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Emotional Contagion and its Influence on Team Functioning in OrganizationsV.VijayalakshmiMS04D011

Department of Management StudiesINDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MADRAS

1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005

DC Members: Dr. Sanghamitra Bhattacharyya (Guide) Dr. L.S.Ganesh (Chairman) Dr.T.J.Kamalanabhan Dr. C. Rajendran Dr. K .N. Satyanarayana Dr. Debashis Acharya

ContentsDefinition of Emotional Contagion Occurrence of Emotional Contagion Rationale of Emotional Contagion Literature Review Work done in the past year Objectives of the study Conceptual Framework Research Propositions Proposed Plan of Action1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 2

What is Emotional Contagion?Emotional Contagion is defined as a multiply determined family of psychophysiological, behavioral and social phenomena. (Hatfield,1994) Its a multi-level phenomenonA individual B individual1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005

C individual

D individual3

V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras

How does this occur? (Hatfield, 1994)Conscious cognitive process Conditional and Unconditional emotional responses Mimicry and feedback Automatic, unintentional, uncontrollable & largely inaccessible to consciousness.

1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005

V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras

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RationaleEmotions drive people to action Psychological Climate is influential

Raison d'tre-

State of infancy in India

1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005

V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras

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Literature RevieMarketing and Customer Relations

Groups and Teams

Literature review

Mimicry and Imitation

Psychological Processes

1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005

V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras

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Emotional Contagion and Group Behavior Barsade(2002)Deals with the mechanisms by which mood transfer occurs in groups.

Emotional Contagion and Gender Differences Helland (2001)Investigated whether there was any significant difference between genders in terms of the amount of imitation recorded.1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 7

Emotional Contagion and Organizational Functioning Halverson (2004)Suggests that the concept of affect is influential in its dealings with leadership, especially charismatic and transformational leadership.

Hsee, Hatfield, and Carlson (1990)The nature of power base and its relation to Emotional Contagion was analysed.1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 8

Emotional Contagion in Marketing and Customer SatisfactionHoward and Gengler (2001)Employee affect is manifested by their on-the-job service transactions and is a potent contributor to attributions of service quality and perceptions of the organizations by the customer.

Pugh (2001)Studies how employees feel and how they act towards customers and also about how employee actions make customers feel, and how this influences what customers think about the organization.1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 9

Emotional Contagion and StressWethington (2000) sees stress as originating in the daily course of life as a consequence of social interaction in dyads and groups. Doherty (1997) has developed a Emotional Contagion 15-item unidimentional measure of susceptibility to others emotions resulting from mimicry.1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 10

Work done during the period of revieLiterature Survey Position paper - work in progress Deciding on the variables to be used in the study Completion of the required course work Two National Conference Presentations1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 11

Objective of the study (Research questions )What is the level of contagion present in the Indian organizational setting? How do a) individual factors contribute to EC? b) interpersonal factors affect EC? c) contextual factors influence the level of EC? How would the use of a) the concept Facial Feedback Hypothesis (FFH) influence EC and thereby aid in the improvement of team functioning? b) Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP), as an organizational developmental tool affect EC and bring about better team functioning?1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 12

Conceptual Frame orkIndividual Factors Level of susceptibility to emotion Need for affiliation Interpersonal Factors Interpersonal attraction Interpersonal trust Extent of familiarity Psychological congruence Facial Feedback Hypothesis

Presence of ECContextual Factors Composition of teams Nature of job tasks Cohesiveness

Improvement of team functioning

Neuro Linguistics Programming13

1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005

V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras

Research PropositionsBased on the objectives of the study, we propose the following: Individual and interpersonal factors may contribute more to the level of EC than contextual factors. Applying a) FFH to the presence of EC may bring about improvement in team functioning. b) NLP to the presence of EC may improve team functioning.1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 14

2 Stages of Future ActionI StageDevelopment of a multi-dimensional EC Scale applicable to the Indian Context

Assessing the level of contagion present in organizations

1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005

V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras

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II StageUsing the concept of FFH and NLP on the level of Emotional Contagion to bring about an improvement in team functioning.

1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005

V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras

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Proposed plan of actionDeveloping a model of Emotional Contagion (End of July05) Based on the Literature review, submit the position paper to a journal work in progress( End of Aug05) Identify the field of operations to collect data ( End of Aug05) Approach the relevant authorities ( End of October05) Develop a pretest questionnaire ( End of January06)1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 17

Thank You

1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005

V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras

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Personality & Group ProcessesGroup Personality Composition And Group Effectiveness: An Integrative Review Of Empirical Research. Halfhill, Terry; Sundstrom, Eric; Lahner, Jessica; Calderone, Wilma; Nielsen, Tjai M.. Small Group Research, Feb2005, Vol. 36 Issue 1, p83, 23p I'm in the Mood for Work: Current Perspectives on Work Group Dynamics. Gummer, Burton. Administration in Social Work, 2001, Vol. 25 Issue 2, p81, 21pRepresentations of the Group-as-a-Whole: Personality, Situational, and Dynamic Determinants Les R. Greene , Psychoanalytic Psychology , Vol 16, Iss 3 , Summer 1999, pg 403-4251st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 19

Personality & Group Processes (contd.)Personality and Susceptibility to Positive and Negative Emotional States Larsen, R.J.,T.Ketelaar, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,1991, Vol.61, No1,132-140 Relating Member Ability and Personality to WorkTeam Processes and Team Effectiveness Barrick, M.R et al., Journal of Applied Psychology, 1998, Vol.83, No. 3, 377-391 Personality and Organizational Team Work Singh,S, Indian Psychological Review, 2004, Vol.62, No.3, 124-1351st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 20

ReferencesBarsade, G (2002) The Ripple Effect: Emotional Contagion and its Influence on Group Behavior, Administrative Science Quarterly. Brett, J.M., L. K. Stroh (2003) Working 61 plus hours a week: Why do managers do it?, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 88(1), 67-78. Doherty, W.R (1997) The Emotional Contagion Scale: A Measure of Individual Differences, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21(2), 131-154.

Gump, B., and J. Kulik (1997) Stress, Affiliation and Emotional Contagion, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 72, Issue. 2, 305-319. Halverson, S.K (2001) Emotional Contagion in Leader-Follower Interactions, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.28.1st DC Meeting, 19th July, 2005 V.Vijayalakshmi MS04D011 Department of Management Studies, IIT Madras 21

ReferencesHess, U., and S. Blairy (2001) Facial mimicry and Emotional Contagion to dynamic emotional facial expressions and their influence on decoding accuracy, International Journal of Psychophysiology, 40, 129-141. Hsee, K., Hatfield, and G. Carlson. (1990) The effect of Power on Susceptibility to Emotional Contagion, Cognition and Emotion, 4(4), 327-340. Huy, Q.N (2002) Emotional Balancing of Organizational Continuity and Radical Change: the Contribution of Middle Managers, Administrative Science Quarterly. Joiner, T.E (1994) Contagious Depression: Existence, Specificity to Depressed Symptoms, and the Role of Reassurance Seeking, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.67(2), 287-296. Kelly, J. R., S. G. Barsade (2001) Mood and Emotions in Small Groups and Work Teams, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol