p><p>mrunal.org/2013/07/old-ncert-world-history-ch7-industrial-revolution-capitalism-their-effect-on-society-rise-of-trade-unions-socia 8/17</p><p>youhavereadbefore.Thestripsoflandthatlayscatteredaboutthevillageweresoconsolidatedthattheycouldholdalltheirlandinonepiece.Indoingso,thebiglandownerquiteunfairlygotpossessionofthepeasantssmallholdingalongwithhisown.Sometimesbiglandholderstookoverthecommonmeadowinavillagealsoleavingthesmalllandownersandtenantswithnopasture.ButthebiglandownerscontrolledParliamentinthosedaysandgotlawspassedthatenabledthemtodothesethings.Theresultwasthatthepeasantswereforcedofftheland.Withnoothermeansoflivelihood,theymovedtothenewindustrialtownsandcitieswheretheygotjobsatwhateverwagethefactoryownerwouldpay.Industriesthusbenefited,butatthesmallfarmersexpense.</p><p>PeakofIndustrialrevolutioninEngland</p><p>ClicktoEnlarge</p><p>Inalittlemorethanfiftyyearsaftertheuseofmachinesbegan,Englandhadbecometheworldsleadingindustrialnation.Between1813and1855,forexample,hertextilee...</p></li></ul>