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1 Motivating employees through sustainability initiatives

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    Motivating employees through sustainability initiatives

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    Context l  Typically implementation of a management

    system such as ISO 14001, ISO 50001 etc. (also EMAS, energy/waste initiatives, IPPC Licence, LCA, etc.)

    l  Hence system approach: PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT cycle

    l  Derived from Baconian description of scientific method

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    ISO 50001

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    Benefits l  Cost / liability reduction

    l  Improved efficiency (in-house & upstream)

    l  Legal

    l  Customers

    l  Image

    l  Environmental improvements (moral)

    l  Employee motivation, OH&S etc.

    l  (not when paper exercise)

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    l  “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland Report)

    l  A pattern of resource use to meet human needs while preserving them so these can be met in present and for generations to come

    l  Requires sustainable utilization of resources e.g. sustainable “yield”

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    ‘Cradle-to-Grave’ Linear Economy

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    ‘Cradle-to-Cradle’ Circular Economy

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    Change Management l  Change management = approach to transitioning

    organizations to desired future state

    l  Structured approach for ensuring changes are successfully implemented

    l  Directly affects all departments

    l  Must involve people – not be imposed

    l  Avoid “changing attitudes” mentality

    l  Key factors are:

    l  Participation, involvement and

    l  Open, early, full communication

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    Four key factors for success l  Pressure for change – demonstrated senior

    management commitment is essential

    l  A clear, shared vision – you must take everyone with you: This is a shared agenda that benefits the whole organisation

    l  Capacity for change – you need to provide the resources: time and finance

    l  Action – and performance – “plan, do, check, act” – and keep communication channels open

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    Four key factors for failure

    l  Before planning for success consider four factors for failure: l  Lack of consistent leadership

    l  Demotivated staff kept in the dark

    l  Lack of capacity - budget cuts, no spend-to-save policy, short-term approach to investment, stressed out staff working hard just to stand still

    l  Lack of initiative to “do something different”

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    Four key factors for failure

    l  In turn these lead to a vicious circle: o  1. No time for reflection, planning and learning

    o  2. No improvement in design and implementation

    o  3. Increasing need to do something

    o  4. Increasing failure and unplanned consequences

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    Four key factors for success l  Following attitudes are symptoms of this:

    o  “it’s not my job”

    o  “I haven’t got time”

    o  “the boss doesn’t care anyway”

    o  “if it’s such a good idea, why didn’t we do this the last time management changed its mind?”

    o  “it will all change again next month”

    o  “nobody told me about it…” etc

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    Factor 1. Pressure for change

    l  First need a driving force l  Need identified, decision taken,

    communicated e.g. senior management commitment, legal, customers, workforce

    l  Who wants to work for a bad company? l  Regardless of source, senior management

    commitment critical

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    Factor 1. Pressure for change

    l  Senior management fully supportive in word and action

    l  Communicate this to staff

    l  Provide opportunity to ‘really’ contribute and take ownership

    l  Forward-thinking companies already becoming more sustainable through resource efficiency, cleaner technologies, minimising waste and embracing principles of producer responsibility

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    Factor 1. Pressure for change l  Key Role of Management: l  Management “walks the talk”

    l  Cooperative style of leadership

    l  Provide full support for environmental project and team

    l  Visibly participate in: l  Approval of the project

    l  First information meeting l  First meeting of the environmental team l  Preparation and approval of the environmental policy

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    Factor 1. Pressure for change l  Being more sustainable in broadest sense means

    attending to social responsibilities as a good employer by, for example:

    l  Encouraging fairness at work;

    l  Helping staff to develop their skills;

    l  Introducing green transport plans;

    l  Being a ‘good neighbour’ that is responsive to the local community; and

    l  As an ethical trader

    l  This the positive message that needs to be communicated

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  An environmental policy (whether new or

    improved) can be signal to staff things are changing, and they have a role to play in making this happen - It’s their agenda too

    l  For change to be effective, needs to be implemented at all levels; embedded in the culture of organisation

    l  To keep colleagues with you they need to be motivated and you need to understand what motivates them

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision

    l  Don’t forget - change is a major cause of stress amongst the workforce

    l  Getting staff motivated to support the changes that are to be implemented is therefore crucial for success

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  Staff, their managers and senior managers all

    motivated by similar things - not, however, necessarily in same order

    l  ‘Motivators’ include pride, happiness, responsibility, recognition, security, success, and, money

    l  Trick in successfully managing change and getting commitment and support from staff is to provide these ‘motivators’ for your staff – or at least as many as possible

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision Employee motivators

    1. Recognition of good work

    2. Detailed knowledge of company’s products and mission

    3. Consideration of personal concerns

    4. Safe job

    5. High income

    6. “Polite” management

    9. Good working conditions

    Management-perceived motivators 1. High income

    2. Good working conditions

    9. Recognition of good work

    10. Detailed knowledge of the company's mission

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision

    l  Employee motivation l  Praise and recognition

    l  Openness

    l  Information

    l  Delegation = passing on responsibility

    l  Thorough preparation

    l  Management sets a positive example

    l  Get across visions instead of quantitative targets

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision

    l  Employee motivation (cont.) l  Joint activities outside the company

    l  Offer training

    l  Thoroughly planned and regular meetings

    l  Importance of language: (colleagues, not staff)

    l  Address also private problems

    l  Stress the fun aspect

    Tip: make motivating the workforce subject of a brainstorming session of environmental team

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  Pride: When was last time you [or senior management]

    told or showed your staff how proud of what they have achieved?

    l  Performance of your staff can drop significantly if they feel unappreciated or taken for granted

    l  Staff that take pride and some level of enjoyment in their work and working environment are much more likely to perform well and provide new ideas for improving the organisation’s own well being

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  Happiness: A culture where laughter is permitted and

    encouraged can make difference in helping everyone get through the day

    l  A caring approach to staff can reap many benefits; as they know cared about as individuals then more likely to care about employer’s interests

    l  Approach of ‘treating others as we would wish to be treated ourselves’ is the ‘golden rule’ for strengthening and improving relationships between everyone at all levels in the organisation

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  Responsibility: Giving people more responsibility is a

    demonstration of trust

    l  If people feel trusted they usually respond by taking greater care and pride in their work

    l  Is management prepared to delegate responsibility and provide the back-up? Will management itself then take responsibility when things go wrong? Or does it have a blame culture?

    “It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit” Harry Truman

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  Success: We all have slightly different views on what

    constitutes success

    l  Often be common factors such as market profile, corporate reputation and product quality

    l  A useful exercise: following a presentation on why change is being undertaken, to ask staff, individually or in small focus groups, what they have as a vision for the company/organisation and also for themselves as individuals

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision

    l  Good questions to get things going: l  (i) What, who or where are you now?

    l  (ii) What or where would you like to be?

    l  (Ask teams to apply these questions to their view of the company as well as themselves)

    l  A facilitated discussion can tease out where ideas overlap and demonstrate where common ground exists and can be strengthened

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision

    l  Recognition: Are your staff valued and made to feel part of the organisation’s success? Even when times are hard? When was last time you took time out to say ‘thank you’ to staff at all levels of the organisation for their individual contributions?

    l  To ignore this important motivator would be a serious error; and could result in losing support you need when implementing change

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  An effective approach employers can take is to treat its

    employees as its most important and valued customers

    l  The employer is providing employment activity and wages; the employees purchase these with their effort

    l  The spin-off is external customers benefit from a more highly motivated company to do business with

    “When the leader’s work is done, the people say ‘We did it ourselves’” Lao Tzu

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  Security: Whenever change is being implemented fear factor

    can set in - fear of change itself and its consequences such as the possible loss of job security or loss of responsibility or control

    l  Continuous, honest and open communication is essential here

    l  Change can take people out of their ‘comfort zone’ and raise their stress levels - challenge is to demonstrate the new ‘zone’ is even more comfortable and secure – or at least it will be once initial short-term discomfort of implementing change has been overcome

    “You do not lead people by hitting them over the head – that’s assault, not leadership’” Eisenhower

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  Money: Money an important motivator. Underpaid staff

    feel under-valued and are less likely to respond positively to change – especially if it means more effort for little or no increase in either pay or recognition – or both!

    l  Many, ‘work to live rather than live to work’ but need to recognise most full-time employees spend more of waking hours at work than on pursuing leisure interests or with their families

    l  Hence providing the other six motivators equally as important as paying a fair wage for a fair job of work done

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  Money: If your company already highly profitable, staff

    may not have a strong inclination to reduce operating or production costs by, for example, switching off equipment when not in use – especially if shareholders rather than their own pay packets benefit from cost-saving measures

    l  However, informing staff of environmental impacts of organisation (e.g. CO2 emissions or waste volumes going to landfill) and how staff have an important role in reducing these can be an effective motivator

    l  Positive feedback to staff of reductions in harmful environmental impacts can increase this motivation e.g. number of trees / amount of resources saved

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    Factor 2: A Clear, Shared Vision l  Money: Staff suggestion schemes, with financial rewards

    for employees, need to be handled sensitively

    l  Make sure you do deliver the rewards that you promise

    l  Better still, let a percentage of costs savings (subject to a capped limit perhaps) go towards supporting a local charitable chosen by staff

    l  This can motivate those not unduly concerned with environmental issues, but who may have local community interests

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    Factor 3: Capacity for Change

    l  Capacity here means resources = staff time and, where appropriate, money

    l  To implement change need to identify resources that will be required before you proceed and make sure these are provided

    l  Often, cost benefits from implementing energy efficiency measures and waste minimisation programmes can provide the financial resources for an ongoing programme of improvement

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    Factor 3: Capacity for Change

    “More business is lost every year through neglect than through any other cause”

    l  Usually it is organisation’s own employees that have the information, intuition, ideas and instincts for implementing change effectively

    l  When given the capability and opportunity to participate in improvement programmes, it is employees who often find greatest cost savings and efficiency improvements

    l  In addition to in-house expertise, use a ‘fresh pair of eyes’ from the government’s energy/environmental business support programmes

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    Factor 4: Action

    “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence then, is not an act, but a habit” Aristotle

    l  Having got other three factors in place (pressure, a clear shared vision and capacity) you now have to implement the planned change

    l  Keeping up momentum is what matters here and implementing the PLAN – DO – CHECK – ACT management methodology is essential to maintaining the effectiveness and appropriateness of the change

    l  Good monitoring and analysis of resulting data is essential

    l  Make sure you continue to keep employees informed of progress

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    Change Management Matrix l  Plot in each column

    where the organisation stands and then try to make progress by moving up the matrix in a straight horizontal line, targeting the weaker areas first

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    Managing Sustainability – Worst Practice Guide

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    Worst Practice Guide

    l  To err is human - we all make mistakes but the most successful companies learn from them

    l  This ‘worst practice’ guide is intended to help you learn from the mistakes that others have made, so that you can identify and avoid them

    l  Alternatively, you could follow all the guidance and really mess up!

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    Worst Practice Guide

    l  Three core messages underpin this: o  1. Worst practice is the synergistic combination of

    many elements of bad practice (one or two elements not enough)

    o  2. Worst practice doesn’t ‘just happen’ (just ignoring insufficient)

    o  3. To be really bad you need to work at it! (systematic rather than ad hoc approach)

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    Worst Practice Guide l  Policy: A policy statement is a basic requirement of

    any environmental management system

    l  Don’t spend too much time developing a policy, copy one from another company! l  Use of terminology that is ‘alien’ to your organisation (copy and


    l  Recycle the mistakes of others

    l  Set unrealisable objectives

    l  Ensure that nobody ‘owns’ the policy (just issue it)

    l  Make the policy statement as long as possible

    “I have made this letter longer than usual, only because I have not had the

    time to make it shorter” Pascal

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    Worst Practice Guide l  Resources:

    l  Opt for a a “lone ranger“ / environmental “hero” system and “minimise red tape” approach

    l  Give responsibility to overloaded, lower level (close to retirement) employee(s) - many benefits including: l  The overloaded person may not identify the best options

    l  Maintenance of a reactive, rather than proactive, approach

    l  Possibility for senior management to overrule any actions taken

    l  Inability of the job holder to influence senior management

    l  Isolation from ‘core’ management system

    l  Sending a clear message to all employees that environmental issues are not a high priority for the organisation

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    Worst Practice Guide l  Alternatively give environmental responsibility to

    a senior management environmental sceptic o  Gives the external appearance the company has taken a

    high level commitment o  However, by using all their management and political

    skills the ‘responsibility holder’ will ensure as little as possible changes

    o  One technique they can use is to delegate work to overloaded, lower level, employees!

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    Worst Practice Guide

    l  Measuring and Monitoring: Can’t measure can’t manage so key to bad performance: l  Measure as little as possible (extrapolate, invent)

    l  Monitor everything that moves (death by data and analysis paralysis)

    l  Rely on estimated readings (conceal this fact)

    l  Don’t spend time on understanding the collected data (keep it ‘complicated’)

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    Worst Practice Guide l  Integration: Make it ‘stand alone’ for maximum

    (bad practice) benefits: l  Avoid making links with any other business issues

    – cultivate view only to avoid regulation

    l  Isolate environmental activity so that the organisation can ignore it

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    Worst Practice Guide

    l  Minimise o  Do as little as possible to meet external

    requirements only

    o  CATNAP and CAT

    o  Buy the badge (carefully select consultant / certification body)

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    Worst Practice Guide l  Planning

    l  Good planning key so avoid if possible

    l  Use as short a time-scale as possible - a useful bad practice tool - has the following effects: l  Short time-scale demotivates people so they don’t bother

    doing anything – set a target that is too ambitious so that most people do nothing

    l  Setting a short time-scale avoids looking at long term issues – it will certainly help avoid sustainability and all that goes with that!

    l  Short time-scales can also drive you to spend money that could be avoided

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    Worst Practice Guide

    l  Planning

    l  If you make plans, make them all drafts (ideally awaiting input from others)

    “We haven’t got a plan, so nothing can go wrong!”

    Spike Milligan

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    Worst Practice Guide

    l  Investment o  Invest poorly (‘cheapest cost’ mentality) / Avoid

    spending any money (good suggestion killer)

    o  Avoid even thinking about life cycle costing (short term the best)

    o  Ignore that good environmental management improves profits and image and reduces risks (keep it negative)

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    Worst Practice Guide

    l  Workforce Issues (complicate and exclude): o  Limit the information that you give out

    o  Have a big drive for certification – then tell them nothing!

    o  Ask for suggestions – then ignore them

    o  Promise, but don’t deliver

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    Worst Practice Guide l  Excuses (promote bad practice and keep your job!)

    o  We haven’t got the time to do it that way

    o  We have always done it that way

    o  The procedures don’t allow that to happen

    o  If it’s such a good idea, why aren’t we already doing it?

    o  Changing that is outside my pay band

    o  We don’t want to be at the bleeding edge of technology

    o  The accountant won’t wear it

    o  Head office won’t let us do that

    o  Now is not the right time

    o  We will look at that in next year’s budget

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    Worst Practice Guide l  Excuses

    o  Talk to such and such, that's his task o  We have already overspent/used up this year's

    budget o  It won't work and it is against our strategy o  We have no time to waste on this o  It sounds good in theory, but in practice it is another

    story ... o  We don't have enough/not the right employees o  We are not ready for this idea yet o  It is too late to change now ...

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    Worst Practice Guide l  Excuses

    o  Environment always adds to costs

    o  It may work for them, but…

    o  It’s too risky

    o  If it’s that good, why isn’t everybody doing it

    o  Don’t worry, environment is just a passing fad

    o  We will do that when the Environmental Protection Agency asks us to

    o  There are too many sources of advice – so we won’t use any of them

    o  It may be environmentally sound, but what about quality/production/sales?

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    Worst Practice Guide l  Excuses

    l  It is not yet an industry standard, so we will wait

    l  It is currently the subject of a strategic review

    l  Nobody has asked for it, so why should we do it?

    l  We are not aware of any regulations…

    l  We work in a free market, so if we are prepared to pay the costs…

    l  Environment is for tree huggers

    l  If …such and such … thinks Kyoto is wrong, that’s OK by me

    l  I won’t be around when that happens

    l  Let’s wait and see what happens

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    (Countering Resistance)

    l  Support your arguments l  Diagnose possible objections l  Anticipate some of the above ideas l  Don’t ignore or shrug off as ignorance l  Prove wrong with intelligent and well prepared

    answers l  Use successful examples from other companies

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    (Countering Resistance) l  Differing degrees of resistance: Approximately five

    groups of people whose reaction classified as follows:

    1. Innovators 2. Early followers 3. Early majority 4. Late majority 5. Laggards

    l  Concentrate attention and arguments on first three groups

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    Influencing Senior Management – Getting It Wrong

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    Getting It Wrong

    l  Tip 1: When talking to senior management say that you are not totally convinced that addressing environmental issues will help the organisation, but the Government says we should look at it

    l  Tip 2: Don’t bother with senior management; if you are not getting any senior management support, give up and do something else (for PDCA read Procrastination – Defeatism – Complication – Apathy)

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    Getting It Wrong l  Tip 3: Any attempt to influence senior management

    will be destined for failure if the approach adopted fails to align with the prime strategic purpose, or mission, of the organisation

    “Our mission is to maximise short term shareholder earnings without any regard for the long term sustainability of the company. We will achieve this by minimising our capital investments, maintaining our workforce at the lowest possible level and avoiding all activity that does not (in our opinion) contribute to the bottom line. We will positively avoid exceeding legislative and regulatory requirements. Where opportunities exist to exploit our workforce or customers these will be taken.” Bad Practice Ireland

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    Getting It Wrong l  Tip 4: Tell senior managers that they simply have a

    moral duty and should do what you want because of that

    l  Tip 5: Tell a senior manager that adopting an environmental approach will considerably increase his/her personal workload

    l  Tip 6: Arrange to have all the senior managers present for a briefing and then don’t plan what you are going to say, turn up late, ensure that AV equipment is not tested before hand, and to really set it off, wear inappropriate attire!

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    Getting It Wrong

    l  Tip 7: You meet with the Chief Executive – you start your presentation. After the first three of sixty slides he/she says, “I am convinced, what should we do?” You then carry on working your way to slide sixty

    l  He/she gives you a minute or two then starts seeing counter arguments and finally as time runs out (but you are only at slide 40) he/she says “Sorry we will have to stop there” (ABC – practical)

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    Getting It Wrong

    l  Tip 8: You are in a meeting with the Chief Executive and your introductory sentence is ‘We should retro-fit the new DERCO Vortex microprocessor based shredding detoxifier because it is intended for critical applications and has fully-welded, seal-less sensor construction’

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    Getting It Wrong l  Tip 9: Talk to the senior management. Tell them how

    important energy and environmental management are

    l  Then let them tell you to go away and make it happen. All that has happened here is that you are working on your own but with management approval – an improvement, but not really the goal you should be seeking

    “I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work!” Thomas Edison

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    Getting It Wrong l  Tip 10: Deciding that as your ISO 14001 system is

    already in place, and certified, it is not worth changing the system to ensure senior management are better locked into energy and environmental management

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    Summary Guide l  PLAN: Do background research, look everywhere!

    l  Understand your organisation’s culture, what makes it tick?

    l  Look at the Mission Statement and/or Statement of Values – if they don’t exist, look at public domain documents produced by the organisation

    l  Identify the senior managers that you need to have on board and also those who can be influential

    l  Find out what “drives” managers, what targets or objectives are they working to

    l  Research sources of help and support

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    Summary Guide l  DO: Know what you want from senior management!

    l  Find the passion! (yours, the organisation’s and the senior managers’)

    l  Identify the environmental ‘needs’ of the organisation and the ‘needs’ of the managers

    l  Work on being a confident, sincere, needs identifying ‘salesperson’ for environmental issues

    l  Be an effective communicator – if you can’t be, get someone else on board to help

    l  Remember - link your message to the values of the company and the prospect

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    Summary Guide l  CHECK: Establish how you are going to measure success

    before you get to this point!

    l  Be prepared to accept that you have not got it right first time and try again – but don’t allow that to let you do a ‘bad’ job in the first place

    l  Feedback – positive and negative – can all be used constructively

    l  ACT: Close the loop!

    l  Where possible utilise existing management systems, don’t be afraid to try to change, but work ‘with’ them

    l  Work to make ‘environmental citizenship’ a good habit for the organisation

    l  Blow other people’s trumpets

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    Hope you enjoyed the talk

    Dr. Douglas McMillan Mob: 087 9678372 Ph: 059 9100203 [email protected]